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treeshrew
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{{short description|Order of mammals}}{{Automatic Taxobox
pages=104–109}}| fossil_range = ?Middle Eocene – Recent| image = Anathana ellioti.jpg| image_caption = Madras treeshrew (Anathana ellioti)| taxon = ScandentiaJohann Andreas Wagner>Wagner, 1855Family (biology)>Families| subdivision = }}The treeshrews (or tree shrews or banxringsAMERICANA, Tree-shrew, ) are small mammals native to the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. They make up the entire order Scandentia, which split into two families: the Tupaiidae (19 species, "ordinary" treeshrews), and the Ptilocercidae (one species only: the pen-tailed treeshrew).Though called 'treeshrews', and despite having previously been classified in Insectivora, they are not true shrews, and not all species live in trees. They are omnivores; among other things, treeshrews eat fruit.Treeshrews have a higher brain to body mass ratio than any other mammal, including humans,WEB,weblink an article on Tupaia belangeri, The Genome Institute, Washington University,weblink 2010-06-01, dmy-all, but high ratios are not uncommon for animals weighing less than a kilogram.Among orders of mammals, treeshrews are closely related to primates, and have been used as an alternative to primates in experimental studies of myopia, psychosocial stress, and hepatitis.JOURNAL, Cao, J., Yang, E.B., Su, J.-J., Li, Y., Chow, P., The tree shrews: Adjuncts and alternatives to primates as models for biomedical research, Journal of Medical Primatology, 2003, 32, 123–130,weblink January 2012,

Name

The name Tupaia is derived from tupai, the Malay word for squirrel,BOOK, Nowak, R.M., 1999, Walker's Mammals of the World, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 978-0-8018-5789-8, 245, and was provided by Sir Stamford Raffles.BOOK, Craig, John, 1849, A new universal etymological technological, and pronouncing dictionary of the English Language,

Description

Treeshrews are slender animals with long tails and soft, greyish to reddish-brown fur. The terrestrial species tend to be larger than the arboreal forms, and to have larger claws, which they use for digging up insect prey. They have poorly developed canine teeth and unspecialised molars, with an overall dental formula of {{DentalFormula |upper=2.1.3.3 |lower=3.1.3.3}}BOOK, Macdonald, D., Martin, Robert D., 1984, The Encyclopedia of Mammals, Facts on File, New York, NY, 440–445, 978-0-87196-871-5, dmy-all, Treeshrews have good vision, which is binocular in the case of the more arboreal species.

Reproduction

Female treeshrews have a gestation period of 45–50 days and give birth to up to three young in nests lined with dry leaves inside tree hollows. The young are born blind and hairless, but are able to leave the nest after about a month. During this period, the mother provides relatively little maternal care, visiting her young only for a few minutes every other day to suckle them.Treeshrews reach sexual maturity after around four months, and breed for much of the year, with no clear breeding season in most species.

Behavior

Treeshrews live in small family groups, which defend their territory from intruders. Most are diurnal, although the pen-tailed treeshrew is nocturnal.They mark their territories using various scent glands or urine, depending on the particular species.

Diet

Treeshrews are omnivorous, feeding on insects, small vertebrates, fruit, and seeds. Among other things, treeshrews eat Rafflesia fruit.The pen-tailed treeshrew in Malaysia is able to consume large amounts of naturally fermented nectar (with up to 3.8% alcohol content) the entire year without it having any effects on behaviour.WEB,weblink Moscowicz, Clara, 2008, Tiny tree shrew can drink you under the table, dmy-all, Treeshrews have also been observed intentionally eating foods high in capsaicin, a behavior unique among mammals other than humans. A single TRPV1 mutation reduces their pain response to capsaicinoids, which scientists believe is an evolutionary adaptation to be able to consume spicy foods in their natural habitats.WEB,weblink See Why Tree Shrews Are Only the Second Known Mammal to Seek Spicy Food, nationalgeographic.com, en, 2018-08-26,

Taxonomy

missing image!
- Dentition tupaia.jpg -
Dentition of Tupaia
They make up the entire order Scandentia, split into the families Tupaiidae, the treeshrews, and Ptilocercidae, the pen-tailed treeshrew. The 20 species are placed in five genera.Treeshrews were moved from the order Insectivora into the order Primates because of certain internal similarities to primates (for example, similarities in the brain anatomy, highlighted by Sir Wilfrid Le Gros Clark), and classified as a "primitive prosimian", however they were soon split from the primates and moved into their own clade. The treeshrews’ relations to primates and other closely-related clades are still being refined.Molecular phylogenetic studies have suggested that the treeshrews should be given the same rank (order) as the primates and, with the primates and the flying lemurs (colugos), belong to the grandorder Euarchonta. According to this classification, the Euarchonta are sister to the Glires (lagomorphs and rodents), and the two groups are combined into the superorder Euarchontoglires.JOURNAL, Janecka, Jan E., Miller, Webb, Pringle, Thomas H., Wiens, Frank, Zitzmann, Annette, Helgen, Kristofer M., Springer, Mark S., Murphy, William J., Molecular and genomic data identify the closest living relatives of the Primates, Science, 318, 792–794, 2007-11-02, dmy-all,weblink 10.1126/science.1147555, 17975064, 5851, 2007Sci...318..792J, However, the alternative placement of treeshrews as sister to both Glires and Primatomorpha cannot be ruled out. Recent studies place Scandentia as sister of the Glires, invalidating Euarchonta: It is this organization that is shown in the tree diagram below.JOURNAL, Meredith, Robert W., Janečka, Jan E., Gatesy, John, Ryder, Oliver A., Fisher, Colleen A., Teeling, Emma C., Goodbla, Alisha, Eizirik, Eduardo, Simão, Taiz L. L., 2011-10-28, dmy-all, Impacts of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification,weblink Science, 334, 6055, 521–524, 10.1126/science.1211028, 0036-8075, 21940861, 2011Sci...334..521M, JOURNAL, Zhou, Xuming, Sun, Fengming, Xu, Shixia, Yang, Guang, Li, Ming, 2015-03-01, dmy-all, The position of tree shrews in the mammalian tree: Comparing multi-gene analyses with phylogenomic results leaves monophyly of Euarchonta doubtful, Integrative Zoology, 10, 2, 186–198, 10.1111/1749-4877.12116, 25311886, 1749-4877, {hide}clade |style=font-size:90%;line-height:85%|label1=Euarchontoglires|1={{Clade
|1={{Clade
|1=Scandentia (treeshrews)
|label2=Glires
|2={{Clade
|1=Rodentia (rodents)
|2=Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, pikas)
{edih}
}}


|label2=Primatomorpha
|2={{Clade
|1=Dermoptera (Colugos)
|2={{Clade
|1=†Plesiadapiformes
|2=Primates
}}
}}
}}
}}Several other arrangements of these orders have been proposed in the past, and the above tree is only a well-favored proposal.JOURNAL, Pettigrew, J.D., Jamieson, B.G., Robson, S.K., Hall, L.S., McAnally, K.I., Cooper, H.M., 1989, Phylogenetic relations between microbats, megabats, and primates, Mammalia: Chiroptera and Primates, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B,weblink 325, 1229, 489–559, 10.1098/rstb.1989.0102, 2575767, 1989RSPTB.325..489P, dmy-all, Although it is known that Scandentia is one of the most basal Euarchontoglire clades, the exact phylogenetic position is not yet considered resolved: It may be a sister of Glires, Primatomorpha, or Dermoptera, or separate from and sister to all other Euarchontoglires.JOURNAL, Foley, Nicole M., Springer, Mark S., Teeling, Emma C., 2016-07-19, dmy-all, Mammal madness: Is the mammal tree of life not yet resolved?,weblink Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 371, 1699, 20150140, 10.1098/rstb.2015.0140, 0962-8436, 4920340, 27325836, JOURNAL, Kumar, Vikas, Hallström, Björn M., Janke, Axel, 2013-04-01, Coalescent-based genome analyses resolve the early branches of the Euarchontoglires, PLoS One, 8, 4, e60019, 10.1371/journal.pone.0060019, 1932-6203, 3613385, 23560065, dmy-all, 2013PLoSO...860019K,

Order Scandentia

The 20 species are placed in five genera, which are divided into two families. The majority are in the "ordinary" treeshrew family, Tupaiidae, but one species, the pen-tailed treeshrew, is different enough to warrant placement in its own family, Ptilocercidae.
Family Tupaiidae:
Genus Anathana Genus Dendrogale Genus Tupaia Genus Urogale

Family Ptilocercidae:
Genus Ptilocercus

Fossil record

The fossil record of treeshrews is poor. The oldest putative treeshrew, Eodendrogale parva, is from the Middle Eocene of Henan, China, but the identity of this animal is uncertain. Other fossils have come from the Miocene of Thailand, Pakistan, India, and Yunnan, China, as well as the Pliocene of India. Most belong to the family Tupaiidae, but some still-undescribed fossils from Yunnan are thought to be closer to the pen-tailed treeshrew.JOURNAL, Ni, X., Qiu, Z., Tupaiine tree shrews (Scandentia, Mammalia) from the Yuanmou Lufengpithecus locality of Yunnan, China, 10.1007/s13358-011-0029-0, Swiss Journal of Palaeontology, 131, 51–60, 2012, dmy-all, Named fossil species include Prodendrogale yunnanica, Prodendrogale engesseri, and Tupaia storchi from Yunnan, Tupaia miocenica from Thailand, and Palaeotupaia sivalicus from India.

References

{{Reflist|25em}}{{Mammals}}{{Scandentia}}{{Taxonbar|from=Q231550}}


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