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superstition
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{{Other uses}}{{pp-move-indef}}File:HamsaS.jpg|thumb|200px|Clay hamsahamsa{{Paranormal}}Superstition is a pejorative term for any belief or practice that is considered irrational: for example, if it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a positive belief in fate or magic, or fear of that which is unknown. "Superstition" also refers to actions arising from irrationality.cf.weblinkFile:Rusty nail through lemon superstition.jpg|thumb|The superstitious practice of placing a rusty nail in a lemon is believed to ward off the evil eye and evil in general, as detailed in the folklore text Popular Beliefs and Superstitions from UtahUtahThe word superstition is often used to refer to a religion not practiced by the majority of a given society regardless of whether the prevailing religion contains alleged superstitions. It is also commonly applied to beliefs and practices surrounding luck, prophecy, and certain spiritual beings, particularly the belief that future events can be foretold by specific (apparently) unrelated prior events.BOOK, Vyse, Stuart A, Believing in Magic: The Psychology of Superstition, 2000, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 978-0-1951-3634-0, 19–22, Due to the pejorative implications of the term, items referred to in common parlance as superstition are commonly referred to as folk belief in folkloristics.For discussion, see for example Georges, Robert A. & Jones, Michael Owen. 1995. Folkloristics: An Introduction, p. 122. Indiana University Press. {{ISBN|0253329345}}.

Etymology

File:Black cat superstition.jpg|thumb|Some cultures consider black cats to signify good or bad luckluckThe word superstition is first used in English in the 15th century, modelled after an earlier French superstition.The earliest known use as an English noun occurs in Friar Daw's Reply (ca. 1420), where the foure general synnes are enumerated as Cediciouns, supersticions, þe glotouns, & þe proude.The French word, together with its Romance cognates (Italian superstizione, Spanish superstición, Portuguese superstição, Catalan superstició) continues Latin superstitio.While the formation of the Latin word is clear, from the verb (:wikt:supersto#Latin|super-stare), "to stand over, stand upon; survive", its original intended sense is less clear. It can be interpreted as "‘standing over a thing in amazement or awe","orig. a standing still over or by a thing; hence, amazement, wonder, dread, esp. of the divine or supernatural." Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary. but other possibilities have been suggested, e.g. the sense of excess, i.e. over scrupulousness or over-ceremoniousness in the performing of religious rites, or else the survival of old, irrational religious habits.BOOK, Oxford Latin Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 1982, Oxford, England, BOOK, Turcan, Robert, Nevill, Antonia (trans.), The Cults of the Roman Empire, Blackwell, Oxford, England, 1996, 10–12, 0-631-20047-9, . BOOK, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 1989, Second, The etymological meaning of L. superstitio is perhaps ‘standing over a thing in amazement or awe.’ Other interpretations of the literal meaning have been proposed, e.g., ‘excess in devotion, over-scrupulousness or over-ceremoniousness in religion’ and ‘the survival of old religious habits in the midst of a new order of things’; but such ideas are foreign to ancient Roman thought., The earliest known use as a Latin noun occurs in Plautus, Ennius and later by Pliny, with the meaning of art of divination.WEB,weblink Italian, Manuela Simeoni, Uso della parola superstitio contro i pagani, 2011-09-04, From its use in the Classical Latin of Livy and Ovid (1st century BC), the term is used in the pejorative sense it still holds today, of an excessive fear of the gods or unreasonable religious belief, as opposed to (:wikt:religio|religio), the proper, reasonable awe of the gods. Cicero derived the term from superstitiosi, lit. those who are "left over", i.e. "survivors", "descendants", connecting it with excessive anxiety of parents in hoping that their children would survive them to perform their necessary funerary rites.Cicero, De Natura Deorum II, 28 (32), quoted in BOOK, Wagenvoort, Hendrik, Hendrik Wagenvoort, Pietas: selected studies in Roman religion, Brill, Leiden, Netherlands, 1980, 236, 978-90-04-06195-8, While Cicero distinguishes between religio and superstitio, Lucretius uses only the term religioWEB, De rerum natura, Lucretius,weblink (only with pejorative meaning). Throughout all of his work, he only distinguished between ratio and religio.The Latin verb superstare itself is comparatively young, being "perhaps not ante-Augustan", first found in Livy, and the meaning "to survive" is even younger, found in late or ecclesiastical Latin, for the first time in Ennodius. The use of the noun by Cicero and Horace thus predates the first attestation of the verb.{{citation needed|date=June 2012}} It doesn't exclude that the verb might have been created and used after the name.The term superstitio, or superstitio vana "vain superstition", was applied in the 1st century to those religious cults in the Roman Empire which were officially outlawed. This concerned the religion of the druids in particular, which was described as a superstitio vana by Tacitus, and Early Christianity, outlawed as a superstitio Iudaica in AD 80 by Domitian.

Superstition and religion

{{See also|Evolutionary psychology of religion|Evolutionary origin of religions}}Greek and Roman polytheists, who modeled their relations with the gods on political and social terms, scorned the man who constantly trembled with fear at the thought of the gods, as a slave feared a cruel and capricious master. Such fear of the gods was what the Romans meant by "superstition" (Veyne 1987, p. 211).Diderot's Encyclopédie defines superstition as "any excess of religion in general", and links it specifically with paganism.WEB,weblink Superstition, 1 April 2015, In his Prelude on the Babylonian Captivity of the Church, Martin Luther (who called the papacy "that fountain and source of all superstitions") accuses the popes of superstition:For there was scarce another of the celebrated bishoprics that had so few learned pontiffs; only in violence, intrigue, and superstition has it hitherto surpassed the rest. For the men who occupied the Roman See a thousand years ago differ so vastly from those who have since come into power, that one is compelled to refuse the name of Roman pontiff either to the former or to the latter.{{citation |mode=cs1 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Q3xIAAAAMAAJ |title=Works of Martin Luther: With Instructions and Notes |date=1915 |page=291 |chapter=The Babylonian Captivity § The Sacrament of Extreme Unction |chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Q3xIAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA291 |last=Luther |first=Martin |editor1-last=Jacobs |editor1-first=Henry Eyster |editor2-last=Spaeth |editor2-first=Adolph |translator-last=Steinhaeuser |translator-first=Albert T. W. |publisher=A. J. Holman Company |location=Philadelphia |volume=2 |lccn=15007839 |oclc=300541097 |quote=For there was scarce another of the celebrated bishoprics that had so few learned pontiffs; only in violence, intrigue, and superstition has it hitherto surpassed the rest. For the men who occupied the Roman See a thousand years ago differ so vastly from those who have since come into power, that one is compelled to refuse the name of Roman pontiff either to the former or to the latter.}}The current Catechism of the Catholic Church considers superstition sinful in the sense that it denotes "a perverse excess of religion", as a demonstrated lack of trust in divine providence (¶ 2110), and a violation of the first of the Ten Commandments.The Catechism is a defense against the accusation that Catholic doctrine is superstitious:Superstition is a deviation of religious feeling and of the practices this feeling imposes. It can even affect the worship we offer the true God, e.g., when one attributes an importance in some way magical to certain practices otherwise lawful or necessary. To attribute the efficacy of prayers or of sacramental signs to their mere external performance, apart from the interior dispositions that they demand is to fall into superstition. Cf. {{bibleref|Matthew|23:16–22}} (¶ 2111)File:WeirdTalesv36n2pg043 Superstitions and Taboos.png|thumb|Examples of Superstitions and Taboos from Weird TalesWeird Tales

Superstition and psychology

Origins

Behaviorism perspective

In 1948, behavioral psychologist B.F. Skinner published an article in the Journal of Experimental Psychology, in which he described his pigeons exhibiting what appeared to be superstitious behaviour. One pigeon was making turns in its cage, another would swing its head in a pendulum motion, while others also displayed a variety of other behaviours. Because these behaviors were all done ritualistically in an attempt to receive food from a dispenser, even though the dispenser had already been programmed to release food at set time intervals regardless of the pigeons' actions, Skinner believed that the pigeons were trying to influence their feeding schedule by performing these actions. He then extended this as a proposition regarding the nature of superstitious behavior in humans.JOURNAL, Skinner, B. F., 1948,weblink 'Superstition' in the Pigeon, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 2, 168–172, 10.1037/h0055873, 18913665, Skinner's theory regarding superstition being the nature of the pigeons' behaviour has been challenged by other psychologists such as Staddon and Simmelhag, who theorised an alternative explanation for the pigeons' behaviour.JOURNAL, Staddon, J. E., yes, Simmelhag, V. L., 1971, The 'supersitition' experiment: A reexamination of its implications for the principles of adaptive behaviour, Psychological Review, 78, 1, 3–43, 10.1037/h0030305, Despite challenges to Skinner's interpretation of the root of his pigeons' superstitious behaviour, his conception of the reinforcement schedule has been used to explain superstitious behaviour in humans. Originally, in Skinner's animal research, "some pigeons responded up to 10,000 times without reinforcement when they had originally been conditioned on an intermittent reinforcement basis."Schultz & Schultz (2004, 238).{{full citation needed|date=November 2012}} Compared to the other reinforcement schedules (e.g., fixed ratio, fixed interval), these behaviours were also the most resistant to extinction. This is called the partial reinforcement effect, and this has been used to explain superstitious behaviour in humans. To be more precise, this effect means that, whenever an individual performs an action expecting a reinforcement, and none seems forthcoming, it actually creates a sense of persistence within the individual.BOOK, Carver, Charles S., Scheier, Michael, yes, Perspectives on personality,weblink 2004, Allyn and Bacon, 978-0-205-37576-9, 332, This strongly parallels superstitious behaviour in humans because the individual feels that, by continuing this action, reinforcement will happen; or that reinforcement has come at certain times in the past as a result of this action, although not all the time, but this may be one of those times.

Evolutionary/cognitive perspective

From a simpler perspective, natural selection will tend to reinforce a tendency to generate weak associations or heuristics - rules of thumb - that are overgeneralized. If there is a strong survival advantage to making correct associations, then this will outweigh the negatives of making many incorrect, "superstitious" associations.JOURNAL, The evolution of superstitious and superstition-like behaviour, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Foster, Kevin R. and Hanna Kokko, Kokko, Hanna, 10.1098/rspb.2008.0981, 2009, 276, 18782752, 1654, 2615824, 31–7, It has also been argued that there may be connections between OCD and superstition.de Silva, Padmal and Rachman, Stanley (2004) Obsessive-compulsive Disorder, Oxford University Press, p. 34, {{ISBN|0198520824}}. This may be connected to hygiene.A recent theory by Jane Risen proposes that superstitions are intuitions that people acknowledge to be wrong, but acquiesce to rather than correct when they arise as the intuitive assessment of a situation. Her theory draws on dual-process models of reasoning. In this view, superstitions are the output of "System 1" reasoning that are not corrected even when caught by "System 2".JOURNAL, Risen, Jane L., Believing what we do not believe: Acquiescence to superstitious beliefs and other powerful intuitions.,weblink Psychological Review, 123, 2, 182–207, 10.1037/rev0000017,

Mechanisms

People seem to believe that superstitions influence events by changing the likelihood of currently possible outcomes rather than by creating new possible outcomes. In sporting events, for example, a lucky ritual or object is thought to increase the chance that an athlete will perform at the peak of their ability, rather than increasing their overall ability at that sport.JOURNAL, Hamerman, Eric J., Morewedge, Carey K., 2015-03-01, Reliance on Luck Identifying Which Achievement Goals Elicit Superstitious Behavior,weblink Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, en, 41, 3, 323–335, 10.1177/0146167214565055, 0146-1672, 25617118, Consequently, people whose goal is to perform well are more likely to rely on "supernatural assistance" - lucky items and rituals - than are people whose goal is to improve their skills and abilities and learn in the same context.Psychologist Stuart Vyse has pointed out that until about 2010, "[m]ost researchers assumed superstitions were irrational and focused their attentions on discovering why people were superstitious." Vyse went on to describe studies that looked at the relationship between performance and superstitious rituals. Preliminary work has indicated that such rituals can reduce stress and thereby improve performance, but, Vyse has said, "...not because they are superstitious but because they are rituals.... So there is no real magic, but there is a bit of calming magic in performing a ritualistic sequence before attempting a high-pressure activity.... Any old ritual will do."JOURNAL, Vyse, Stuart, Do Superstitious Rituals Work?, Skeptical Inquirer, 2018, 42, 2, 32-34,weblink 3 June 2018, bot: unknown,weblink 3 June 2018,

Occurrence

People tend to attribute events to supernatural causes (in psychological jargon, "external causes") most often under two circumstances.
  1. People are more likely to attribute an event to a superstitious cause if it is unlikely than if it is likely. In other words, the more surprising the event, the more likely it is to evoke a supernatural explanation. This is believed to stem from an effectance motivation - a basic desire to exert control over one's environment. When no natural cause can explain a situation, attributing an event to a superstitious cause may give people some sense of control and ability to predict what will happen in their environment.JOURNAL, Waytz, Adam, Morewedge, Carey K., Epley, Nicholas, Monteleone, George, Gao, Jia-Hong, Cacioppo, John T., Making sense by making sentient: Effectance motivation increases anthropomorphism.,weblink Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 3, 410–435, 10.1037/a0020240, 20649365,
  2. People are more likely to attribute an event to a superstitious cause if it is negative than positive. This is called negative agency bias.JOURNAL, Morewedge, Carey K., Negativity bias in attribution of external agency.,weblink Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 138, 4, 535–545, 10.1037/a0016796, 19883135, 2009, Boston Red Sox fans, for instance, attributed the failure of their team to win the world series for 86 years to the (Curse of the Bambino|curse of the bambino:) a curse placed on the team for trading Babe Ruth to the New York Yankees so that the team owner could fund a Broadway musical. When the Red Sox finally won the world series in 2004, however, the team's success was attributed to skill of the team and the rebuilding effort of the new owner and general manager. More commonly, people are more likely to perceive their computer to act according to its own intentions when it malfunctions than functions properly.

Superstition and politics

Ancient Greek historian Polybius in his Histories uses the term superstition explaining that in ancient Rome that belief maintained the cohesion of the empire, operating as an instrumentum regni.Guy, Josephine M. (2007) The Complete Works of Oscar Wilde, Oxford University Press, Volume IV, p. 337, {{ISBN|0191568449}}.

Opposition to superstition

Opposition to superstition was first recorded in ancient Greece, where philosophers such as Protagoras and the Epicureans exhibited agnosticism or aversion to religion and myths, and Plato{{spnd}}especially his Allegory of the Cave{{spnd}} and Aristotle both present their work as parts of a search for truth.In the classical era, the existence of gods was actively debated both among philosophers and theologians, and opposition to superstition arose consequently. The poem ', written by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius further developed the opposition to superstition. Cicero’s work ' also had a great influence on the development of the modern concept of superstition as well as the word itself. Where Cicero distinguished ' and ', Lucretius used only the term '. Cicero, for whom ' meant “excessive fear of the gods” wrote that “ ”, which means that only superstition, and not religion, should be abolished.WEB,weblink Il IV libro del "De rerum natura", The Roman Empire also made laws condemning those who excited excessive religious fear in others.WEB,weblink Uso della parola superstitio contro i pagani, During the Middle Ages, the idea of God’s influence on the world’s events went mostly undisputed. Trials by ordeal were quite frequent, even though Frederick II (1194{{spnd}}1250{{nbsp}}{{abbr|AD|anno domini}}) was the first king who explicitly outlawed trials by ordeal as they were considered “irrational”.WEB, Ma l'imperatore svevo fu conservatore o innovatore?,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150429053347weblink">weblink 2015-04-29, The rediscovery of lost classical works (The Renaissance) and scientific advancement led to a steadily increasing disbelief in superstition. A new, more rationalistic lens was beginning to see use in exegesis. Opposition to superstition was central to the Age of Enlightenment. The first philosopher who dared to criticize superstition publicly and in a written form was Baruch Spinoza, who was a key figure in the Age of Enlightenment.BOOK, Wilson, Helen Judy, Reill, Peter Hanns, Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment, Facts on File, New York, 0-8160-5335-9, 577, . . . equating all Christian beliefs except those accessible to unaided reason with superstition . . .,

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{wiktionary|superstition}}{{Commons category|Superstitions}}{{Wikisource}} {{Superstitions}}{{Authority control}}

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