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structured document
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{{Refimprove|date=April 2014}}A structured document is an electronic document where some method such as markup or embedded coding, is used to identify the whole and parts of the document as having various meanings beyond their formatting. For example, a structured document might identify a certain portion as a "chapter title" (or "code sample" or "quatrain") rather than as "Helvetica bold 24" or "indented Courier". Such portions in general are commonly called "components" or "elements" of a document.They generally focus on labeling things that can be used for a variety of processing purposes, not merely formatting. For example, explicit labeling of "chapter title" or "emphasis" is far more useful to systems for the visually impaired, than merely "Helvetica bold 24" or "italic". In the same way, meaningful labeling of the many items on a technical information sheet enables far better integration with databases, search systems, online catalogs, and so on. Structured documents generally support at least hierarchical structures, for example lists, not merely list items; sections, not merely section headings; and so on. This is in stark contrast to formatting-oriented systems. High-end systems also support multiple independent and/or overlapping sets of components.Structured document systems commonly permit creating explicit rules defining component types and how they may be combined. Such a set of rules is called a "schema" by analogy with Database schemas. Several formal languages exist for specifying them, such as XSD, Relax_NG, and Schematron. A structured document which obeys the rules of the schema is commonly called "valid according to [that schema]". Some systems also support documents with component of arbitrary types and combinations, but still with syntactic rules for how those components are identified.Lie and Saarela note that The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) has pioneered the concept of structured documentsWEB,weblink Multi-purpose publishing using HTML, XML, and CSS, HÃ¥kon Wium Lie, Janne Saarela, 1998, World Wide Web Consortium, W3.org, Association for Computing Machinery, , although earlier systems such as Scribe, Augment, and FRESS provided many structured-document features and capabilities, and SGML's offspring XML is now favored.One very widely used representation for structured documents is HTML, a schema defined and described by the W3C. However, HTML has not only tags for meaning-oriented components such as paragraph, title, and code; but also format-oriented ones such as italic, bold, and most table. In practice, HTML is sometimes used as a structured document system, but often used as a formatting language.Many domains use structured documents via domain-specific schemas they have co-operatively developed, such as JATS for journal publishing, TEI for literary documents, UBL and EDI for business interchange, XTCE for spacecraft telemetry, REST for Web interfaces, and countless more. All these cases uses specific schemas based on XML.

Structural semantics

In writing structured documents the focus is on encoding the logical structure of a document, with less or even no explicit work devoted to its presentation to humans by printed pages or screens (in some cases, no such use is even expected). Structured documents can easily be processed by computer systems to extract and present derivative forms of the document. In most Wikipedia articles for example, a table of contents is automatically generated from the different heading tags in the body of the document. Because the SGML conversion of the Oxford English Dicitonary explicitly distinguished the many different meanings which attach to the print version's use of italics, search tools can retrieve entries based on etymology, quotations, and many other features of interest. When HTML provides structural rather than merely formatting information, visually impaired users can be easily given a more useful reading interface. When travel companies provide itineraries as structured documents rather than just displays, user tools can easily extract the necessary facts and pass them on to calendar or other applications.In HTML a part of the logical structure of a document may be the document body; , containing a first level heading; , and a paragraph; .Structured documentA structured document is an electronic document where some method of embedded coding, such as markup, is used to give the whole, and parts, of the document various structural meanings according to a schema.One of the most attractive features of structured documents is that they can be reused in many contexts and presented in various ways on mobile phones, TV screens, speech synthesisers, and any other device which can be programmed to process them.

Other semantics

Other meaning can be ascribed to text which isn't structural. In the HTML fragment above, there is semantic markup which has nothing to do with structure; the first of these, the tag, means that the enclosed text should be given a strong emphasis. In visual terms this is equivalent to the bold, tag, but in speech synthesisers this means a voice inflection giving strong emphasis is used. The term semantic markup excludes markup like the bold tag which has no meaning other than an instruction to a visual display. The strong tag means that the presentation of the enclosed text should have a strong emphasis in all presentation forms, not just visual.The anchor tag is a more obvious example of semantic markup unconcerned with structure, with its href attribute set it means that the text it surrounds is a hyperlink.HTML from early on has also had tags which gave presentational semantics, i.e. there were tags to give bold ()or italic () text, or to alter font sizes or which had other effects on the presentation.WEB,weblink 5 March 2014, A sample HTML instance, Modern versions of markup languages discourage such markup in favour of style sheets. Different style sheets can be attached to any markup, semantic or presentational, to produce different presentations. In HTML, tags such as; , , , and others do not have a structural meaning, but do have a meaning.

See also

References

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- time: 7:21am EDT - Mon, Sep 23 2019
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