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stored-program computer

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stored-program computer
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{{see also|Universal Turing machine#Stored-program computer|l1=Universal Turing machine: Stored-program computer}}A stored-program computer is a computer that stores program instructions in electronic memory.{{Citation | last = Allison | first = Joanne | title = Stored-program Computers | year = 1997 | url =weblink | accessdate = 24 August 2011 | deadurl = yes | archiveurl =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110927012816weblink">weblink | archivedate = 27 September 2011 | df = dmy-all }} This contrasts with machines where the program instructions are stored on plugboards or similar mechanisms.Often the definition is extended with the requirement that the treatment of programs and data in memory be interchangeable or uniform.BOOK, William F. Gilreath, Phillip A. Laplante, Computer Architecture: A Minimalist Perspective,weblink 2003, Springer, 978-1-4020-7416-5, 24, BOOK, Edwin D. Reilly, Milestones in computer science and information technology,weblink 2003, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-1-57356-521-9, 245, BOOK, Miles J., Murdocca, Vincent P. Heuring, 2000, Principles of Computer Architecture, Prentice-Hall, 0-201-43664-7, 5,

Description

A computer with a von Neumann architecture stores program data and instruction data in the same memory; a computer with a Harvard architecture has separate memories for storing program and data.BOOK, Daniel Page, A Practical Introduction to Computer Architecture, 2009, Springer, 978-1-84882-255-9, 148, BOOK, Mark Balch, Complete digital design: a comprehensive guide to digital electronics and computer system architecture,weblink 18 May 2011, 2003, McGraw-Hill Professional, 978-0-07-140927-8, 149, Both are stored-program designs.Stored-program computer is sometimes used as a synonym for von Neumann architecture,BOOK, Daniel Page, A Practical Introduction to Computer Architecture, 2009, Springer, 978-1-84882-255-9, 153,weblink BOOK, Ivor Grattan-Guinness, Companion encyclopedia of the history and philosophy of the mathematical sciences,weblink 2003, JHU Press, 978-0-8018-7396-6, 705, however Professor Jack Copeland considers that it is "historically inappropriate, to refer to electronic stored-program digital computers as 'von Neumann machines'".{{Citation | last = Copeland | first = Jack | author-link = Jack Copeland | title = A Brief History of Computing: ENIAC and EDVAC | year = 2000 | url =weblink | accessdate = 27 January 2010 }} Hennessy and Patterson write that the early Harvard machines were regarded as "reactionary by the advocates of stored-program computers".BOOK, John L. Hennessy, David Patterson (scientist), David A. Patterson, David Goldberg, Computer architecture: a quantitative approach,weblink 2003, Morgan Kaufmann, 978-1-55860-724-8, 68,

History

The stored-program computer idea can be traced back to the 1936 theoretical concept of a universal Turing machine.BOOK, B. Jack Copeland, Colossus: the secrets of Bletchley Park's codebreaking computers,weblink 2006, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-284055-4, 104, Von Neumann was aware of this paper, and he impressed it on his collaborators as well.BOOK, Christof Teuscher, Alan Turing: life and legacy of a great thinker,weblink 2004, Springer, 978-3-540-20020-8, 321–322, Many early computers, such as the Atanasoff–Berry computer, were not reprogrammable. They executed a single hardwired program. As there were no program instructions, no program storage was necessary. Other computers, though programmable, stored their programs on punched tape, which was physically fed into the machine as needed.In 1936 Konrad Zuse anticipated in two patent applications that machine instructions could be stored in the same storage used for data.{{citation |title=Electronic Digital Computers |journal=Nature |date=25 September 1948 |volume=162 |issue=4117 |page=487 |url=http://www.computer50.org/kgill/mark1/natletter.html |accessdate=2009-04-10 |doi=10.1038/162487a0 |last1=Williams |first1=F. C |last2=Kilburn |first2=T |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090406014626weblink |archivedate=6 April 2009 |df=dmy-all }}Susanne Faber, "Konrad Zuses Bemuehungen um die Patentanmeldung der Z3", 2000The University of Manchester's BabyJOURNAL, Williams, Frederic, Frederic Calland Williams, Kilburn, Tom, Tom Kilburn, 10.1038/162487a0, Electronic Digital Computers,weblink Nature, 162, 4117, 487, 1948, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090406014626weblink">weblink 6 April 2009, dmy-all, is generally recognized as world's first electronic computer that ran a stored program—an event that occurred on 21 June 1948.BOOK, Rául Rojas, Ulf Hashagen, The first computers: history and architectures,weblink 2002, MIT Press, 978-0-262-68137-7, 379, BOOK, Daniel Page, A Practical Introduction to Computer Architecture, 2009, Springer, 978-1-84882-255-9, 158, However the Baby was not regarded as a full-fledged computer, but more a proof of concept predecessor to the Manchester Mark 1 computer, which was first put to research work in April 1949. On 6 May 1949 the EDSAC in Cambridge ran its first program, making it arguably "the first complete and fully operational regular electronic digital stored-program computer".BOOK, Mike Hally, Electronic brains: stories from the dawn of the computer age,weblink 2005, National Academies Press, 978-0-309-09630-0, 96, It is sometimes claimed that the IBM SSEC, operational in January 1948, was the first stored-program computer;BOOK, Emerson W. Pugh, Building IBM: shaping an industry and its technology,weblink 1995, MIT Press, 978-0-262-16147-3, 136, this claim is controversial, not least because of the hierarchical memory system of the SSEC, and because some aspects of its operations, like access to relays or tape drives, were determined by plugging.JOURNAL, Olley, A., Existence Precedes Essence - Meaning of the Stored-Program Concept, History of Computing. Learning from the Past, 325, 169, 2010, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 978-3-642-15198-9,weblink 10.1007/978-3-642-15199-6_17, The first stored-program computer to be built in continental Europe was the MESM, completed in the Soviet Union in 1951.BOOK, Science in Russia and the Soviet Union: A Short History, Loren R., Graham, Loren R. Graham, Cambridge University Press, 1993, 256,

The first stored-program computer

Several computers could be considered the first stored-program computer, depending on the criteria.Edwin D. Reilly (2003). Milestones in Computer Science and Information Technology, p. 245.

See also

References

{{reflist|30em}}{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2011}}

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