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{{for|the belief in being able to contact the dead|Spiritualism}}{{Spirituality sidebar}}The meaning of spirituality has developed and expanded over time, and various connotations can be found alongside each other.{{sfn|McCarroll|2005|p=44}}{{sfn|Koenig|2012|p=36}}{{sfn|Cobb|2012|p=213}}{{refn|group=note|name="definition"}}Traditionally, spirituality referred to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man",{{refn|group=note|name=Waaijman|Waaijman{{sfn|Waaijman|2000|p=460}}{{sfn|Waaijman|2002}} uses the word "omvorming", "to change the form". Different translations are possible: transformation, re-formation, trans-mutation.}} oriented at "the image of God"{{sfn|Waaijman|2000|p=460}}{{sfn|Waaijman|2002}} as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world. The term was used within early Christianity to refer to a life oriented toward the Holy Spirit{{sfn|Wong|2009}} and broadened during late medieval times to include mental aspects of life.In modern times the term both spread to other religious traditions{{sfn|Gorsuch|1999}} and broadened to refer to a wider range of experience, including a range of esoteric traditions and religious traditions. Modern usages tend to refer to a subjective experience of a sacred dimension{{sfn|Saucier|2006|p=1259}} and the "deepest values and meanings by which people live",{{sfn|Sheldrake|2007|pp=1–2}}{{sfn|Griffin|1988}} often in a context separate from organized religious institutions,{{sfn|Wong|2008}} such as a belief in a supernatural (beyond the known and observable) realm,{{sfn|Schuurmans-Stekhoven|2014}} personal growth,{{sfn|Houtman|2007}} a quest for an ultimate or sacred meaning,{{sfn|Snyder|2007|p=261}} religious experience,{{sfn|Sharf|2000}} or an encounter with one's own "inner dimension".{{sfn|Waaijman|2002|p=315}} File:Benozzo Gozzoli 004a.jpg|thumb|Thomas Aquinas nurtured contemplative spirituality ]]File:Gandhara Buddha (tnm).jpeg|thumb|right|Standing Buddha with a halo, 1st–2nd century AD (or earlier), Greco-Buddhist art of GandharaGandhara

Etymology

The term spirit means "animating or vital principle in man and animals". It is derived from the Old French espirit, which comes from the Latin word spiritus (soul, courage, vigor, breath) and is related to spirare (to breathe). In the Vulgate the Latin word spiritus is used to translate the Greek pneuma and Hebrew ruah.WEB,weblink Online Etymology Dictionary, Spirit, Etymonline.com, 2014-01-04, The term "spiritual", matters "concerning the spirit", is derived from Old French spirituel (12c.), which is derived from Latin spiritualis, which comes from spiritus or "spirit".WEB,weblink Online Etymology Dictionary, Spiritual, Etymonline.com, 2014-01-04, The term "spirituality" is derived from Middle French spiritualité, from Late Latin "spiritualitatem" (nominative spiritualitas), which is also derived from Latin spiritualis.WEB,weblink Online Etymology Dictionary, Spirituality, Etymonline.com, 2014-01-04,

Definition

There is no single, widely agreed upon definition of spirituality.{{sfn|Koenig|2012|p=36}}{{sfn|Cobb|2012|p=213}}{{refn|group=note|name="definition"|See:* Koenig e.a.: "There is no widely agreed on definition of spirituality today".{{sfn|Koenig|2012|p=36}}* Cobb e.a.: "The spiritual dimension is deeply subjective and there is no authoritative definition of spirituality".{{sfn|Cobb|2012|p=213}}}} Surveys of the definition of the term, as used in scholarly research, show a broad range of definitions with limited overlap.{{sfn|McCarroll|2005|p=44}} A survey of reviews by McCarroll each dealing with the topic of spirituality gave twenty-seven explicit definitions, among which "there was little agreement."{{sfn|McCarroll|2005|p=44}} This impedes the systematic study of spirituality and the capacity to communicate findings meaningfully. Furthermore, many of spirituality's core features are not unique to spirituality; for example self-transcendence, asceticism and the recognition of one's connection to all were regarded by the atheist Arthur Schopenhauer as key to ethical life.The Academy of Ideas, The Ethics of Schopenhauer{{better source|date=August 2018}}According to Kees Waaijman, the traditional meaning of spirituality is a process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man, the image of God. To accomplish this, the re-formation is oriented at a mold, which represents the original shape: in Judaism the Torah, in Christianity there is Christ, for Buddhism, Buddha, and in Islam, Muhammad."{{refn|group=note|name=Waaijman}} Houtman and Aupers suggest that modern spirituality is a blend of humanistic psychology, mystical and esoteric traditions and Eastern religions.{{sfn|Houtman|2007}}In modern times the emphasis is on subjective experience{{sfn|Saucier|2006|p=1259}} and the "deepest values and meanings by which people live,"{{sfn|Sheldrake|2007|pp=1–2}}{{sfn|Griffin|1988}} incorporating personal growth or transformation, usually in a context separate from organized religious institutions.{{sfn|Wong|2008}}

Development of the meaning of spirituality

Classical, medieval and early modern periods

Words translatable as 'spirituality' first began to arise in the 5th century and only entered common use toward the end of the Middle Ages.Jones, L.G., "A thirst for god or consumer spirituality? Cultivating disciplined practices of being engaged by god," in L. Gregory Jones and James J. Buckley eds., Spirituality and Social Embodiment, Oxford: Blackwell, 1997, 3–28 [4, n. 4]. In a Biblical context the term means being animated by God,{{sfn|Waaijman|2000|pp=359–60}} to be driven by the Holy Spirit, as opposed to a life which rejects this influence.{{sfn|Wong|2009}}In the 11th century this meaning changed. Spirituality began to denote the mental aspect of life, as opposed to the material and sensual aspects of life, "the ecclesiastical sphere of light against the dark world of matter".{{sfn|Waaijman|2000|p=360}}{{refn|group=note|In Dutch: "de hemelse lichtsfeer tegenover de duistere wereld van de materie". {{sfn|Waaijman|2000|p=360}}}} In the 13th century "spirituality" acquired a social and psychological meaning. Socially it denoted the territory of the clergy: "The ecclesiastical against the temporary possessions, the ecclesiastical against the secular authority, the clerical class against the secular class"{{sfn|Waaijman|2000|pp=360–61}}{{refn|group=note|In Dutch: "de kerkelijke tegenover de tijdelijke goederen, het kerkelijk tegenover het wereldlijk gezag, de geestelijke stand tegenover de lekenstand".{{sfn|Waaijman|2000|pp=360–61}}}} Psychologically, it denoted the realm of the inner life: "The purity of motives, affections, intentions, inner dispositions, the psychology of the spiritual life, the analysis of the feelings".{{sfn|Waaijman|2000|p=361}}{{refn|group=note|In Dutch: "Zuiverheid van motieven, affecties, wilsintenties, innerlijke disposities, de psychologie van het geestelijk leven, de analyse van de gevoelens".{{sfn|Waaijman|2000|p=361}}}}In the 17th and 18th century a distinction was made between higher and lower forms of spirituality: "A spiritual man is one who is Christian 'more abundantly and deeper than others'."{{sfn|Waaijman|2000|p=361}}{{refn|group=note|In Dutch: "Een spiritueel mens is iemand die 'overvloediger en dieper dan de anderen' christen is".{{sfn|Waaijman|2000|p=361}}}} The word was also associated with mysticism and quietism, and acquired a negative meaning.{{citation needed|date=June 2013}}

Modern spirituality

{{See also|Western esotericism#18th, 19th and early 20th centuries|l1=History of Western esotericism|New Age|l2=New Age}}Modern notions of spirituality developed throughout the 19th and 20th century, mixing Christian ideas with Western esoteric traditions and elements of Asian, especially Indian, religions. Spirituality became increasingly disconnected from traditional religious organisations and institutions. It is sometimes associated today with philosophical, social, or political movements such as liberalism, feminist theology, and green politics.{{sfn|Snyder|2007|pp=261–61}}

Transcendentalism and Unitarian Universalism

Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882) was a pioneer of the idea of spirituality as a distinct field.Schmidt, Leigh Eric. Restless Souls : The Making of American Spirituality. San Francisco: Harper, 2005. {{ISBN|0-06-054566-6}} He was one of the major figures in Transcendentalism, an early 19th-century liberal Protestant movement, which was rooted in English and German Romanticism, the Biblical criticism of Johann Gottfried Herder and Friedrich Schleiermacher, the skepticism of Hume,WEB,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Transcendentalism, Plato.stanford.edu, 2014-01-04, and Neo-Platonism.{{sfn|Remes|2014|p=202}}{{sfn|Versluis|2014|p=35}}The Transcendentalists emphasised an intuitive, experiential approach of religion.WEB, Jone Johnson Lewis,weblink Jone John Lewis, What is Transcendentalism?, Transcendentalists.com, 2014-01-04, Following Schleiermacher,{{sfn|Sharf|1995}} an individual's intuition of truth was taken as the criterion for truth. In the late 18th and early 19th century, the first translations of Hindu texts appeared, which were also read by the Transcendentalists, and influenced their thinking. They also endorsed universalist and Unitarianist ideas, leading to Unitarian Universalism, the idea that there must be truth in other religions as well, since a loving God would redeem all living beings, not just Christians.WEB,weblink Barry Andrews, The Roots Of Unitarian Universalist Spirituality In New England Transcendentalism '', Archive.uua.org, 1999-03-12, 2014-01-04, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130921054734weblink">weblink 2013-09-21,

Theosophy, anthroposophy, and the perennial philosophy

{{See also|Western esotericism}}A major influence on modern spirituality was the Theosophical Society, which searched for 'secret teachings' in Asian religions.{{sfn|McMahan|2008}} It has been influential on modernist streams in several Asian religions, notably Neo-Vedanta, the revival of Theravada Buddhism, and Buddhist modernism, which have taken over modern western notions of personal experience and universalism and integrated them in their religious concepts.{{sfn|McMahan|2008}} A second, related influence was Anthroposophy, whose founder, Rudolf Steiner, was particularly interested in developing a genuine Western spirituality, and in the ways that such a spirituality could transform practical institutions such as education, agriculture, and medicine.BOOK, McDermott, Robert, The Essential Steiner, 2007, Lindisfarne, 978-1-58420-051-2, William James and Rudolf Steiner, Robert A. McDermott, 1991, in ReVision, vol. 13 no. 4weblinkThe influence of Asian traditions on western modern spirituality was also furthered by the perennial philosophy, whose main proponent Aldous Huxley was deeply influenced by Swami Vivekananda's Neo-Vedanta and universalism,{{sfn|Roy|2003}} and the spread of social welfare, education and mass travel after World War II.

Neo-Vedanta

An important influence on western spirituality was Neo-Vedanta, also called neo-Hinduism{{sfn|King|2002|p=93}} and Hindu Universalism,WEB,weblink Frank Morales, Neo-Vedanta: The problem with Hindu Universalism, Bharatabharati.wordpress.com, 2014-01-04, 2012-02-15, a modern interpretation of Hinduism which developed in response to western colonialism and orientalism. It aims to present Hinduism as a "homogenized ideal of Hinduism"{{sfn|Yelle|2012|p=338}} with Advaita Vedanta as its central doctrine.{{sfn|King|2002|p=135}} Due to the colonisation of Asia by the western world, since the 19th century an exchange of ideas has been taking place between the western world and Asia, which also influenced western religiosity.{{sfn|McMahan|2008}} Unitarianism, and the idea of Universalism, was brought to India by missionaries, and had a major influence on neo-Hinduism via Ram Mohan Roy's Brahmo Samaj and Brahmoism. Roy attempted to modernise and reform Hinduism, from the idea of Universalism.{{sfn|King|2002}} This universalism was further popularised, and brought back to the west as neo-Vedanta, by Swami Vivekananda.{{sfn|King|2002}}

"Spiritual but not religious"

After the Second World War, spirituality and theistic religion became increasingly disconnected,{{sfn|Waaijman|2000|p=361}} and spirituality became more oriented on subjective experience, instead of "attempts to place the self within a broader ontological context."{{sfn|Saucier|2007|p=1259}} A new discourse developed, in which (humanistic) psychology, mystical and esoteric traditions and eastern religions are being blended, to reach the true self by self-disclosure, free expression and meditation.{{sfn|Houtman|2007}}The distinction between the spiritual and the religious became more common in the popular mind during the late 20th century with the rise of secularism and the advent of the New Age movement. Authors such as Chris Griscom and Shirley MacLaine explored it in numerous ways in their books. Paul Heelas noted the development within New Age circles of what he called "seminar spirituality":Paul Heelas, The New Age Movement: The Celebration of the Self and the Sacralization of Modernity. Oxford: Blackwell, 1996, p. 60. Cited in Anthony Giddens: Sociology. Cambridge: Polity, 2001, p. 554. structured offerings complementing consumer choice with spiritual options.Among other factors, declining membership of organized religions and the growth of secularism in the western world have given rise to this broader view of spirituality.Michael Hogan (2010). The Culture of Our Thinking in Relation to Spirituality. Nova Science Publishers: New York. The term "spiritual" is now frequently used in contexts in which the term "religious" was formerly employed.{{sfn|Gorsuch|1999}} Both theists and atheists have criticized this development.JOURNAL, Hollywood, Amy, Spiritual but Not Religious: The Vital Interplay between Submission and Freedom, Harvard Divinity Bulletin, Winter–Spring 2010, 38, 1 and 2,weblink 4 January 2014, Harvard Divinity School, NEWS, David, Rabbi,weblink Viewpoint: The Limitations of Being ‘Spiritual but Not Religious’, Ideas.time.com, 2014-01-04, 2013-03-21,

Traditional spirituality

Abrahamic faiths

Judaism

{{refimprove section|date=November 2018}}Rabbinic Judaism (or in some Christian traditions,{{which|date= November 2018}} Rabbinism) (Hebrew: "Yahadut Rabanit" – יהדות רבנית) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Talmud. It is characterised by the belief that the Written Torah ("Law" or "Instruction") cannot be correctly interpreted without reference to the Oral Torah and by the voluminous literature specifying what behavior is sanctioned by the law (called halakha, "the way").Judaism knows a variety of religious observances: ethical rules, prayers, religious clothing, holidays, shabbat, pilgrimages, Torah reading, dietary laws, etc.Kabbalah (literally "receiving"), is an esoteric method, discipline and school of thought of Judaism. Its definition varies according to the tradition and aims of those following it,Kabbalah: A very short introduction, Joseph Dan, Oxford University Press, Chapter 1 "The term and its uses" from its religious origin as an integral part of Judaism, to its later Christian, New Age, or Occultist syncretic adaptations. Kabbalah is a set of esoteric teachings meant to explain the relationship between an unchanging, eternal and mysterious Ein Sof (no end) and the mortal and finite universe (his creation). While it is heavily used by some denominations,{{which|date= November 2018}} it is not a religious denomination in itself. Inside Judaism, it forms the foundations of mystical religious interpretation. Outside Judaism, its scriptures are read outside the traditional canons of organised religion. Kabbalah seeks to define the nature of the universe and the human being, the nature and purpose of existence, and various other ontological questions. It also presents methods to aid understanding of these concepts and to thereby attain spiritual realisation.Hasidic Judaism, meaning "piety" (or "loving kindness"), is a branch of Orthodox Judaism that promotes spirituality through the popularisation and internalisation of Jewish mysticism as the fundamental aspect of the faith. It was founded in 18th-century Eastern Europe by Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov as a reaction against overly legalistic Judaism. His example began the characteristic veneration of leadership in Hasidism as embodiments and intercessors of Divinity for the followers.{{Citation needed|date=September 2011}} Opposite to this, Hasidic teachings cherished the sincerity and concealed holiness of the unlettered common folk, and their equality with the scholarly elite. The emphasis on the Immanent Divine presence in everything gave new value to prayer and deeds of kindness, alongside Rabbinic supremacy of study, and replaced historical mystical (kabbalistic) and ethical (musar) asceticism and admonishment with optimism,{{citation needed|date=August 2012}} encouragement, and daily fervour. This populist emotional revival accompanied the elite ideal of nullification to paradoxical Divine Panentheism, through intellectual articulation of inner dimensions of mystical thought.

Christianity

{{unreferenced section|date=November 2018}}(File:Mystic Marriage.jpg|thumb|miniature|Union with Christ is the purpose of Christian mysticism.)Catholic spirituality is the spiritual practice of living out a personal act of faith (fides qua creditur) following the acceptance of faith (fides quae creditur). Although all Catholics are expected to pray together at Mass, there are many different forms of spirituality and private prayer which have developed over the centuries. Each of the major religious orders of the Catholic Church and other lay groupings have their own unique spirituality – its own way of approaching God in prayer and in living out the Gospel.Christian mysticism refers to the development of mystical practices and theory within Christianity. It has often been connected to mystical theology, especially in the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. The attributes and means by which Christian mysticism is studied and practiced are varied and range from ecstatic visions of the soul's mystical union with God to simple prayerful contemplation of Holy Scripture (i.e., Lectio Divina).Progressive Christianity is a contemporary movement which seeks to remove the supernatural claims of the faith and replace them with a post-critical understanding of biblical spirituality based on historical and scientific research. It focuses on the lived experience of spirituality over historical dogmatic claims, and accepts that the faith is both true and a human construction, and that spiritual experiences are psychologically and neurally real and useful.

Islam

Five pillars

The Pillars of Islam (arkan al-Islam; also arkan ad-din, "pillars of religion") are five basic acts in Islam, considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are (1) the creed (shahadah), (2) daily prayers (salat), (3) almsgiving (zakah), (4) fasting during Ramadan and (5) the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once-in-a-lifetime. The Shia and Sunni sects both agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts.Pillars of Islam, Oxford Islamic Studies Online

Sufism

The best known form of Islamic mystic spirituality is the Sufi tradition (famous through Rumi and Hafiz) in which a spiritual master or pir transmits spiritual discipline to students.Azeemi, K.S., "Muraqaba: The Art and Science of Sufi Meditation". Houston: Plato, 2005. ({{ISBN|0-9758875-4-8}}), p. xiSufism or {{transl|ar|DIN|taṣawwuf}} () is defined by its adherents as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam.Alan Godlas, University of Georgia, Sufism's Many Paths, 2000, University of GeorgiaNuh Ha Mim Keller, "How would you respond to the claim that Sufism is Bid'a?", 1995. Fatwa accessible at: Masud.co.ukZubair Fattani, "The meaning of Tasawwuf", Islamic Academy. Islamicacademy.org A practitioner of this tradition is generally known as a {{transl|ar|DIN|ṣūfī}} (). Sufis believe they are practicing ihsan (perfection of worship) as revealed by Gabriel to Muhammad,Sufis consider themselves as the original true proponents of this pure original form of Islam. They are strong adherents to the principal of tolerance, peace and against any form of violence. The Sufi have suffered severe persecution by more rigid and fundamentalist groups such as the Wahhabi and Salafi movement. In 1843 the Senussi Sufi were forced to flee Mecca and Medina and head to Sudan and Libya.BOOK, Hawting, Gerald R., G. R. Hawting, The first dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661–750
Routledge> year= 2000 pages=, 978-0-415-24073-4, See Google book search.Classical Sufi scholars have defined Sufism as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God".Ahmed Zarruq, Zaineb Istrabadi, Hamza Yusuf Hanson â€“ "The Principles of Sufism". Amal Press. 2008. Alternatively, in the words of the Darqawi Sufi teacher Ahmad ibn Ajiba, "a science through which one can know how to travel into the presence of the Divine, purify one's inner self from filth, and beautify it with a variety of praiseworthy traits".An English translation of Ahmad ibn Ajiba's biography has been published by Fons Vitae.

Jihad

Jihad is a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād translates as a noun meaning "struggle". There are two commonly accepted meanings of jihad: an inner spiritual struggle and an outer physical struggle.{{sfn|Morgan|2010|87}} The "greater jihad" is the inner struggle by a believer to fulfill his religious duties.{{sfn|Morgan|2010|87}}WEB,weblink Jihad, 20 February 2012, This non-violent meaning is stressed by both MuslimJihad and the Islamic Law of War {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130818180319weblink |date=August 18, 2013 }} and non-MuslimRudolph Peters, Islam and Colonialism. The doctrine of Jihad in Modern History (Mouton Publishers, 1979), p. 118 authors.Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, an 11th-century Islamic scholar, referenced a statement by the companion of Muhammad, Jabir ibn Abd-Allah:WEB, Jihad,weblink BBC, 2009-08-03, Fayd al-Qadir vol. 4, p. 511{{refn|group=note|This reference gave rise to the distinguishing of two forms of jihad: "greater" and "lesser". Some Islamic scholars dispute the authenticity of this reference and consider the meaning of jihad as a holy war to be more important.}}}}

Asian traditions

Buddhism

Buddhist practices are known as Bhavana, which literally means "development" or "cultivating"Matthieu Ricard has said this in a talk. or "producing"WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20120711062331weblink">weblink yes, 2012-07-11, Rhys Davids & Stede (1921–25), p. 503, entry for "Bhāvanā," retrieved 9 December 2008 from University Chicago, Dsal.uchicago.edu, 2014-01-04, Monier-Williams (1899), p. 755, see "Bhāvana" and "Bhāvanā," retrieved 9 December 2008 from University of Cologne{{dead link|date=August 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} (PDF) in the sense of "calling into existence."Nyanatiloka (1980), p. 67. It is an important concept in Buddhist praxis (Patipatti). The word bhavana normally appears in conjunction with another word forming a compound phrase such as citta-bhavana (the development or cultivation of the heart/mind) or metta-bhavana (the development/cultivation of loving kindness). When used on its own bhavana signifies 'spiritual cultivation' generally.Various Buddhist Paths to liberation developed throughout the ages. Best-known is the Noble Eightfold Path, but others include the Bodhisattva Path and Lamrim.

Hinduism

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Hinduism has no traditional ecclesiastical order, no centralized religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, monistic, or atheistic.See:
  • Julius J. Lipner, Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0-415-45677-7}}, p. 8; Quote: "(...) one need not be religious in the minimal sense described to be accepted as a Hindu by Hindus, or describe oneself perfectly validly as Hindu. One may be polytheistic or monotheistic, monistic or pantheistic, even an agnostic, humanist or atheist, and still be considered a Hindu.";
  • Lester Kurtz (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict, {{ISBN|978-0-12-369503-1}}, Academic Press, 2008;
  • MK Gandhi, The Essence of Hinduism, Editor: VB Kher, Navajivan Publishing, see p. 3; According to Gandhi, "a man may not believe in God and still call himself a Hindu." Within this diffuse and open structure, spirituality in Hindu philosophy is an individual experience, and referred to as ksaitrajña (Sanskrit: क्षैत्रज्ञMonier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, क्षैत्रज्ञ Jim Funderburk and Peter Scharf (2012); Quote:
  • क्षैत्रज्ञ [ ká¹£aitrajña ] [ ká¹£aitrajña ] n. (fr. [ ká¹£etra-jñá ] g. [ yuvādi ], spirituality, nature of the soul Lit. W.; the knowledge of the soul Lit. W.). It defines spiritual practice as one's journey towards moksha, awareness of self, the discovery of higher truths, true nature of reality, and a consciousness that is liberated and content.See the following two in Ewert Cousins series on World Spirituality:
  • Bhavasar and Kiem, Spirituality and Health, in Hindu Spirituality, Editor: Ewert Cousins (1989), {{ISBN|0-8245-0755-X}}, Crossroads Publishing New York, pp. 319–37;
  • John Arapura, Spirit and Spiritual Knowledge in the Upanishads, in Hindu Spirituality, Editor: Ewert Cousins (1989), {{ISBN|0-8245-0755-X}}, Crossroads Publishing New York, pp. 64–85Gavin Flood, Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Editor: Knut Jacobsen (2010), Volume II, Brill, {{ISBN|978-90-04-17893-9}}, see Article on Wisdom and Knowledge, pp. 881–84

Four paths

Traditionally, Hinduism identifies three mārga (ways)John Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Rosen Publishing New York, {{ISBN|0-8239-2287-1}}{{refn|group=note|See also Bhagavad Gita (The Celestial Song), Chapters 2:56–57, 12, 13:1–28}} of spiritual practice,D. Bhawuk (2011), Spirituality and Cultural Psychology, in Anthony Marsella (Series Editor), International and Cultural Psychology, Springer New York, {{ISBN|978-1-4419-8109-7}}, pp. 93–140 namely Jñāna, the way of knowledge; Bhakti, the way of devotion; and Karma yoga, the way of selfless action. In the 19th century Vivekananda, in his neo-Vedanta synthesis of Hinduism, added Rāja yoga, the way of contemplation and meditation, as a fourth way, calling all of them "yoga."{{sfn|Michelis|2005}}{{refn|group=note|George Feuerstein: "Yoga is not easy to define. In most general terms, the Sanskrit word yoga stands for spiritual discipline in Hinduism, Jainism, and certain schools of Buddhism. (...). Yoga is the equivalent of Christian mysticism, Moslem Sufism, or the Jewish Kabbalah. A spiritual practitioner is known as a yogin (if male) or a yogini (if female)."Feuerstein, Georg (2003), The deeper dimension of yoga: Theory and practice, Shambhala, {{ISBN|1-57062-935-8}}, p. 3}}Jñāna marga is a path often assisted by a guru (teacher) in one's spiritual practice.Feuerstein, Georg (2003), The deeper dimension of yoga: Theory and practice, Shambhala, {{ISBN|1-57062-935-8}}, Chapter 55 Bhakti marga is a path of faith and devotion to deity or deities; the spiritual practice often includes chanting, singing and music – such as in kirtans – in front of idols, or images of one or more deity, or a devotional symbol of the holy.Jean Varenne (1976), Yoga and the Hindu Tradition, University of Chicago Press, {{ISBN|0-226-85116-8}}, pp. 97–130 Karma marga is the path of one's work, where diligent practical work or vartta (Sanskrit: वार्त्ता, profession) becomes in itself a spiritual practice, and work in daily life is perfected as a form of spiritual liberation and not for its material rewards.See discussion of Hinduism and karma yoga in two different professions in these journal articles:
  • JOURNAL, McCormick, Donald W., 1994, Spirituality and Management, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 9, 6, 5–8, 10.1108/02683949410070142, ;
  • JOURNAL, Macrae, Janet, 1995, Nightingale's spiritual philosophy and its significance for modern nursing, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 27, 1, 8–10, 10.1111/j.1547-5069.1995.tb00806.x, Klaus Klostermaier, Spirituality and Nature, in Hindu Spirituality, Editor: Ewert Cousins (1989), {{ISBN|0-8245-0755-X}}, Crossroads Publishing New York, pp. 319–37;
  • Klostermaier discusses examples from Bhagavata Purana, another ancient Hindu scripture, where a forest worker discovers observing mother nature is a spiritual practice, to wisdom and liberating knowledge. The Purana suggests that "true knowledge of nature" leads to "true knowledge of Self and God." It illustrates 24 gurus that nature provides. For example, earth teaches steadfastness and the wisdom that all things while pursuing their own activities, do nothing but follow the divine laws that are universally established; another wisdom from earth is her example of accepting the good and bad from everyone. Another guru, the honeybee teaches that one must make effort to gain knowledge, a willingness and flexibility to examine, pick and collect essence from different scriptures and sources. And so on. Nature is a mirror image of spirit, perceptive awareness of nature can be spirituality. Rāja marga is the path of cultivating necessary virtues, self-discipline, tapas (meditation), contemplation and self-reflection sometimes with isolation and renunciation of the world, to a pinnacle state called samādhi.Vivekananda, S. (1980), Raja Yoga, Ramakrishna Vivekanada Center, {{ISBN|978-0-911206-23-4}}Richard King (1999), Indian philosophy: An introduction to Hindu and Buddhist thought, Edinburgh University Press, {{ISBN|0-7486-0954-7}}, pp. 69–71 This state of samādhi has been compared to peak experience.See:
  • JOURNAL, Harung, Harald, 2012, Illustrations of Peak Experiences during Optimal Performance in World-class Performers Integrating Eastern and Western Insights, Journal of Human Values, 18, 1, 33–52, 10.1177/097168581101800104,
  • JOURNAL, Levin, Jeff, 2010, Religion and mental health: Theory and research, International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 7, 2, 102–15, ;
  • JOURNAL, Meyer-Dinkgräfe, Daniel, 2011, Opera and spirituality, Performance and Spirituality, 2, 1, 38–59,
There is a rigorous debate in Indian literature on relative merits of these theoretical spiritual practices. For example, Chandogyopanishad suggests that those who engage in ritualistic offerings to gods and priests will fail in their spiritual practice, while those who engage in tapas will succeed; Svetasvataropanishad suggests that a successful spiritual practice requires a longing for truth, but warns of becoming 'false ascetic' who go through the mechanics of spiritual practice without meditating on the nature of Self and universal Truths.See:
  • CR Prasad, Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Editor: Knut Jacobsen (2010), Volume II, Brill, {{ISBN|978-90-04-17893-9}}, see Article on Brahman, pp. 724–29
  • David Carpenter, Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Editor: Knut Jacobsen (2010), Volume II, Brill, {{ISBN|978-90-04-17893-9}}, see Article on Tapas, pp. 865–69 In the practice of Hinduism, suggest modern era scholars such as Vivekananda, the choice between the paths is up to the individual and a person's proclivities.Klaus Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of Hinduism, 3rd Edition, SUNY Press, {{ISBN|978-0-7914-7081-7}}, pp. 119–260 Other scholarsMikel Burley (2000), Hatha-Yoga: Its context, theory and practice, Motilal Banarsidass Publications, {{ISBN|81-208-1706-0}}, pp. 97–98; Quote: "When, for example, in the Bhagavad-Gita Lord Krsna speaks of jnana-, bhakti- and karma-yoga, he is not talking about three entirely separate ways of carrying out one's spiritual practice, but, rather, about three aspects of the ideal life". suggest that these Hindu spiritual practices are not mutually exclusive, but overlapping. These four paths of spirituality are also known in Hinduism outside India, such as in Balinese Hinduism, where it is called Catur Marga (literally: four paths).Murdana, I. Ketut (2008), Balinese Arts and Culture: A flash understanding of Concept and Behavior, Mudra – Jurnal Seni Budaya, Indonesia; Volume 22, p. 5

Schools and spirituality

Different schools of Hinduism encourage different spiritual practices. In Tantric school for example, the spiritual practice has been referred to as sādhanā. It involves initiation into the school, undergoing rituals, and achieving moksha liberation by experiencing union of cosmic polarities.Gavin Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, {{ISBN|0-521-43878-0}} The Hare Krishna school emphasizes bhakti yoga as spiritual practice.Rochford, E.B. (1985), Hare Krishna in America, Rutgers University Press; {{ISBN|978-0-8135-1114-6}}, p. 12 In Advaita Vedanta school, the spiritual practice emphasizes jñāna yoga in stages: samnyasa (cultivate virtues), sravana (hear, study), manana (reflect) and dhyana (nididhyasana, contemplate).See:
  • Ramakrishna Puligandla (1985), Jñâna-Yoga – The Way of Knowledge (An Analytical Interpretation), University Press of America New York, {{ISBN|0-8191-4531-9}};
  • Fort, A.O. (1998), JÄ«vanmukti in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita and Neo-Vedanta, State University of New York Press, {{ISBN|0-7914-3903-8}};
  • Richard King (1999), Indian philosophy: An introduction to Hindu and Buddhist thought, Edinburgh University Press, {{ISBN|0-7486-0954-7}}, p. 223;
  • Sawai, Y. (1987), The Nature of Faith in the Åšaá¹…karan Vedānta Tradition, Numen, 34(1), pp. 18–44

Sikhism

File:Raja Fateh Singh Ahluwalia of Kapurthala.jpg|thumb|An 18th Century Sikh Raja ]]Sikhism considers spiritual life and secular life to be intertwined:BOOK,weblink's#v=onepage&q=The%20Socially%20Involved%20Renunciate%20-%20Guru%20Nanaks%20Discourse%20to%20Nath%20Yogi's&f=false, The Socially Involved Renunciate – Guru Nanaks Discourse to Nath Yogi's, State University of New York Press, Nayar, Kamal Elizabeth, Sandhu, Jaswinder Singh, yes, Chapter Six - Renunciation and Social Involvement in Siddhe Gost, 2007, United States, 106, 978-0-7914-7950-6, "In the Sikh Weltanschauung...the temporal world is part of the Infinite Reality and partakes of its characteristics."BOOK,weblink Hindu spirituality: Postclassical and modern, Motilal Banarsidass, Kaur Singh, Nikky Guninder, 27 The Spiritual Experience in Sikhism, 2004, English, 530, 978-81-208-1937-5, Guru Nanak described living an "active, creative, and practical life" of "truthfulness, fidelity, self-control and purity" as being higher than a purely contemplative life.BOOK,weblink Colors of Truth, Religion Self and Emotions, Concept Publishing Company, Marwha, Sonali Bhatt, 7 Sikhism, 2006, New Delhi, 205, 978-81-8069-268-0, The 6th Sikh Guru Guru Hargobind re-affirmed that the political/temporal (Miri) and spiritual (Piri) realms are mutually coexistent.BOOK,weblink Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance, University of Chicago Press, E. Marty, Martin, Appleby R. Scott, yes, Sikh Fundementalism - Harjot Oberoi, 1996, English, 278, 978-0-226-50884-9, According to the 9th Sikh Guru, Tegh Bahadhur, the ideal Sikh should have both Shakti (power that resides in the temporal), and Bhakti (spiritual meditative qualities). This was developed into the concept of the Saint Soldier by the 10th Sikh Guru, Gobind Singh.BOOK,weblink History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1606–708, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors Pvt Ltd, Singh Gandhi, Surjit, 10 Guru Tegh Bahadhur, 2008, English, 676–77, 978-81-269-0857-8, According to Guru Nanak, the goal is to attain the "attendant balance of separation-fusion, self-other, action-inaction, attachment-detachment, in the course of daily life",BOOK,weblink Religion and the Specter of the West – Sikhism, India, Postcoloniality and the Politics of Translation, University of Columbia, Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh, Ideoligies of the Sacred Sound, October 22, 2009, United States, 372 onwards, 978-0-231-14724-8, the polar opposite to a self-centered existence. Nanak talks further about the one God or Akal (timelessness) that permeates all lifeBOOK,weblink Philosophy of Sikhism: Reality and Its Manifestations, South Asia Books, Singh, Nirbhai, 1990, New Delhi, 111–12, ).BOOK, Philpott, Chris, Green Spirituality: One Answer to Global Environmental Problems and World Poverty, 2011, AuthorHouse, 978-1-4670-0528-9, BOOK,weblink Sikhism, Chelsea House Publishers, Singh Kalsi, Sewa Singh, Hukam (Divine Order), 2005, United States, 49, 978-0-7910-8098-6, BOOK, Hayer, Tara, "The Sikh Impact: Economic History of Sikhs in Canada" Volume 1, 1988, Indo-Canadian Publishers, Surrey, Canada, 14, and which must be seen with 'the inward eye', or the 'heart', of a human being.BOOK, Lebron, Robyn, Searching for Spiritual Unity...can There be Common Ground?: A Basic Internet Guide to Forty World Religions & Spiritual Practices, 2012, CrossBooks, 978-1-4627-1261-8, 399, In Sikhism there is no dogma,BOOK, Singh, Nikky-Guninder, The Feminine Principle in the Sikh Vision of the Transcendent, 1993, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-43287-0, 172, priests, monastics or yogis.

African spirituality

In some African contexts,{{which|date= November 2018}} spirituality is considered a belief system that guides the welfare of society and the people therein, and eradicates sources of unhappiness occasioned by evil.{{citation needed|date= November 2018}}

Contemporary spirituality

{{See also|New Age}}The term "spiritual" is now frequently used in contexts in which the term "religious" was formerly employed.{{sfn|Gorsuch|1999}} Contemporary spirituality is also called "post-traditional spirituality" and "New Age spirituality".{{sfn|Otterloo|2012|pp=239–40}} Hanegraaf makes a distinction between two "New Age" movements: New Age in a restricted sense, which originated primarily in mid-twentieth century England and had its roots in Theosophy and Anthroposophy, and "New Age" in a general sense, which emerged in the later 1970s}}Those who speak of spirituality outside of religion often define themselves as spiritual but not religious and generally believe in the existence of different "spiritual paths," emphasizing the importance of finding one's own individual path to spirituality. According to one 2005 poll, about 24% of the United States population identifies itself as spiritual but not religious.WEB,weblink NewsweekBeliefnet Poll Results,

Characteristics

Modern spirituality is centered on the "deepest values and meanings by which people live."Philip Sheldrake, A Brief History of Spirituality, Wiley-Blackwell 2007 pp. 1–2 It embraces the idea of an ultimate or an alleged immaterial reality.Ewert Cousins, preface to Antoine Faivre and Jacob Needleman, Modern Esoteric Spirituality, Crossroad Publishing 1992. It envisions an inner path enabling a person to discover the essence of his/her being.Not all modern notions of spirituality embrace transcendental ideas. Secular spirituality emphasizes humanistic ideas on moral character (qualities such as love, compassion, patience, tolerance, forgiveness, contentment, responsibility, harmony, and a concern for others).{{rp|22}} These are aspects of life and human experience which go beyond a purely materialist view of the world without necessarily accepting belief in a supernatural reality or divine being. Nevertheless, many humanists (e.g. Bertrand Russell, Jean-Paul Sartre) who clearly value the non-material, communal and virtuous aspects of life reject this usage of the term spirituality as being overly-broad (i.e. it effectively amounts to saying "everything and anything that is good and virtuous is necessarily spiritual").JOURNAL, Schuurmans-Stekhoven, J.B., 2011, Is it God or just the data that moves in mysterious ways? How well-being research might be mistaking faith for virtue?, Social Indicators Research, 100, 2, 313–30, 10.1007/s11205-010-9630-7, In 1930 Russell, a renowned atheist, wrote "... one's ego is no very large part of the world. The man [sic.] who can center his thoughts and hopes upon something transcending self can find a certain peace in the ordinary troubles of life which is impossible to the pure egoist." Bertrand Russell The conquest of happiness Horace Liveright Inc. 1930, p. 71. Similarly, Aristotle â€“ one of the first known Western thinkers to demonstrate that morality, virtue and goodness can be derived without appealing to supernatural forces â€“ even argued that "men create Gods in their own image" (not the other way around). Moreover, theistic and atheistic critics alike dismiss the need for the "secular spirituality" label on the basis that appears to be nothing more than obscurantism in that i) the term "spirit" is commonly taken as denoting the existence of unseen / otherworldly / life-giving forces and ii) words such as morality, philanthropy and humanism already efficiently and succinctly describe the prosocial-orientation and civility that the phrase secular spirituality is meant to convey but without risk of potential confusion that one is referring to something supernatural.Although personal well-being, both physical and psychological, is said to be an important aspect of modern spirituality, this does not imply spirituality is essential to achieving happiness (e.g. see). Free-thinkers who reject notions that the numinous/non-material is important to living well can be just as happy as more spiritually-oriented individuals (see)Maisel, E. (2009). The atheist's way: Living well without gods, New World Library, Novato)Contemporary spirituality theorists assert that spirituality develops inner peace and forms a foundation for happiness. For example, meditation and similar practices are suggested to help the practitioner cultivate her/his inner life and character.BOOK, Wilkinson, Tony, The lost art of being happy : spirituality for sceptics, 2007, Findhorn Press, 978-1-84409-116-4, {{unreliable source?|date=June 2012}} BOOK, Browner, Matthieu Ricard; translated by Jesse, Happiness: A guide to developing life's most important skill., 2003, Little Brown, New York, 978-0-316-16725-3, 1st pbk., Ellison and Fan (2008) assert that spirituality causes a wide array of positive health outcomes, including "morale, happiness, and life satisfaction.".JOURNAL, Daily Spiritual Experiences and Psychological Well-Being among US Adults, Social Indicators Research, Sep 2008, Christopher G., Ellison, Daisy Fan, 88, 2, 247–71, 27734699, 10.1007/s11205-007-9187-2, However, Schuurmans-Stekhoven (2013) actively attempted to replicate this research and found more "mixed" results.JOURNAL, Schuurmans-Stekhoven, J.B., 2013, As a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats": Does the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale encapsulate separable theistic and civility components?, Social Indicators Research, 110, 1, 131–46, 10.1007/s11205-011-9920-8, Nevertheless, spirituality has played a central role in some self-help movements such as Alcoholics Anonymous:}}Yet such spiritually-informed treatment approaches have been challenged as pseudoscience, are far from uniformly curative and may for non-believers cause harm (see iatrogenesis).

Spiritual experience

"Spiritual experience" plays a central role in modern spirituality.{{sfn|Sharf|1995-B}} This notion has been popularised by both western and Asian authors.{{sfn|Hori|1999|p=47}}{{sfn|Rambachan|1994}} Important early 20th century western writers who studied the phenomenon of spirituality, and their works, include William James, The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902), and Rudolph Otto, especially The Idea of the Holy (1917). James' notions of "spiritual experience" had a further influence on the modernist streams in Asian traditions, making them even further recognisable for a western audience.{{sfn|Sharf|1995}}William James popularized the use of the term "religious experience" in his The Varieties of Religious Experience.{{sfn|Hori|1999|p=47}} It has also influenced the understanding of mysticism as a distinctive experience which supplies knowledge.WEB,weblink Gellman, Jerome, "Mysticism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Plato.stanford.edu, 2014-01-04, Wayne Proudfoot traces the roots of the notion of "religious experience" further back to the German theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834), who argued that religion is based on a feeling of the infinite. The notion of "religious experience" was used by Schleiermacher to defend religion against the growing scientific and secular critique. It was adopted by many scholars of religion, of which William James was the most influential.{{sfn|Sharf|2000|p=271}}Major Asian influences were Vivekananda{{sfn|Renard|2010|p=191}} and D.T. Suzuki.{{sfn|Sharf|1995-B}} Swami Vivekananda popularised a modern syncretitistic Hinduism,{{sfn|Sinari|2000}}{{sfn|Rambachan|1994}} in which the authority of the scriptures was replaced by an emphasis on personal experience.{{sfn|Rambachan|1994}}{{sfn|Comans|1993}} D.T. Suzuki had a major influence on the popularisation of Zen in the west and popularized the idea of enlightenment as insight into a timeless, transcendent reality.WEB,weblink Robert H. Sharf, Whose Zen? Zen Nationalism Revisited, 2014-01-04, WEB,weblink Hu Shih: Ch'an (Zen) Buddhism in China. Its History and Method, Thezensite.com, 2014-01-04, {{sfn|McMahan|2008}} Another example can be seen in Paul Brunton's A Search in Secret India, which introduced Ramana Maharshi and Meher Baba to a western audience.Spiritual experiences can include being connected to a larger reality, yielding a more comprehensive self; joining with other individuals or the human community; with nature or the cosmos; or with the divine realm.Margaret A. Burkhardt and Mary Gail Nagai-Jacobson, Spirituality: living our connectedness, Delmar Cengage Learning, p. xiii

Spiritual practices

Waaijman discerns four forms of spiritual practices:{{sfn|Waaijman|2000|pp=644–45}}
  1. Somatic practices, especially deprivation and diminishment. Deprivation aims to purify the body. Diminishment concerns the repulsement of ego-oriented impulses. Examples include fasting and poverty.{{sfn|Waaijman|2000|pp=644–45}}
  2. Psychological practices, for example meditation.{{sfn|Waaijman|2000|p=645}}
  3. Social practices. Examples include the practice of obedience and communal ownership, reforming ego-orientedness into other-orientedness.{{sfn|Waaijman|2000|p=645}}
  4. Spiritual. All practices aim at purifying ego-centeredness, and direct the abilities at the divine reality.{{sfn|Waaijman|2000|p=645}}
Spiritual practices may include meditation, mindfulness, prayer, the contemplation of sacred texts, ethical development,Dalai Lama, Ethics for the New Millennium, NY: Riverhead Books, 1999 and spiritual retreats in a convent. Love and/or compassion are often{{quantify|date=December 2015}} described as the mainstay of spiritual development.Within spirituality is also found "a common emphasis on the value of thoughtfulness, tolerance for breadth and practices and beliefs, and appreciation for the insights of other religious communities, as well as other sources of authority within the social sciences."JOURNAL, The Role of Religion and Spirituality in Mental and Physical Health
date= Feb 2001 last= Seybold volume= 10 pages= 21–24, 10.1111/1467-8721.00106,

Science

Relation to science

{{See also|Conflict thesis|Relationship between religion and science}}Since the scientific revolution of the 18th-century Enlightenment, the relationship of science to religionBOOK, Gascoigne, John, Cambridge in the Age of the Enlightenment: Science, Religion and Politics, 1988, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 300, The 'holy alliance' between Newtonian natural philosophy and Anglican latitudinarianism had, by the end of the eighteenth century, proved a fruitful marriage. Confident assertions that science and religion were allies remained part of the intellectual landscape in the first half of the nineteenth century and natural theology continued to be one of the most influential vehicles for the dissemination of new scientific theories [...]., BOOK, Brooke, John Hedley, Science and religion: some historical perspectives, 1991, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, {{page needed|date=March 2018}} and to spirituality{{citation needed|date=March 2018}} has developed in complex ways. Historian John Hedley Brooke describes wide variations:}}Brooke has proposed that the currently held popular notion of antagonisms between science and religionApplebaum, Wilbur. Encyclopedia of the scientific revolution: from Copernicus to Newton Volume 1800 of Garland reference library of the humanities. Psychology Press, 2000 {{ISBN|0-8153-1503-1|978-0-8153-1503-2}}R. Cruz Begay, MPH, DrPH, Science And Spirituality March 2003, Vol. 93, No. 3 | American Journal of Public Health 363 American Public Health Association has historically originated with "thinkers with a social or political axe to grind" rather than with the natural philosophers themselves.BOOK, Brooke, John Hedley, Science and religion: some historical perspectives, 2014,weblink Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 18, 2018-03-03, The Cambridge History of Science series, reprint, 978-1-107-66446-3, Though physical and biological scientists today see no need for supernatural explanations to describe realityClarke, Steve. Naturalism, Science, and the Supernatural in Sophia From the issue entitled "Special APRA Issue" Volume 48, Number 2, 127–42, {{doi|10.1007/s11841-009-0099-2 "There is overwhelming agreement amongst naturalists that a naturalistic ontology should not allow for the possibility of supernatural entities."}}BOOK, Dawkins, Richard, Richard Dawkins, 1986, The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe without Design,weblink W.W. Norton & Company, 2015, 978-0-393-35309-9, 2018-03-03, There is nothing supernatural, no 'life force' to rival the fundamental forces of physics. [...] My thesis will be that events that we commonly call miracles are not supernatural, but are part of a spectrum of more-or-less improbable natural events., {{page needed|date=March 2018}}Stroud, Barry. (2004). "The charm of naturalism". In: M. De Caro & D. Macarthur (Eds.), Naturalism in question (pp. 21–35). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. "Most philosophers for at least one hundred years have been naturalists in the nonsupernaturalist sense. They have taken it for granted that any satisfactory account of how human belief and knowledge in general are possible will involve only processes and events of the intelligible natural world, without the intervention or reassurance of any supernatural agent."{{refn|group=note|See naturalism}}, some{{quantify|date=March 2018}} scientists continue to regard science and spirituality as complementary, not contradictory,Richardson, W. Mark. Science and the spiritual quest: new essays by leading scientists Psychology Press, 2002 {{ISBN|0-415-25767-0|978-0-415-25767-1}}Giniger, Kenneth Seeman & Templeton, John. Spiritual evolution: scientists discuss their beliefs. Templeton Foundation Press, 1998. {{ISBN|1-890151-16-5}}, {{ISBN|978-1-890151-16-4}} and are willing to debate,Elaine Howard Ecklund, Science vs Religion: What Scientists Really Think. Oxford University Press, 2010. {{ISBN|978-0-19-539298-2}}rather than simply classifying spirituality and science as non-overlapping magisteria.A few{{quantify|date=March 2018}} religious leaders have shown openness to modern science and its methods. The 14th Dalai Lama, for example, has proposed that if a scientific analysis conclusively showed certain claims in Buddhism to be false, then the claims must be abandoned and the findings of science accepted.Dalai Lama, The universe in a single atom: the convergence of science and spirituality. Broadway Books, 2006. {{ISBN|0-7679-2081-3}}.

Holism

During the twentieth century the relationship between science and spirituality has been influenced both by Freudian psychology, which has accentuated the boundaries between the two areas by accentuating individualism and secularism, and by developments in particle physics, which reopened the debate about complementarity between scientific and religious discourse and rekindled for many an interest in holistic conceptions of reality.{{rp|322}} These holistic conceptions were championed by New Age spiritualists in a type of quantum mysticism that they claim justifies their spiritual beliefs,BOOK, Capra, Fritjof, Fritjof Capra, The Tao of Physics: an exploration of the parallels between modern physics and Eastern mysticism, 1991 3rd, Shambhala Publications, 1975, Boston, 978-0-87773-594-6, Laszlo, Ervin, "CosMos:A Co-creator's Guide to the Whole World", Hay House, Inc, 2008, {{ISBN|1-4019-1891-3}}, pp. 53–58 though quantum physicists themselves on the whole reject such attempts as being pseudoscientific.JOURNAL, Sheremer, Michael, 2005, Quantum Quackery, Scientific American, 292, 1, 34, 10.1038/scientificamerican0105-34, 2005SciAm.292a..34S, Silverman, Mark P. Quantum superposition: counterintuitive consequences of coherence, entanglement, and interference Frontiers collection. Springer, 2008 {{ISBN|3-540-71883-4|978-3-540-71883-3}}. p. 25

Scientific research

Health and well-being

Various studies (most originating from North America) have reported a positive correlation between spirituality and mental well-being in both healthy people and those encountering a range of physical illnesses or psychological disorders.JOURNAL, Joshanloo, Mohsen, Investigation of the Contribution of Spirituality and Religiousness to Hedonic and Eudaimonic Well-Being in Iranian Young Adults, Journal of Happiness Studies, 4 December 2010, 12, 6, 915–30, 10.1007/s10902-010-9236-4, Fehring, R.J., Miller, J.F., Shaw, C. (1997). Spiritual well-being, religiosity, hope, depression, and other mood states in elderly people coping with cancer 24. Oncology Nursing Forum. pp. 663–71.JOURNAL, Nelson, C.J., Rosenfeld, B., Breitbart, W., Galietta, M., 2002, Spirituality, religion, and depression in the terminally ill, Psychosomatics, 43, 3, 213–20, 10.1176/appi.psy.43.3.213, 12075036, Koenig, H.G. (2008) Research on religion, spirituality, and mental health: A review. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Although spiritual individuals tend to be optimisticJOURNAL, Schuurmans-Stekhoven, J. B., 2019, Conviction, character and coping: religiosity and personality are both uniquely associated with optimism and positive reappraising., Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 1-17., , report greater social support,JOURNAL, Salsman, J.M., Brown, T.L., Brechting, E.H., Carlson, C.R., 2005, The link between religion and spirituality and psychological adjustment: The mediating role of optimism and social support, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 4, 522–35, 10.1177/0146167204271563, 15743986, and experience higher intrinsic meaning in life,JOURNAL, Park, C, 2005, Religion as a meaning-making framework in coping with life stress, Journal of Social Issues, 61, 4, 707–29, 10.1111/j.1540-4560.2005.00428.x, strength, and inner peace,Hill, P.C. (1995). Affect theory and religious experience. In R.W. Hood, Jr (Ed.) Handbook of religious experience (pp.) Birmingham AL, Religious Education Press. whether the correlation represents a causal link remains contentious. Both supporters and opponents of this claim agree that past statistical findings are difficult to interpret, in large part because of the ongoing disagreement over how spirituality should be defined and measured.JOURNAL, Schuurmans-Stekhoven, J.B., 2013b, As a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats": Does the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale encapsulate separable theistic and civility components?, Social Indicators Research, 110, 1, 131–46, 10.1007/s11205-011-9920-8, There is also evidence that an agreeable / positive temperament and/or a tendency toward sociability (which all correlate with spirituality) might actually be the key psychological features that predispose people to subsequently adopt a spiritual orientation and that these characteristics, not spiritually per se, add to well-being. There is also some suggestion that the benefits associated with spirituality and religiosity might arise from being a member of a close-knit community. Social bonds available via secular sources (i.e., not unique to spirituality or faith-based groups) might just as effectively raise well-being. In sum, spirituality may not be the "active ingredient" (i.e. past association with psychological well-being measures might reflect a reverse causation or effects from other variables that correlate with spirituality),Emmons, R.A. (2005). Emotion and religion. In R.F. Paloutzian, & C.L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 235–52). New York: Guilford Press.JOURNAL, Schuurmans-Stekhoven, J.B., 2013a, Is God's call more than audible? A preliminary exploration of a two-dimensional model of theistic/spiritual beliefs and experiences, Australian Journal of Psychology, 65, 3, 146–55, 10.1111/ajpy.12015, JOURNAL, Saroglou, V., Buxant, C., Tilquin, J., 2008, Positive emotions as leading to religion and spirituality, Journal of Positive Psychology, 3, 3, 165–73, 10.1080/17439760801998737, JOURNAL, Schuurmans-Stekhoven, J.B., 2010, Moved by the spirit". Does spirituality moderate the inter-relationships between Subjective Well-Being (SWB) subscales?, Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66, 7, 709–25, 10.1002/jclp.20694, 20527052, JOURNAL, Saroglou, V, 2010, Religiousness as a cultural adaptation of basic traits: A five-factor model perspective, Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14, 1, 108–25, 10.1177/1088868309352322, 20023209, JOURNAL, Saroglou, V, 2002, Religion and the five factors of personality: A meta-analytic review, Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 1, 15–25, 10.1016/s0191-8869(00)00233-6, and that the effects of agreeableness, conscientiousness, or virtue â€“ personality traits common in many non-spiritual people yet known to be slightly more common among the spiritual â€“ may better account for spirituality's apparent correlation with mental health and social support.Schuurmans-Stekhoven, J.B. (2011)independent reviewSchuurmans-Stekhoven, J.B. (2017). Spirit or fleeting apparition? Why spirituality's link with social support might be incrementally invalid. Journal of Religion and Health {{DOI|10.1007/s10943-013-9801-3}}JOURNAL, Gebauer, J., Bleidorn, W., Gosling, S., Rentfrow, P., Lamb, M., Potter, J., 2014, Cross-cultural variations in Big Five relationships with religiosity: A sociocultural motives perspective, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107, 6, 1064–91, 10.1037/a0037683, 25180757, JOURNAL, Löckenhoff, C.E., Ironson, G.H., O'Cleirigh, C., Costa, P.T., 2009, Five-Factor Model Personality Traits, Spirituality/Religiousness, and Mental Health Among People Living With HIV, Journal of Personality, 77, 5, 1411–36, 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00587.x, 2739880, 19686457,

Intercessionary prayer

Masters and SpielmansJOURNAL, 10.1007/s10865-007-9106-7, Masters, K.S., Spielmans, G.I, 2007, Prayer and health: review, meta-analysis, and research agenda, Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30, 4, 329–38, 17487575, 10.1.1.462.3003, conducted a meta-analysis of all the available and reputable research examining the effects of distant intercessory prayer. They found no discernible health effects from being prayed for by others. In fact, one large and scientifically rigorous study by Herbert Benson and colleaguesJOURNAL, 10.1016/j.ahj.2005.05.028, 16569567, Benson, etal, 2006, Study of the Therapeutic Effects of Intercessory Prayer (STEP) in cardiac bypass patients: A multicenter randomized trial of uncertainty and certainty of receiving intercessory prayer., American Heart Journal, 151, 4, 934–42, revealed that intercessory prayer had no effect on recovery from cardiac arrest, but patients told people were praying for them actually had an increased risk of medical complications. Knowing others are praying for you could actually be medically detrimental.

Spiritual care in health care professions

In the health-care professions there is growing{{quantify|date=July 2017}} interest in "spiritual care", to complement the medical-technical approaches and to improve the outcomes of medical treatments.{{sfn|Koenig|2012}}{{qn|date=July 2017}}{{sfn|Puchalski|2014}}{{page needed|date=July 2017}} Puchalski et al. argue for "compassionate systems of care" in a spiritual context.

Spiritual experiences

Neuroscientists have examined brain functioning during reported spiritual experiencesAlper, Matthew, The "God" Part of the Brain: A Scientific Interpretation of Human Spirituality and God Sourcebooks, Inc., 2008 {{ISBN|1-4022-1452-9|978-1-4022-1452-3}}Talan, Jamie Science Probes Spirituality February/March 2006: Scientific American Mind. weblink finding that certain neurotransmitters and specific areas of the brain are involved.JOURNAL, Kurup, R.K., Kurup, P.A., 2003, Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical digoxin, and spirituality, International Journal of Neuroscience, 113, 3, 383–93, 10.1080/00207450390162155, Necini, P., & Grant, K.A. (2010). Psychobiology of drug-induced religious experience: From the brain 'locus of religion' to cognitive unbinding. Substance Use & Misuse, 45(13), 2130–51.Joseph, R. (2001). The limbic system and the soul: Evolution and the neuroanatomy of religious experience, Zygon, 36(1), 105–36.D'Aquili, E.G., & Newberg, A.B. (1998) The neuropsychological basis of religions, or Why God won't go away. Zygon, 33(2), 187–201 Moreover, experimenters have also successfully induced spiritual experiences in individuals by administering psychoactive agents known to elicit euphoria and perceptual distortions.Griffiths, R.R., Richards, W.A., McCann, U., Jesse, R. (2006). Psilocybin can occasion mystical type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance Psychopharmacology, 187:268–83JOURNAL, Drevets, W.C., Gautier, C., Price, J.C., Kupfer, D.J., Kinahan, P.E., Grace, A.A., Price, J.L., Mathis, C.A., 2001, Amphetamine-induced dopamine release in human ventral striatum correlates with euphoria, Biological Psychiatry, 49, 2, 81–96, 10.1016/s0006-3223(00)01038-6, 11164755, Conversely, religiosity and spirituality can also be dampened by electromagnetic stimulation of the brain.Crescentini, C., Di Bucchianico, M., Fabbro, F., & Urgesi, C. (2015). Excitatory stimulation of the right inferior parietal cortex lessens implicit religiousness/spirituality Neuropsychologia, 70, 71–79 {{doi|10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.02.016}} – See more at:weblink These results have motivated some leading theorists to speculate that spirituality may be a benign subtype of psychosis (see).Claridge, G. (2010) Spiritual experience: Healthy psychoticism? In Clarke, I. (Ed), Psychosis and spirituality: Consolidating the new paradigm (pp. 75–86). Chester: Wiley-Blackwell.Cottam, S., Paul, S.N., Doughty, O.J., Carpenter, L., Al-Mousawi, A., Karvounis, S. & Done, D.J. (2011). Does religious belief enable positive interpretation of auditory hallucinations? A comparison of religious voice hearers with and without psychosis, Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 16(5), 403–21 {{DOI|10.1080/13546805.2010.548543}}JOURNAL, Davies, M.F., Griffin, M., Vice, S., 2001, Affective reactions to auditory hallucinations in psychotic, evangelical and control groups,weblink British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 4, 361–70, 10.1348/014466501163850, JOURNAL, Thalbourne, M.A., Delin, P.S., 1994, A common thread underlying belief in the paranormal, creative personality, mystical experience and psychopathology, Journal of Parapsychology, 58, 3–38, Benign in the sense that the same aberrant sensory perceptions that those suffering clinical psychoses evaluate as distressingly in-congruent and inexplicable are instead interpreted by spiritual individuals as positive â€“ as personal and meaningful transcendent experiences.

See also

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Notes

{{reflist|group=note|30em}}

References

{{Reflist}}

Sources

Published sources

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Web-sources

{{reflist|group=web}}

Further reading

  • Downey, Michael. Understanding Christian Spirituality. New York: Paulist Press, 1997.
  • {{Citation | last=Hanegraaff | first=Wouter J. | year=1996 | title=New Age Religion and Western Culture. Esotericism in the mirror of Secular Thought | place=Leiden/New York/Koln | publisher=Brill}}
  • Charlene Spretnak, The Spiritual Dynamic in Modern Art : Art History Reconsidered, 1800 to the Present.
  • Eck, Diana L. A New Religious America. San Francisco: Harper, 2001.
  • Metzinger, T. Spirituality and Intellectual Honesty. Mainz: 2013. {{ISBN|978-3-00-041539-5}} {{doi| 10.978.300/0415395}}. Video of 2017 talk in Ojai, CA
  • Schmidt, Leigh Eric. Restless Souls : The Making of American Spirituality. San Francisco: Harper, 2005. {{ISBN|0-06-054566-6}}
  • {{Citation | last1=Carrette | first1=Jeremy R. | last2=King | first2=Richard | year=2005 | title=Selling Spirituality: The Silent Takeover of Religion | publisher=Taylor & Francis Group}}

External links

{{Subject bar|b=y|commons=y|q=y|s=y|voy=y}}{{Spirituality-related topics}}{{religion topics}}{{New Age Movement}}


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