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speed
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{{about|the property of moving bodies|other uses|Speed (disambiguation)}}{{Short description|Magnitude of velocity}}{{redirect-multi|2|Slow|Slowness}}{{more citations needed|date=July 2016}}{{Use British English|date=September 2015}}- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
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Definition
Historical definition
Italian physicist Galileo Galilei is usually credited with being the first to measure speed by considering the distance covered and the time it takes. Galileo defined speed as the distance covered per unit of time.Hewitt (2006), p. 42 In equation form, that is
v = frac{d},
where v is speed, d is distance, and t is time. A cyclist who covers 30 metres in a time of 2 seconds, for example, has a speed of 15 metres per second. Objects in motion often have variations in speed (a car might travel along a street at 50 km/h, slow to 0 km/h, and then reach 30 km/h).Instantaneous speed
Speed at some instant, or assumed constant during a very short period of time, is called instantaneous speed. By looking at a speedometer, one can read the instantaneous speed of a car at any instant. A car travelling at 50 km/h generally goes for less than one hour at a constant speed, but if it did go at that speed for a full hour, it would travel 50 km. If the vehicle continued at that speed for half an hour, it would cover half that distance (25 km). If it continued for only one minute, it would cover about 833 m.In mathematical terms, the instantaneous speed v is defined as the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity boldsymbol{v}, that is, the derivative of the position boldsymbol{r} with respect to time:WEB,weblink IEC 60050 - Details for IEV number 113-01-33: "speed", Electropedia: The World's Online Electrotechnical Vocabulary, 2017-06-08,
v = left|boldsymbol vright| = left|dot {boldsymbol r}right| = left|frac{dboldsymbol r}{dt}right|,.
If s is the length of the path (also known as the distance) travelled until time t, the speed equals the time derivative of s:
v = frac{ds}{dt}.
In the special case where the velocity is constant (that is, constant speed in a straight line), this can be simplified to v=s/t. The average speed over a finite time interval is the total distance travelled divided by the time duration.Average speed
Different from instantaneous speed, average speed is defined as the total distance covered divided by the time interval. For example, if a distance of 80 kilometres is driven in 1 hour, the average speed is 80 kilometres per hour. Likewise, if 320 kilometres are travelled in 4 hours, the average speed is also 80 kilometres per hour. When a distance in kilometres (km) is divided by a time in hours (h), the result is in kilometres per hour (km/h).Average speed does not describe the speed variations that may have taken place during shorter time intervals (as it is the entire distance covered divided by the total time of travel), and so average speed is often quite different from a value of instantaneous speed. If the average speed and the time of travel are known, the distance travelled can be calculated by rearranging the definition to
d = boldsymbol{bar{v}}t,.
Using this equation for an average speed of 80 kilometres per hour on a 4-hour trip, the distance covered is found to be 320 kilometres.Expressed in graphical language, the slope of a tangent line at any point of a distance-time graph is the instantaneous speed at this point, while the slope of a chord line of the same graph is the average speed during the time interval covered by the chord. Average speed of an object isVav = sÃ·tDifference between speed and velocity
Speed denotes only how fast an object is moving, whereas velocity describes both how fast and in which direction the object is moving.BOOK, Wilson, Edwin Bidwell, Vector analysis: a text-book for the use of students of mathematics and physics, founded upon the lectures of J. Willard Gibbs, 1901, 125,weblink This is the likely origin of the speed/velocity terminology in vector physics. If a car is said to travel at 60 km/h, its speed has been specified. However, if the car is said to move at 60 km/h to the north, its velocity has now been specified.The big difference can be discerned when considering movement around a circle. When something moves in a circular path and returns to its starting point, its average velocity is zero, but its average speed is found by dividing the circumference of the circle by the time taken to move around the circle. This is because the average velocity is calculated by considering only the displacement between the starting and end points, whereas the average speed considers only the total distance traveled.Tangential speed
{{Classical mechanics|rotational}}Linear speed is the distance travelled per unit of time, while tangential speed (or tangential velocity) is the linear speed of something moving along a circular path.Hewitt (2006), p. 131 A point on the outside edge of a merry-go-round or turntable travels a greater distance in one complete rotation than a point nearer the center. Travelling a greater distance in the same time means a greater speed, and so linear speed is greater on the outer edge of a rotating object than it is closer to the axis. This speed along a circular path is known as tangential speed because the direction of motion is tangent to the circumference of the circle. For circular motion, the terms linear speed and tangential speed are used interchangeably, and both use units of m/s, km/h, and others.Rotational speed (or angular speed) involves the number of revolutions per unit of time. All parts of a rigid merry-go-round or turntable turn about the axis of rotation in the same amount of time. Thus, all parts share the same rate of rotation, or the same number of rotations or revolutions per unit of time. It is common to express rotational rates in revolutions per minute (RPM) or in terms of the number of "radians" turned in a unit of time. There are little more than 6 radians in a full rotation (2{{pi}} radians exactly). When a direction is assigned to rotational speed, it is known as rotational velocity or angular velocity. Rotational velocity is a vector whose magnitude is the rotational speed.Tangential speed and rotational speed are related: the greater the RPMs, the larger the speed in metres per second. Tangential speed is directly proportional to rotational speed at any fixed distance from the axis of rotation. However, tangential speed, unlike rotational speed, depends on radial distance (the distance from the axis). For a platform rotating with a fixed rotational speed, the tangential speed in the centre is zero. Towards the edge of the platform the tangential speed increases proportional to the distance from the axis.Hewitt (2006), p. 132 In equation form:
v propto !, r omega,,
where v is tangential speed and Ï‰ (Greek letter omega) is rotational speed. One moves faster if the rate of rotation increases (a larger value for Ï‰), and one also moves faster if movement farther from the axis occurs (a larger value for r). Move twice as far from the rotational axis at the centre and you move twice as fast. Move out three times as far and you have three times as much tangential speed. In any kind of rotating system, tangential speed depends on how far you are from the axis of rotation.When proper units are used for tangential speed v, rotational speed Ï‰, and radial distance r, the direct proportion of v to both r and Ï‰ becomes the exact equation
v = romega,.
Thus, tangential speed will be directly proportional to r when all parts of a system simultaneously have the same Ï‰, as for a wheel, disk, or rigid wand.Units
Units of speed include:- metres per second (symbol m sâˆ’1 or m/s), the SI derived unit;
- kilometres per hour (symbol km/h);
- miles per hour (symbol mi/h or mph);
- knots (nautical miles per hour, symbol kn or kt);
- feet per second (symbol fps or ft/s);
- Mach number (dimensionless), speed divided by the speed of sound;
- in natural units (dimensionless), speed divided by the speed of light in vacuum (symbol c = {{val|299792458|u=m/s}}).
Examples of different speeds
{{More citations needed section|date=May 2013}}{{example farm|section|date=May 2014}}{| class="wikitable"! Speed !!m/s !!ft/s !!km/h !!mph !!Notescontinental drift > | 0.00000001}} | {{val | 0.00000004}} | {{val | | 4 cm/year. Varies depending on location. |
snail > | | 1 millimetre per second |
walk > | | |
| Varies widely by person, terrain, bicycle, effort, weather |
| Fastest kick recorded at 130 milliseconds from floor to target at 1 meter distance. Average velocity speed across kick duratioweblink |
Sprint runners > | Usain Bolt's 100 metres List of world records in athletics>world record. |
| On flat terrain, will vary |
| |
Taipei 101 observatory elevator > | | 1010 m/min |
| |
| |
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale#Category 1>Category 1 hurricane | 33 | 108 | 119 | 74 | Minimum sustained speed over 1 minute |
Autoroutes of France>French autoroute | 36.1 | 118 | 130 | 81 |
Sam Whittingham in a recumbent bicycleHTTP://WWW.WISIL.RECUMBENTS.COM/WISIL/WHPSC2009/RESULTS.HTM | ACCESSDATE=2013-10-12 | ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130811101125/HTTP://WWW.WISIL.RECUMBENTS.COM/WISIL/WHPSC2009/RESULTS.HTM | DF=, |
Muzzle velocity of a paintball marker > | | |
Boeing 747-8 passenger jet > | Mach number>Mach 0.85 at {{val | u=ft}} ({{val | u=m}}) altitude |
land speed record > | | |
speed of sound in dry air at sea-level pressure and 20 Â°C > | 1125}} | {{val | Mach number>Mach 1 by definition. 20 Â°C = 293.15 kelvins. |
Muzzle velocity of a 7.62Ã—39mm cartridge > | 2330}} | {{val | 1600}} | The 7.62Ã—39mm round is a rifle Cartridge (weaponry) | of Soviet Union>Soviet origin |
flight airspeed record for jet engined aircraft > | 3215}} | {{val | 2194}} | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird |
Space shuttle on re-entry > | 7800}} | {{val | 28000}} | 17,500 |
Escape velocity on Earth > | 11200}} | {{val | 40000}} | {{val | | 11.2 kmÂ·sâˆ’1 |
Voyager 1 relative velocity to the Sun in 2013 > | 17000}} | {{val | 61200}} | {{val | Recessional velocity>recession speed of any humanmade object.HTTP://WWW.DAVIDDARLING.INFO/ENCYCLOPEDIA/F/FASTEST_SPACECRAFT.HTML >TITLE=FASTEST SPACECRAFT | LAST=DARLING, August 19, 2013, (11 mi/s) |
Earth around the Sun > | 29783}} | {{val | 107218}} | {{val | | |
Helios (spacecraft)>the Helios probes. | 70,220 | 230,381 | 252,792 | 157,078 | Recognized as the fastest speed achieved by a man-made spacecraft, achieved in solar orbit. |
Speed of light in vacuum (symbol c) > | 299792458}} | {{val | 1079252848}} | {{val | 299792458|u=m/s}}, by definition of the metre |
Psychology
According to Jean Piaget, the intuition for the notion of speed in humans precedes that of duration, and is based on the notion of outdistancing.Jean Piaget, Psychology and Epistemology: Towards a Theory of Knowledge, The Viking Press, pp. 82â€“83 and pp. 110â€“112, 1973. SBN 670-00362-x Piaget studied this subject inspired by a question asked to him in 1928 by Albert Einstein: "In what order do children acquire the concepts of time and speed?"JOURNAL, Siegler, Robert S., Richards, D. Dean, 1979, Development of Time, Speed, and Distance Concepts,weblink Developmental Psychology, English, 15, 3, 288â€“298, 10.1037/0012-1649.15.3.288, Children's early concept of speed is based on "overtaking", taking only temporal and spatial orders into consideration, specifically: "A moving object is judged to be more rapid than another when at a given moment the first object is behind and a moment or so later ahead of the other object."BOOK, Rod Parker-Rees and Jenny William, Early Years Education: Histories and Traditions, Volume 1,weblink 2006, Taylor & Francis, 164,See also
{hide}columns-list|colwidth=30em|- Air speed
- Land speed
- List of vehicle speed records
- Typical projectile speeds
- Speedometer
- V speeds{edih}
References
{{Wiktionary|speed|swiftness}}- Richard P. Feynman, Robert B. Leighton, Matthew Sands. The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Volume I, Section 8-2. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts (1963). {{ISBN|0-201-02116-1}}.
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