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sorghum
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{{About|the plant genus|the principal modern crop species |Sorghum bicolor|other crop uses|Commercial sorghum|other uses}}{{Redirect|Sorgo|the Ragusan family|Sorgo (family)}}{{Automatic taxobox|image = Sorghum.jpg|image_caption = Sorghum bicolor|display_parents = 4|taxon = Sorghum
Conrad Moench>Moench 1794, conserved name not Sorgum Adanson 1763|type_species = Sorghum bicolorCarl Linnaeus>L.) MoenchPUBLISHER=, 4 September 2016, |synonyms =
  • Blumenbachia Koeler 1802, rejected name not Schrad. 1825 (Loasaceae)
  • Sarga Ewart
  • Vacoparis Spangler
  • Andropogon subg. Sorghum Hackel.
}}Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae. Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia,WEB, Sally L. Dillon, Peter K. Lawrence, Robert J. Henry, Larry Ross, H. James Price, J. Spencer Johnston, 3, Sorghum laxiflorum and S. macrospermum, the Australian native species most closely related to the cultivated S. bicolor based on ITS1 and ndhF sequence analysis of 28 Sorghum species,weblink Southern Cross Plant Science, Southern Cross University, 28 February 2016, WEB,weblink Sorghum - Atlas of Living Australia, Atlas of Living, Australia, 4 September 2016, with the range of some extending to Africa, Asia, Mesoamerica, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.WEB,weblink Tropicos, ''Sorghum'' Moench, Tropicos.org, 2018-05-31, WEB,weblink Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 600 高粱属 gao liang shu ''Sorghum'' Moench, Methodus. 207. 1794, Efloras.org, 2018-05-31, One species is grown for grain, while many others are used as fodder plants, either cultivated in warm climates worldwide or naturalized, in pasture lands.{{BONAP|ref|genus=Sorghum|accessdate=4 September 2016}} Sorghum is in the subfamily Panicoideae and the tribe Andropogoneae (the tribe of big bluestem and sugarcane).

Cultivation and uses

One species, Sorghum bicolor,JOURNAL, 10.1007/s10722-009-9466-7, 57, 2, 243–253, Mutegi, Evans, Fabrice, Sagnard, Moses, Muraya, Ben, Kanyenji, Bernard, Rono, Caroline, Mwongera, Charles, Marangu, Joseph, Kamau, Heiko, Parzies, Santie, de Villiers, Kassa, Semagn, Pierre, Traoré, Maryke, Labuschagne, Ecogeographical distribution of wild, weedy and cultivated Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench in Kenya: implications for conservation and crop-to-wild gene flow, Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 2010-02-01, 3, native to Africa with many cultivated forms now,WEB, Sorghum- and millet-legume cropping systems,weblink Stefan Hauser, Lydia Wairegi, Charles L. A. Asadu, Damian O. Asawalam, Grace Jokthan, Utiang Ugbe, CABI and Africa Soil Health Consortium, 7 October 2018, 2015, is an important crop worldwide, used for food (as grain and in sorghum syrup or "sorghum molasses"), animal fodder, the production of alcoholic beverages, and biofuels. Most varieties are drought- and heat-tolerant, and are especially important in arid regions, where the grain is one of the staples for poor and rural people. These varieties form important components of forage in many tropical regions. S. bicolor is an important food crop in Africa, Central America, and South Asia, and is the fifth-most important cereal crop grown in the world.NEWS,weblink Move over, quinoa: sorghum is the new 'wonder grain', The Guardian, 15 December 2015, Tove Danovich, 31 July 2018, In the early stages of the plants' growth, some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanide, hordenine, and nitrates which are lethal to grazing animals. When stressed by drought or heat, plants can also contain toxic levels of cyanide and nitrates at later stages in growth.WEB, Cyanide (prussic acid) and nitrate in sorghum crops Primary industries and fisheries. Queensland Government.,weblink 2018-10-15, WEB, Sorghum,weblink 2018-10-15, Global demand for sorghum increased dramatically between 2013 and 2015 when China began purchasing US sorghum crops to use as livestock feed as a substitute for domestically grown corn. China purchased around $1 billion worth of American sorghum per year until April 2018 when China imposed retaliatory duties on American sorghum as part of the trade war between the two countries.NEWS,weblink Sorghum, targeted by tariffs, is a U.S. crop China started buying only five years ago, LA Times, Apr 18, 2018, 28 January 2019,

Diversity

Accepted speciesWEB, The Plant List: Sorghum,weblink Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and Missouri Botanic Garden, 28 February 2017,
{{columns-list|colwidth=30em| }}
Formerly included{{citation needed|date=February 2017}}
Many species once considered part of Sorghum, but now considered better suited to other genera include: Andropogon, Arthraxon, Bothriochloa, Chrysopogon, Cymbopogon, Danthoniopsis, Dichanthium, Diectomis, Diheteropogon, Exotheca, Hyparrhenia, Hyperthelia, Monocymbium, Parahyparrhenia, Pentameris, Pseudosorghum, Schizachyrium, and Sorghastrum.

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Watson, Andrew M., Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World: The Diffusion of Crops and Farming Techniques, 700–1100, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1983, 0-521-24711-X,

External links

{{Commons category|Sorghum}}{{cookbook|Sorghum}} {{Cereals}}{{Taxonbar|from=Q12111}}


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