sodium chloride

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sodium chloride
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{{short description|Chemical compound}}{{About|the chemical|common table salt|Salt|the medical solution|Saline (medicine)|the mineral|Halite}}{{Redirect|NaCl}}{{Use dmy dates|date=November 2016}}{{Chembox| Verifiedfields = changed| Watchedfields = changed| verifiedrevid = 477002432| Name = | ImageFile = Halit-Kristalle.jpg| ImageCaption = Sodium chloride as the mineral halite| ImageFile1 = Sodium-chloride-3D-ionic.png| ImageCaption1 = Crystal structure with sodium in purple and chloride in green| IUPACName = Sodium chloride| OtherNames = {hide}unbulleted list
| Common salt
| halite
| rock salt
| saline
| sodium chloride
| table salt
| regular salt
| sea salt
{edih}| SystematicName = | Section1 = {hide}Chembox Identifiers| CASNo = 7647-14-5
correct|CAS{edih}| PubChem = 5234| UNII = 451W47IQ8Xcorrect|FDA}}| EINECS = 231-598-3| KEGG = D02056correct|kegg}}| MeSHName = Sodium+chloridecorrect|EBI}}| ChEBI = 26710| ChEMBL = 1200574changed|EBI}}| RTECS = VZ4725000| Beilstein = 3534976| Gmelin = 13673| SMILES = [Na+].[Cl-]| StdInChI = 1S/ClH.Na/h1H;/q;+1/p-1correct|chemspider}}| InChI = 1/ClH.Na/h1H;/q;+1/p-1| StdInChIKey = FAPWRFPIFSIZLT-UHFFFAOYSA-Mcorrect|chemspider}}| InChIKey = FAPWRFPIFSIZLT-REWHXWOFAEcorrect|chemspider}}| ChemSpiderID = 5044}}| Section2 = {{Chembox Properties| Formula = NaCl| MolarMass = 58.443 g/molHaynes, 4.89| Appearance = Colorless cubic crystals| Odor = Odorless| Density = 2.17 g/cm3| MeltingPtC = 800.7| MeltingPt_ref=| BoilingPtC = 1465| BoilingPt_ref=| Solubility = 360 g/L| Solvent1 = ammonia| Solubility1 = 21.5 g/L| Solvent2 = methanol| Solubility2 = 14.9 g/L| RefractIndex = 1.5441 (at 589 nm)Haynes, 10.241| MagSus = −30.2·10−6 cm3/molHaynes, 4.135}}| Section3 = {{Chembox Structure| Structure_ref =Haynes, 4.148see text), Pearson symbol>cF83}}m, No. 225| LattConst_a = 564.02 pm| Coordination = Octahedral (Na+)octahedral (Cl−)}}| Section4 = | Section5 = {{Chembox Thermochemistry| Thermochemistry_ref =Haynes, 5.8| DeltaHf = −411.12 kJ/mol| Entropy = 72.1 J/(K·mol)| HeatCapacity = 50.5 J/(K·mol)}}| Section6 = {{Chembox Pharmacology| ATCCode_prefix = A12| ATCCode_suffix = CA01B05B05S01|XA03}}}}| Section7 = {{Chembox Hazards| NFPA-H = 0| NFPA-F = 0| NFPA-R = 0| LD50 = 3 g/kg (oral, rats)Sodium chloride.}}| Section8 = {{Chembox Related| OtherAnions = Sodium fluorideSodium bromideSodium iodideSodium astatide| OtherCations = Lithium chloridePotassium chlorideRubidium chlorideCaesium chlorideFrancium chloride}}}}Sodium chloride {{IPAc-en|ˌ|s|oʊ|d|i|ə|m|_|ˈ|k|l|ɔr|aɪ|d}},{{citation|last=Wells|first=John C.|year=2008|title=Longman Pronunciation Dictionary|edition=3rd|publisher=Longman|pages=143 and 755|isbn=9781405881180}} commonly known as salt (though sea salt also contains other chemical salts), is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g/mol respectively, 100 g of NaCl contains 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. In its edible form of table salt, it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses. A second major application of sodium chloride is de-icing of roadways in sub-freezing weather.{{TOC limit}}


In addition to the familiar domestic uses of salt, more dominant applications of the approximately 250 megatons per year production (2008 data) include chemicals and de-icing.Westphal, Gisbert et al. (2002) "Sodium Chloride" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim {{DOI|10.1002/14356007.a24_317.pub4}}.

Chemicals production

Salt is used, directly or indirectly, in the production of many chemicals, which consume most of the world's production.

Chlor-alkali industry

{{See also|Chloralkali process}}It is the starting point for the chloralkali process, which provides the world with chlorine and sodium hydroxide according to the chemical equation
2 NaCl + 2 H2O → Cl2 + H2 + 2 NaOH
This electrolysis is conducted in either a mercury cell, a diaphragm cell, or a membrane cell. Each of those use a different method to separate the chlorine from the sodium hydroxide. Other technologies are under development due to the high energy consumption of the electrolysis, whereby small improvements in the efficiency can have large economic paybacks. Some applications of chlorine include PVC, disinfectants, and solvents. Sodium hydroxide enables industries that produce paper, soap, and aluminium.

Soda-ash industry

Sodium chloride is used in the Solvay process to produce sodium carbonate and calcium chloride. Sodium carbonate, in turn, is used to produce glass, sodium bicarbonate, and dyes, as well as a myriad of other chemicals. In the Mannheim process and in the Hargreaves process, sodium chloride is used for the production of sodium sulfate and hydrochloric acid.


Sodium chloride has an international standard that is created by ASTM International. The standard is named ASTM E534-13 and is the standard test methods for chemical analysis of sodium chloride. These methods listed provide procedures for analyzing sodium chloride to determine whether it is suitable for its intended use and application.

Miscellaneous industrial uses

Sodium chloride is heavily used, so even relatively minor applications can consume massive quantities. In oil and gas exploration, salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and increase the density of the drilling fluid to overcome high downwell gas pressures. Whenever a drill hits a salt formation, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution in order to minimize the dissolution within the salt stratum. Salt is also used to increase the curing of concrete in cemented casings.In textiles and dyeing, salt is used as a brine rinse to separate organic contaminants, to promote "salting out" of dyestuff precipitates, and to blend with concentrated dyes to standardize{{clarify|date=October 2016}} them. One of its main roles is to provide the positive ion charge to promote the absorption of negatively charged ions of dyes.It is also used in processing aluminium, beryllium, copper, steel and vanadium. In the pulp and paper industry, salt is used to bleach wood pulp. It also is used to make sodium chlorate, which is added along with sulfuric acid and water to manufacture chlorine dioxide, an excellent oxygen-based bleaching chemical. The chlorine dioxide process, which originated in Germany after World War I, is becoming more popular because of environmental pressures to reduce or eliminate chlorinated bleaching compounds. In tanning and leather treatment, salt is added to animal hides to inhibit microbial activity on the underside of the hides and to attract moisture back into the hides.In rubber manufacture, salt is used to make buna, neoprene and white rubber types. Salt brine and sulfuric acid are used to coagulate an emulsified latex made from chlorinated butadiene.Salt also is added to secure the soil and to provide firmness to the foundation on which highways are built. The salt acts to minimize the effects of shifting caused in the subsurface by changes in humidity and traffic load.Sodium chloride is sometimes used as a cheap and safe desiccant because of its hygroscopic properties, making salting an effective method of food preservation historically; the salt draws water out of bacteria through osmotic pressure, keeping it from reproducing, a major source of food spoilage. Even though more effective desiccants are available, few are safe for humans to ingest.

Water softening

Hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions that interfere with action of soap and contribute to the buildup of a scale or film of alkaline mineral deposits in household and industrial equipment and pipes. Commercial and residential water-softening units use ion-exchange resins to remove the offending ions that cause the hardness. These resins are generated and regenerated using sodium chloride.

Road salt

(File:WatNaCl.png|thumb|left|upright=1.15|Phase diagram of water–NaCl mixture)The second major application of salt is for de-icing and anti-icing of roads, both in grit bins and spread by winter service vehicles. In anticipation of snowfall, roads are optimally "anti-iced" with brine (concentrated solution of salt in water), which prevents bonding between the snow-ice and the road surface. This procedure obviates the heavy use of salt after the snowfall. For de-icing, mixtures of brine and salt are used, sometimes with additional agents such as calcium chloride and/or magnesium chloride. The use of salt or brine becomes ineffective below {{convert|−10|°C|0}}.(File:Winter road salt.jpg|thumbnail|left|upright=1.15|Mounds of road salt for use in winter)Salt for de-icing in the United Kingdom predominantly comes from a single mine in Winsford in Cheshire. Prior to distribution it is mixed with

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