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{{Other uses}}{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2015}}File:Burj Khalifa.jpg|thumb| Completed in 2009, the Burj Khalifa, in Dubai (United Arab Emirates), is {{As of|2009|alt=currently}} the tallest skyscraper in the world, with a height of {{convert|829.8|m|ft}}. The setbacks at various heights are a typical skyscraper feature.]]A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately {{convert|150|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}.BOOK, Ambrose, Gavin, Harris, Paul, Stone, Sally, The Visual Dictionary of Architecture, 2008, AVA Publishing SA, Switzerland, 978-2-940373-54-3, 233, Historically, the term first referred to buildings with 10 to 20 floors in the 1880s. The definition shifted with advancing construction technology during the 20th century.WEB, The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, Skyscraper,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 October 2016, Skyscrapers may host offices, residential spaces, and retail spaces. For buildings above a height of {{convert|300|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}, the term supertall skyscrapers can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond {{convert|600|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} are classified as megatall skyscrapers.WEB,weblink The Tallest 20 in 2020: Entering the Era of the Megatall, 8 December 2011, CTBUH, 19 October 2012, One common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel framework that supports curtain walls. These curtain walls either bear on the framework below or are suspended from the framework above, rather than resting on load-bearing walls of conventional construction. Some early skyscrapers have a steel frame that enables the construction of load-bearing walls taller than of those made of reinforced concrete.Modern skyscrapers' walls are not load-bearing, and most skyscrapers are characterised by large surface areas of windows made possible by steel frames and curtain walls. However, skyscrapers can have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls with a small surface area of windows. Modern skyscrapers often have a tubular structure, and are designed to act like a hollow cylinder to resist wind, seismic, and other lateral loads. To appear more slender, allow less wind exposure, and transmit more daylight to the ground, many skyscrapers have a design with setbacks, which are sometimes also structurally required.

Definition

File:Home Insurance Building.JPG|thumb|upright|The Home Insurance Building in ChicagoChicago The term skyscraper was first applied to buildings of steel framed construction of at least 10 stories in the late 19th century, a result of public amazement at the tall buildings being built in major American cities like Chicago, New York City, Philadelphia, Detroit, and St. Louis.For more on the origins of the term skyscraper, see "Skyscrapers," Magical Hystory Tour: The Origins of the Commonplace & Curious in America (1 September 2010) {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150629192827weblink |date=29 June 2015 }} The first steel-frame skyscraper was the Home Insurance Building (originally 10 stories with a height of {{convert|42|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) in Chicago, Illinois in 1885. Some point to Philadelphia's 10-story Jayne Building (1849–50) as a proto-skyscraper, or to New York's seven-floor Equitable Life Building (New York City), built in 1870, for its innovative use of a kind of skeletal frame, but such designation depends largely on what factors are chosen. Even the scholars making the argument find it to be purely academic.JOURNAL, Charles E. Peterson, October 1950, Ante-Bellum Skyscraper, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 9:3, 25–28, NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20120708020221weblink">weblink dead, 8 July 2012, The first skyscraper – new theory that Home Insurance Building was not the first, 5 April 1986, Ivars Peterson, CBS Interactive, "In my view, we can no longer argue that the Home Insurance Building was the first skyscraper," says Carl W. Condit, now retired from Northwestern University in Evanston, Ill., and author of several books on Chicago architecture. "The claim rests on an unacceptably narrow idea of what constitutes a high-rise commercial building," he says."If there is a building in which all these technical factors—structural system, elevator, utilities—converge at the requisite level of maturity," argues Condit, "it's the Equitable Life Assurance Building in New York." Completed in 1870, the building rose 7½ stories, twice the height of its neighbors., 6 January 2010, The structural definition of the word skyscraper was refined later by architectural historians, based on engineering developments of the 1880s that had enabled construction of tall multi-story buildings. This definition was based on the steel skeleton—as opposed to constructions of load-bearing masonry, which passed their practical limit in 1891 with Chicago's Monadnock Building.
— Louis Sullivan's The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered (1896)
The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat defines skyscrapers as those buildings which reach or exceed {{convert|150|m|ft|abbr=on}} in height."Which World City Has The Most Skyscrapers?". The Urban Developer. 11 March 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2018. Others in the United States and Europe also draw the lower limit of a skyscraper at {{convert|150|m|ft|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Huge New Rogers Skyscraper Proposed, ...their eleventh proper skyscraper, that is by definition buildings above 150 meters, skyscrapernews.com, 3 December 2007, 3 December 2007, The Emporis Standards Committee defines a high-rise building as "a multi-story structure between 35–100 meters tall, or a building of unknown height from 12–39 floors"Data Standards: high-rise building (ESN 18727), Emporis Standards, accessed on line 16 October 2009. and a skyscraper as "a multi-story building whose architectural height is at least {{convert|100|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}."Data Standards: skyscraper (ESN 24419), Emporis Standards, accessed on line 16 October 2009. Some structural engineers define a highrise as any vertical construction for which wind is a more significant load factor than earthquake or weight. Note that this criterion fits not only high-rises but some other tall structures, such as towers.The word skyscraper often carries a connotation of pride and achievement. The skyscraper, in name and social function, is a modern expression of the age-old symbol of the world center or axis mundi: a pillar that connects earth to heaven and the four compass directions to one another.WEB,weblink Penza State University of Architecture and Construction; Before The Workshop (1) Tower, Fondazione-delbianco.org, 31 August 1939, 5 June 2011, The tallest building in ancient times was the {{convert|146|m|ft|abbr =on}} Great Pyramid of Giza in ancient Egypt, built in the 26th century BC. It was not surpassed in height for thousands of years, the {{convert|160|m|ft|abbr =on}} Lincoln Cathedral having exceeded it in 1311–1549, before its central spire collapsed.WEB, A.F.K.,weblink The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Cathedral Church of Lincoln, by A.F. Kendric, B.A, Gwydir.demon.co.uk, 5 June 2011, The latter in turn was not surpassed until the {{convert|555|ft|m|sp=us|adj=on}} Washington Monument in 1884. However, being uninhabited, none of these structures actually comply with the modern definition of a skyscraper.High-rise apartments flourished in classical antiquity. Ancient Roman insulae in imperial cities reached 10 and more stories.Gregory S. Aldrete: "Daily Life in the Roman City: Rome, Pompeii and Ostia", 2004, {{ISBN|978-0-313-33174-9}}, p.79f. Beginning with Augustus (r. 30 BC-14 AD), several emperors attempted to establish limits of 20–25 m for multi-story buildings, but met with only limited success.Strabo, 5.3.7Alexander G. McKay: Römische Häuser, Villen und Paläste, Feldmeilen 1984, {{ISBN|3-7611-0585-1}} p. 231 Lower floors were typically occupied by shops or wealthy families, the upper rented to the lower classes. Surviving Oxyrhynchus Papyri indicate that seven-story buildings existed in provincial towns such as in 3rd century AD Hermopolis in Roman Egypt.Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 2719, in: Katja Lembke, Cäcilia Fluck, Günter Vittmann: Ägyptens späte Blüte. Die Römer am Nil, Mainz 2004, {{ISBN|3-8053-3276-9}}, p.29The skylines of many important medieval cities had large numbers of high-rise urban towers, built by the wealthy for defense and status. The residential Towers of 12th century Bologna numbered between 80 and 100 at a time, the tallest of which is the {{convert|97.2|m|ft|abbr =on}} high Asinelli Tower. A Florentine law of 1251 decreed that all urban buildings be immediately reduced to less than 26 m.Werner Müller: "dtv-Atlas Baukunst I. Allgemeiner Teil: Baugeschichte von Mesopotamien bis Byzanz", 14th ed., 2005, {{ISBN|978-3-423-03020-5}}, p.345 Even medium-sized towns of the era are known to have proliferations of towers, such as the 72 up to 51 m height in San Gimignano.The medieval Egyptian city of Fustat housed many high-rise residential buildings, which Al-Muqaddasi in the 10th century described as resembling minarets. Nasir Khusraw in the early 11th century described some of them rising up to 14 stories, with roof gardens on the top floor complete with ox-drawn water wheels for irrigating them.BOOK, Islamic Architecture in Cairo, Doris, Behrens-Abouseif, 1992, Brill Publishers, 978-90-04-09626-4, 6, Cairo in the 16th century had high-rise apartment buildings where the two lower floors were for commercial and storage purposes and the multiple stories above them were rented out to tenants.BOOK, Traditional Islamic principles of built environment, Hisham, Mortada, Routledge, 2003, 978-0-7007-1700-2, viii, An early example of a city consisting entirely of high-rise housing is the 16th-century city of Shibam in Yemen. Shibam was made up of over 500 tower houses, each one rising 5 to 11 stories high,JOURNAL, Land without shade, Hans, Helfritz, Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, 24, 2, April 1937, 201–16, 10.1080/03068373708730789, with each floor being an apartment occupied by a single family. The city was built in this way in order to protect it from Bedouin attacks.WEB,weblink Old Walled City of Shibam, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Shibam still has the tallest mudbrick buildings in the world, with many of them over {{convert|30|m|ft|abbr=on}} high.JOURNAL, The Hadhramaut, J. G. T., Shipman, Asian Affairs, 15, 2, June 1984, 154–62, 10.1080/03068378408730145, An early modern example of high-rise housing was in 17th-century Edinburgh, Scotland, where a defensive city wall defined the boundaries of the city. Due to the restricted land area available for development, the houses increased in height instead. Buildings of 11 stories were common, and there are records of buildings as high as 14 stories. Many of the stone-built structures can still be seen today in the old town of Edinburgh. The oldest iron framed building in the world, although only partially iron framed, is The Flaxmill (also locally known as the "Maltings"), in Shrewsbury, England. Built in 1797, it is seen as the "grandfather of skyscrapers", since its fireproof combination of cast iron columns and cast iron beams developed into the modern steel frame that made modern skyscrapers possible. In 2013 funding was confirmed to convert the derelict building into offices.NEWS,weblink Shrewsbury Flax Mill: Funding for offices and restoration, 30 July 2013, BBC News, 30 July 2013, File:Oriel chambers.jpg|thumb|upright|Oriel Chambers in Liverpool is the world's first glass curtain walled building. The stone mullionmullionFile:Wainwright building st louis USA.jpg|thumb|upright|The Wainwright Building, a 10-story red brick office building in St. Louis, MissouriSt. Louis, Missouri

Early skyscrapers

In 1857, Elisha Otis introduced the safety elevator, allowing convenient and safe passenger movement to upper floors. Another crucial development was the use of a steel frame instead of stone or brick, otherwise the walls on the lower floors on a tall building would be too thick to be practical. An early development in this area was Oriel Chambers in Liverpool, England. It was only five floors high.WEB, Oriel Chambers, Liverpool Architectural Society,weblink 14 July 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080922062904weblink">weblink 22 September 2008, dmy-all, Manchester School of Architecture video YouTubeBuilding Design Architect's website, 8 January 2010 Further developments led to the world's first skyscraper, the ten-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago, built in 1884–1885.BOOK, Smith, Chrysti M., Verbivore's Feast: Second Course: More Word & Phrase Origins, Farcountry Press, 2006, 289, 978-1-56037-402-2,weblink The word skyscraper, in its architectural context, was first applied to the Home Insurance Building, completed in Chicago in 1885., While its height is not considered very impressive today, it was at that time. The building of tall buildings in the 1880s gave the skyscraper its first architectural movement the Chicago School, which developed what has been called the Commercial Style.WEB,weblink The world's first skyscraper: a history of cities in 50 buildings, day 9, Colin, Marshall, 2 April 2015, the Guardian, The architect, Major William Le Baron Jenney, created a load-bearing structural frame. In this building, a steel frame supported the entire weight of the walls, instead of load-bearing walls carrying the weight of the building. This development led to the "Chicago skeleton" form of construction. In addition to the steel frame, the Home Insurance Building also utilized fireproofing, elevators, and electrical wiring, key elements in most skyscrapers today.Dupré, Judith. Skyscrapers. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 1996. Print.Burnham and Root's {{convert|45|m|abbr=on}} Rand McNally Building in Chicago, 1889, was the first all-steel framed skyscraper,WEB,weblink The Plan Comes Together, Encyclopedia of Chicago, 27 July 2013, while Louis Sullivan's {{convert|41|m|abbr=on}} Wainwright Building in St. Louis, Missouri, 1891, was the first steel-framed building with soaring vertical bands to emphasize the height of the building and is therefore considered to be the first early skyscraper.In 1889, the Mole Antonelliana in Italy was 167 m (549 ft) tall.Most early skyscrapers emerged in the land-strapped areas of Chicago and New York City toward the end of the 19th century. A land boom in Melbourne, Australia between 1888 and 1891 spurred the creation of a significant number of early skyscrapers, though none of these were steel reinforced and few remain today. Height limits and fire restrictions were later introduced. London builders soon found building heights limited due to a complaint from Queen Victoria, rules that continued to exist with few exceptions.Concerns about aesthetics and fire safety had likewise hampered the development of skyscrapers across continental Europe for the first half of the twentieth century. Some notable exceptions are the {{convert|43|m|ft|abbr=on}} tall 1898 Witte Huis (White House) in Rotterdam; the Royal Liver Building in Liverpool, completed in 1911 and {{convert|90|m|ft|abbr=on}} high;WEB, Royal Liver Building, Encyclopædia Britannica,weblink 23 June 2011, the {{convert|57|m|ft|abbr=on}} tall 1924 Marx House in Düsseldorf, Germany; the {{convert|61|m|ft|abbr=on}} Kungstornen (Kings' Towers) in Stockholm, Sweden, which were built 1924–25,BOOK, Hultin, Olof, Bengt O H Johansson, Johan MÃ¥rtelius, Rasmus Wærn, The Complete Guide to Architecture in Stockholm, Arkitektur Förlag, 1998, Stockholm, 62, 978-91-86050-43-6, the {{convert|89|m|ft|abbr=on}} Edificio Telefónica in Madrid, Spain, built in 1929; the {{convert|87.5|m|ft|abbr=on}} Boerentoren in Antwerp, Belgium, built in 1932; the {{convert|66|m|ft|abbr=on}} Prudential Building in Warsaw, Poland, built in 1934; and the {{convert|108|m|ft|abbr=on}} Torre Piacentini in Genoa, Italy, built in 1940.After an early competition between Chicago and New York City for the world's tallest building, New York took the lead by 1895 with the completion of the {{convert|103|m|ft|abbr=on}} tall American Surety Building, leaving New York with the title of the world's tallest building for many years.

Modern skyscrapers

File:Flatiron_Building_3618433845_5745ebc1b9.jpg|thumb|upright|The Flatiron BuildingFlatiron BuildingFile:Empire State Building from the Top of the Rock.jpg|thumb|upright|Completed in 1931, the Empire State BuildingEmpire State BuildingSince the 1960s, according to the CTHUB, the skyscraper has been reoriented away from a symbol for North American corporate power to instead communicate a city or nation's place in the world.WEB,weblink The 50 Most Influential Tall Buildings of the Last 50 Years, CTBUH, 2019-10-10, Modern skyscrapers are built with steel or reinforced concrete frameworks and curtain walls of glass or polished stone. They use mechanical equipment such as water pumps and elevators.From the 1930s onward, skyscrapers began to appear around the world—such as in Latin America (such as São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Santiago, Lima, Caracas, Bogotá, Panama City, Mexico City, Monterrey) and in Asia (Tokyo, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Manila, Jakarta, Singapore, Mumbai, Seoul, Kuala Lumpur, Taipei, Bangkok).Immediately after World War II, the Soviet Union planned eight massive skyscrapers, seven of which were built by 1953, dubbed the "Seven Sisters of Moscow". The Building of Moscow State University was the tallest building in Europe in 1953–1990. Other skyscrapers in the style of Socialist Classicism were erected in East Germany (Frankfurter Tor), Poland (PKiN), Ukraine (Hotel Ukrayina), Latvia (Academy of Sciences) and other countries. The western countries of Europe also began to permit taller skyscrapers than before WW2, such as Madrid during the 1950s (Gran Vía). Finally, skyscrapers also began to be constructed in cities of Africa, the Middle East and Oceania (mainly Australia) from the late 1950s on.Skyscraper projects after World War II typically rejected the classical designs of the early skyscrapers, instead embracing the uniform international style; many older skyscrapers were redesigned to suit contemporary tastes or even demolished—such as New York's Singer Building, once the world's tallest skyscraper.German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century. He conceived of the glass façade skyscraperBOOK, 2006, A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Oxford University Press, 880, 978-0-19-860678-9, and, along with Norwegian Fred Severud,BOOK, Seven Structural Engineers: The Felix Candela Lectures, Museum of Modern Art, Nordenson, Guy, 2008, New York City, 21, 978-0870707032, he designed the Seagram Building in 1958, a skyscraper that is often regarded as the pinnacle of the modernist high-rise architecture.NEWS, Mies van der Rohe Dies at 83; Leader of Modern Architecture,weblink Mies van der Rohe, one of the great figures of 20th-century architecture., The New York Times, 17 August 1969, 21 July 2007, After the Great Depression skyscrapers construction suffered a hiatus for over thirty years due to economic problems. A revival occurred with structural innovations that transformed the industry,BOOK, Lynn Beadle, Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat,weblink 2001, CRC Press, 978-0-203-46754-1, 482, making it possible for people to live and work in "cities in the sky".WEB,weblink Designing cities in the sky, lehigh.edu, 14 March 2007, In the early 1960s structural engineer Fazlur Rahman Khan, considered the "father of tubular designs" for high-rises,BOOK, Engineering Legends, Richard, Weingardt, American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE Publications, 2005, 978-0-7844-0801-8, 75, discovered that the dominating rigid steel frame structure was not the only system apt for tall buildings, marking a new era of skyscraper construction in terms of multiple structural systems.JOURNAL, Mir M. Ali, Kyoung Sun Moon, Structural developments in tall buildings: current trends and future prospects, Architectural Science Review, September 2007,weblink 10 December 2008, His central innovation in skyscraper design and construction was the concept of the "tube" structural system, including the "framed tube", "trussed tube", and "bundled tube".JOURNAL, Evolution of Concrete Skyscrapers: from Ingalls to Jin mao, Mir M., Ali, Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering, 1, 1, 2001, 2–14,weblink 30 November 2008, His "tube concept", using all the exterior wall perimeter structure of a building to simulate a thin-walled tube, revolutionized tall building design.BOOK, Engineering Legends, Richard, Weingardt, American Society of Civil Engineers, ASCE Publications, 2005, 978-0-7844-0801-8, 76, These systems allow greater economic efficiency,WEB, Alfred Swenson & Pao-Chi Chang, Building construction: High-rise construction since 1945, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008,weblink 9 December 2008, and also allow skyscrapers to take on various shapes, no longer needing to be rectangular and box-shaped. The first building to employ the tube structure was the Chestnut De-Witt apartment building, this building is considered to be a major development in modern architecture. These new designs opened an economic door for contractors, engineers, architects, and investors, providing vast amounts of real estate space on minimal plots of land. Over the next fifteen years, many towers were built by Fazlur Rahman Khan and the "Second Chicago School",BOOK, The Tower and the Bridge: The New Art of Structural Engineering, David P., Billington, Princeton University Press, 1985, 978-0-691-02393-9, 234–5,weblink including the hundred story John Hancock Center and the massive {{convert|442|m|ft|abbr=on}} Willis Tower.WEB,weblink List of Tallest skyscrapers in Chicago, Emporis.com, 15 June 2009, 5 June 2011, Other pioneers of this field include Hal Iyengar and William LeMessurier.Many buildings designed in the 70s lacked a particular style and recalled ornamentation from earlier buildings designed before the 50s. These design plans ignored the environment and loaded structures with decorative elements and extravagant finishes.BOOK,weblink Life-Cycle and Sustainability of Civil Infrastructure Systems: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering (IALCCE'12), Vienna, Austria, October 3-6, 2012, 9780203103364, Strauss, Alfred, Frangopol, Dan, Bergmeister, Konrad, 2012-09-18, This approach to design was opposed by Fazlur Khan and he considered the designs to be whimsical rather than rational. Moreover, he considered the work to be a waste of precious natural resources.BOOK,weblink Life-Cycle and Sustainability of Civil Infrastructure Systems: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering (IALCCE'12), Vienna, Austria, October 3-6, 2012, 9780203103364, Strauss, Alfred, Frangopol, Dan, Bergmeister, Konrad, 2012-09-18, Khan's work promoted structures integrated with architecture and the least use of material resulting in the least carbon emission impact on the environment.WEB,weblink IALCCE 2012: Keynote Speakers Details, ialcce2012.boku.ac.at, The next era of skyscrapers will focus on the environment including performance of structures, types of material, construction practices, absolute minimal use of materials/natural resources, embodied energy within the structures, and more importantly, a holistically integrated building systems approach.Modern building practices regarding supertall structures have led to the study of "vanity height".WEB,weblink Tall Buildings In Numbers Vanity Height, Ctbuh.org, 21 September 2013, WEB,weblink CTBUH releases list of supertall towers with highest percentages of 'vanity height', World Architecture News, 21 September 2013, Vanity height, according to the CTBUH, is the distance between the highest floor and its architectural top (excluding antennae, flagpole or other functional extensions). Vanity height first appeared in New York City skyscrapers as early as the 1920s and 1930s but supertall buildings have relied on such uninhabitable extensions for on average 30% of their height, raising potential definitional and sustainability issues.WEB,weblink Most of the World's Tallest Buildings Game the System With 'Vanity Height' – Jenny Xie, The Atlantic Cities, 9 September 2013, 21 September 2013, WEB, Lecher, Colin,weblink The World's Tallest Skyscrapers Have A Dirty Little Secret, Popsci.com, 21 September 2013, WEB,weblink World's tallest {{sic, skyscapers?, =y, Only if 'useless' needles count |work=NY Daily News |date=7 September 2013 |accessdate=21 September 2013}} The current era of skyscrapers focuses on sustainability, its built and natural environments, including the performance of structures, types of materials, construction practices, absolute minimal use of materials and natural resources, energy within the structure, and a holistically integrated building systems approach. LEED is a current green building standard.BOOK, Alfred Strauss, Dan Frangopol, Konrad Bergmeister, Life-Cycle and Sustainability of Civil Infrastructure Systems: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering (IALCCE'12), Vienna, Austria, October 3-6, 2012,weblink 2012, CRC Press, 978-0-203-10336-4, Architecturally, with the movements of Postmodernism, New Urbanism and New Classical Architecture, that established since the 1980s, a more classical approach came back to global skyscraper design, that remains popular today.MAGAZINE, Adam, Robert, How to Build Skyscrapers,weblink City Journal, 20 September 2014, Examples are the Wells Fargo Center, NBC Tower, Parkview Square, 30 Park Place, the Messeturm, the iconic Petronas Towers and Jin Mao Tower.Other contemporary styles and movements in skyscraper design include organic, sustainable, neo-futurist, structuralist, high-tech, deconstructivist, blob, digital, streamline, novelty, critical regionalist, vernacular, Neo Art Deco and neo-historist, also known as revivalist.3 September is the global commemorative day for skyscrapers, called "Skyscraper Day".WEB, Whitman, Elizabeth, Skyscraper Day 2015: 10 Facts, Photos Celebrating Ridiculously Tall Buildings Around The World,weblink International Business Times, 3 September 2015, New York City developers competed among themselves, with successively taller buildings claiming the title of "world's tallest" in the 1920s and early 1930s, culminating with the completion of the {{convert|318.9|m|ft|abbr=on}} Chrysler Building in 1930 and the {{convert|443.2|m|ft|abbr=on}} Empire State Building in 1931, the world's tallest building for forty years. The first completed {{convert|417|m|ft|abbr=on}} tall World Trade Center tower became the world's tallest building in 1972. However, it was overtaken by the Sears Tower (now Willis Tower) in Chicago within two years. The {{convert|442|m|ft|abbr=on}} tall Sears Tower stood as the world's tallest building for 24 years, from 1974 until 1998, until it was edged out by {{convert|452|m|ft|abbr=on}} Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur, which held the title for six years.

Design and construction

File:Skyscraper Los Angeles Downtown 2013.jpg|thumb|Modern skyscrapers in downtown Los Angelesdowntown Los AngelesThe design and construction of skyscrapers involves creating safe, habitable spaces in very tall buildings. The buildings must support their weight, resist wind and earthquakes, and protect occupants from fire. Yet they must also be conveniently accessible, even on the upper floors, and provide utilities and a comfortable climate for the occupants. The problems posed in skyscraper design are considered among the most complex encountered given the balances required between economics, engineering, and construction management.One common feature of skyscrapers is a steel framework from which curtain walls are suspended, rather than load-bearing walls of conventional construction. Most skyscrapers have a steel frame that enables them to be built taller than typical load-bearing walls of reinforced concrete. Skyscrapers usually have a particularly small surface area of what are conventionally thought of as walls. Because the walls are not load-bearing most skyscrapers are characterized by surface areas of windows made possible by the concept of steel frame and curtain wall. However, skyscrapers can also have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls and have a small surface area of windows.The concept of a skyscraper is a product of the industrialized age, made possible by cheap fossil fuel derived energy and industrially refined raw materials such as steel and concrete. The construction of skyscrapers was enabled by steel frame construction that surpassed brick and mortar construction starting at the end of the 19th century and finally surpassing it in the 20th century together with reinforced concrete construction as the price of steel decreased and labour costs increased.The steel frames become inefficient and uneconomic for supertall buildings as usable floor space is reduced for progressively larger supporting columns.WEB,weblink Lehigh University: Fazlur Rahman Khan Distinguished Lecture Series, Lehigh.edu, 14 June 2013, Since about 1960, tubular designs have been used for high rises. This reduces the usage of material (more efficient in economic terms – Willis Tower uses a third less steel than the Empire State Building) yet allows greater height. It allows fewer interior columns, and so creates more usable floor space. It further enables buildings to take on various shapes.Elevators are characteristic to skyscrapers. In 1852 Elisha Otis introduced the safety elevator, allowing convenient and safe passenger movement to upper floors. Another crucial development was the use of a steel frame instead of stone or brick, otherwise the walls on the lower floors on a tall building would be too thick to be practical. Today major manufacturers of elevators include Otis, ThyssenKrupp, Schindler, and KONE.Advances in construction techniques have allowed skyscrapers to narrow in width, while increasing in height. Some of these new techniques include mass dampers to reduce vibrations and swaying, and gaps to allow air to pass through, reducing wind shear.WEB, Why Can't We Build Skinny Skyscrapers Everywhere?,weblink CityLab, 2015-12-31,

Basic design considerations

Good structural design is important in most building design, but particularly for skyscrapers since even a small chance of catastrophic failure is unacceptable given the high price. This presents a paradox to civil engineers: the only way to assure a lack of failure is to test for all modes of failure, in both the laboratory and the real world. But the only way to know of all modes of failure is to learn from previous failures. Thus, no engineer can be absolutely sure that a given structure will resist all loadings that could cause failure, but can only have large enough margins of safety such that a failure is acceptably unlikely. When buildings do fail, engineers question whether the failure was due to some lack of foresight or due to some unknowable factor.

Loading and vibration

The load a skyscraper experiences is largely from the force of the building material itself. In most building designs, the weight of the structure is much larger than the weight of the material that it will support beyond its own weight. In technical terms, the dead load, the load of the structure, is larger than the live load, the weight of things in the structure (people, furniture, vehicles, etc.). As such, the amount of structural material required within the lower levels of a skyscraper will be much larger than the material required within higher levels. This is not always visually apparent. The Empire State Building's setbacks are actually a result of the building code at the time (1916 Zoning Resolution), and were not structurally required. On the other hand, John Hancock Center's shape is uniquely the result of how it supports loads. Vertical supports can come in several types, among which the most common for skyscrapers can be categorized as steel frames, concrete cores, tube within tube design, and shear walls.The wind loading on a skyscraper is also considerable. In fact, the lateral wind load imposed on supertall structures is generally the governing factor in the structural design. Wind pressure increases with height, so for very tall buildings, the loads associated with wind are larger than dead or live loads.Other vertical and horizontal loading factors come from varied, unpredictable sources, such as earthquakes.

Steel frame

By 1895, steel had replaced cast iron as skyscrapers' structural material. Its malleability allowed it to be formed into a variety of shapes, and it could be riveted, ensuring strong connections.JOURNAL, Built Like Bridges: Iron, Steel, and Rivets in the Nineteenth-century Skyscraper, Thomas, Leslie, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 69, 2, June 2010, 234–261, 10.1525/jsah.2010.69.2.234, 10.1525/jsah.2010.69.2.234, Abstract only. The simplicity of a steel frame eliminated the inefficient part of a shear wall, the central portion, and consolidated support members in a much stronger fashion by allowing both horizontal and vertical supports throughout. Among steel's drawbacks is that as more material must be supported as height increases, the distance between supporting members must decrease, which in turn increases the amount of material that must be supported. This becomes inefficient and uneconomic for buildings above 40 stories tall as usable floor spaces are reduced for supporting column and due to more usage of steel.

Tube structural systems

{{see also|Tube (structure)}}File:KM 5939 sears tower august 2007 B.jpg|thumb|upright|The Willis TowerWillis TowerA new structural system of framed tubes was developed by Fazlur Rahman Khan in 1963. The framed tube structure is defined as "a three dimensional space structure composed of three, four, or possibly more frames, braced frames, or shear walls, joined at or near their edges to form a vertical tube-like structural system capable of resisting lateral forces in any direction by cantilevering from the foundation."WEB, Ali, Mir M., Evolution of Concrete Skyscrapers, Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering, January 2001, 1, 1, 2-14, 14 May 2007,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070605133019weblink">weblink 5 June 2007, JOURNAL, Khan, Fazlur Rahman, Fazlur Rahman Khan, Rankine, J., Structural Systems, Tall Building Systems and Concepts, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, American Society of Civil Engineers, 1980, SC, 42, Closely spaced interconnected exterior columns form the tube. Horizontal loads (primarily wind) are supported by the structure as a whole. Framed tubes allow fewer interior columns, and so create more usable floor space, and about half the exterior surface is available for windows. Where larger openings like garage doors are required, the tube frame must be interrupted, with transfer girders used to maintain structural integrity. Tube structures cut down costs, at the same time allowing buildings to reach greater heights. Concrete tube-frame construction was first used in the DeWitt-Chestnut Apartment Building, completed in Chicago in 1963,WEB, Alfred Swenson & Pao-Chi Chang, building construction, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008,weblink 9 December 2008, and soon after in the John Hancock Center and World Trade Center.The tubular systems are fundamental to tall building design. Most buildings over 40-stories constructed since the 1960s now use a tube design derived from Khan's structural engineering principles,WEB,weblink Top 10 world's tallest steel buildings, Constructionweekonline.com, 14 June 2013, examples including the construction of the World Trade Center, Aon Center, Petronas Towers, Jin Mao Building, and most other supertall skyscrapers since the 1960s. The strong influence of tube structure design is also evident in the construction of the current tallest skyscraper, the Burj Khalifa.NEWS, Burj Dubai: The new pinnacle of vanity, Stephen Bayley, The Daily Telegraph, 5 January 2010,weblink 26 February 2010,

Trussed tube and X-bracing

File:Skyscraper structure.png|thumb|left|Changes of structure with height; the tubular systems are fundamental for supertall buildings.]]Khan pioneered several other variations of the tube structure design.{{citation needed|date=March 2014}} One of these was the concept of X-bracing, or the trussed tube, first employed for the John Hancock Center. This concept reduced the lateral load on the building by transferring the load into the exterior columns. This allows for a reduced need for interior columns thus creating more floor space. This concept can be seen in the John Hancock Center, designed in 1965 and completed in 1969. One of the most famous buildings of the structural expressionist style, the skyscraper's distinctive X-bracing exterior is actually a hint that the structure's skin is indeed part of its 'tubular system'. This idea is one of the architectural techniques the building used to climb to record heights (the tubular system is essentially the spine that helps the building stand upright during wind and earthquake loads). This X-bracing allows for both higher performance from tall structures and the ability to open up the inside floorplan (and usable floor space) if the architect desires.The John Hancock Center was far more efficient than earlier steel-frame structures. Where the Empire State Building (1931), required about 206 kilograms of steel per square metre and Chase Manhattan Bank Building (1961) required 275, the John Hancock Center required only 145. The trussed tube concept was applied to many later skyscrapers, including the Onterie Center, Citigroup Center and Bank of China Tower.WEB,weblink PDF, 34, Introduction to Tall building Structures, Dr. D. M Chan, Teaching.ust.hk, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101217063145weblink">weblink 17 December 2010,

Bundled tube

An important variation on the tube frame is the bundled tube, which uses several interconnected tube frames. The Willis Tower in Chicago used this design, employing nine tubes of varying height to achieve its distinct appearance. The bundled tube structure meant that "buildings no longer need be boxlike in appearance: they could become sculpture."

The elevator conundrum

The invention of the elevator was a precondition for the invention of skyscrapers, given that most people would not (or could not) climb more than a few flights of stairs at a time. The elevators in a skyscraper are not simply a necessary utility, like running water and electricity, but are in fact closely related to the design of the whole structure: a taller building requires more elevators to service the additional floors, but the elevator shafts consume valuable floor space. If the service core, which contains the elevator shafts, becomes too big, it can reduce the profitability of the building. Architects must therefore balance the value gained by adding height against the value lost to the expanding service core.WEB,weblink How Skyscrapers Work: Making it Functional, HowStuffWorks, 30 October 2008, Many tall buildings use elevators in a non-standard configuration to reduce their footprint. Buildings such as the former World Trade Center Towers and Chicago's John Hancock Center use sky lobbies, where express elevators take passengers to upper floors which serve as the base for local elevators. This allows architects and engineers to place elevator shafts on top of each other, saving space. Sky lobbies and express elevators take up a significant amount of space, however, and add to the amount of time spent commuting between floors.Other buildings, such as the Petronas Towers, use double-deck elevators, allowing more people to fit in a single elevator, and reaching two floors at every stop. It is possible to use even more than two levels on an elevator, although this has never been done. The main problem with double-deck elevators is that they cause everyone in the elevator to stop when only people on one level need to get off at a given floor.Buildings with sky lobbies include the World Trade Center, Petronas Twin Towers, Willis Tower and Taipei 101. The 44th-floor sky lobby of the John Hancock Center also featured the first high-rise indoor swimming pool, which remains the highest in America.WEB,weblink John Hancock Center, Emporis GmbH,

Economic rationale

Skyscrapers are usually situated in city centers where the price of land is high. Constructing a skyscraper becomes justified if the price of land is so high that it makes economic sense to build upward as to minimize the cost of the land per the total floor area of a building. Thus the construction of skyscrapers is dictated by economics and results in skyscrapers in a certain part of a large city unless a building code restricts the height of buildings.Skyscrapers are rarely seen in small cities and they are characteristic of large cities, because of the critical importance of high land prices for the construction of skyscrapers. Usually only office, commercial and hotel users can afford the rents in the city center and thus most tenants of skyscrapers are of these classes. Some skyscrapers have been built in areas where the bedrock is near surface, because this makes constructing the foundation cheaper, for example this is the case in Midtown Manhattan and Lower Manhattan, in New York City, but not in-between these two parts of the city.Today, skyscrapers are an increasingly common sight where land is expensive, as in the centers of big cities, because they provide such a high ratio of rentable floor space per unit area of land.One problem with skyscrapers is car parking. In the largest cities most people commute via public transport, but for smaller cities a lot of parking spaces are needed. Multi-storey car parks are impractical to build very tall, so a lot of land area is needed.There may be a correlation between skyscraper construction and great income inequality but this has not been conclusively proven.WEB,weblink Does Inequality Promote Skyscrapers?,

Environmental impact

{{further|Bird-skyscraper collisions}}{{more citations needed section|date=January 2017}}File:30 St Mary Axe - The Gherkin from Leadenhall St - Nov 2006.jpg|thumb|upright|30 St Mary Axe30 St Mary AxeThe amount of steel, concrete, and glass needed to construct a single skyscraper is large, and these materials represent a great deal of embodied energy. Skyscrapers are thus energy intensive buildings, but skyscrapers have a long lifespan, for example the Empire State Building in New York City, United States completed in 1931 and is still in active use.Skyscrapers have considerable mass, which means that they must be built on a sturdier foundation than would be required for shorter, lighter buildings. Building materials must also be lifted to the top of a skyscraper during construction, requiring more energy than would be necessary at lower heights. Furthermore, a skyscraper consumes a lot of electricity because potable and non-potable water has to be pumped to the highest occupied floors, skyscrapers are usually designed to be mechanically ventilated, elevators are generally used instead of stairs, and natural lighting cannot be utilized in rooms far from the windows and the windowless spaces such as elevators, bathrooms and stairwells.Skyscrapers can be artificially lit and the energy requirements can be covered by renewable energy or other electricity generation with low greenhouse gas emissions. Heating and cooling of skyscrapers can be efficient, because of centralized HVAC systems, heat radiation blocking windows and small surface area of the building. There is Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification for skyscrapers. For example, the Empire State Building received a gold Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating in September 2011 and the Empire State Building is the tallest LEED certified building in the United States,WEB,weblink Jessica, Dailey, Empire State Building Achieves LEED Gold Certification, Inhabitat.com, 14 September 2011, 30 July 2013, proving that skyscrapers can be environmentally friendly. Also the 30 St Mary Axe in London, the United Kingdom is an environmentally friendly skyscraper.In the lower levels of a skyscraper a larger percentage of the building cross section must be devoted to the building structure and services than is required for lower buildings:
  • More structure – because it must be stronger to support more floors above
  • The elevator conundrum creates the need for more lift shafts—everyone comes in at the bottom and they all have to pass through the lower part of the building to get to the upper levels.
  • Building services – power and water enter the building from below and have to pass through the lower levels to get to the upper levels.
In low-rise structures, the support rooms (chillers, transformers, boilers, pumps and air handling units) can be put in basements or roof space—areas which have low rental value. There is, however, a limit to how far this plant can be located from the area it serves. The farther away it is the larger the risers for ducts and pipes from this plant to the floors they serve and the more floor area these risers take. In practice this means that in highrise buildings this plant is located on 'plant levels' at intervals up the building.

History of the tallest skyscrapers

At the beginning of the 20th century, New York City was a center for the Beaux-Arts architectural movement, attracting the talents of such great architects as Stanford White and Carrere and Hastings. As better construction and engineering technology became available as the century progressed, New York City and Chicago became the focal point of the competition for the tallest building in the world. Each city's striking skyline has been composed of numerous and varied skyscrapers, many of which are icons of 20th-century architecture:
  • The Home Insurance Building in Chicago, which was built in 1884, is considered the world's first skyscraper due to its steel skeleton.WEB,weblink Home Insurance Building, HISTORY.com, Subsequent buildings such as the Singer Building and the Metropolitan Life Tower were higher still.
  • The Flatiron Building, designed by Daniel Hudson Burnham and standing 285 ft (87 m) high, was one of the tallest buildings in New York City upon its completion in 1902, made possible by its steel skeleton. It was one of the first buildings designed with a steel framework, and to achieve this height with other construction methods of that time would have been very difficult. (The Tower Building, designed by Bradford Gilbert and built in 1889, is considered by some to be New York City's first skyscraper, and may have been the first building in New York City to use a skeletal steel frame,.BOOK, Edward Robb Ellis, The Epic of New York City,weblink 2005, Carroll & Graf publishers, 978-0-7867-1436-0, 405–415,
  • The Woolworth Building, a neo-Gothic "Cathedral of Commerce" overlooking City Hall, was designed by Cass Gilbert. At 792 feet (241 m), it became the world's tallest building upon its completion in 1913, an honor it retained until 1930, when it was overtaken by 40 Wall Street.
  • Later in 1930 the Chrysler Building took the lead as the tallest building in the world, scraping the sky at 1,046 feet (319 m).WEB,weblink Chrysler Building. Quote: An exhibition in the building's lobby reports the height as 1046, Skyscraperpage.com, 5 June 2011, Designed by William Van Alen, an Art Deco style masterpiece with an exterior crafted of brick,WEB, Emporis GmbH,weblink – Chrysler Building statistics, Emporis.com, 5 June 2011, the Chrysler Building continues to be a favorite of New Yorkers to this day.WEB,weblink America's Favorite Architecture: Chrysler Building ranked 9th, Favoritearchitecture.org, 5 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110510113118weblink">weblink 10 May 2011,
  • The Empire State Building, the first building to have more than 100 floors (it has 102), was completed the following year. It was designed by Shreve, Lamb and Harmon in the contemporary Art Deco style. The tower takes its name from the nickname of New York State. Upon its completion in 1931 at 1,250 feet (381 m), it took the top spot as tallest building, and towered above all other buildings until 1972. The antenna mast added in 1951 brought pinnacle height to 1,472 feet (449 m), lowered in 1984 to 1,454 feet (443 m).NEWS,weblink 75 YEARS: F. Y. I., Pollak, Michael, 23 April 2006, The New York Times, 31 October 2009,
  • The World Trade Center officially reached full height in 1972, was completed in 1973, and consisted of two tall towers and several smaller buildings. For a short time, the first of the two towers was the world's tallest building. Upon completion, the towers stood for 28 years, until the September 11 attacks destroyed the buildings in 2001. Various governmental entities, financial firms, and law firms called the towers home.
  • The Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) was completed in 1974, one year after the World Trade Center, and surpassed it as the world's tallest building. It was the first building to employ the "bundled tube" structural system, designed by Fazlur Khan. The building was not surpassed in height until the Petronas Towers were constructed in 1998, but remained the tallest in some categories until Burj Khalifa surpassed it in all categories in 2010. It is currently the second tallest building in the United States, after One World Trade Center, which was built to replace the destroyed towers.
Momentum in setting records passed from the United States to other nations with the opening of the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 1998. The record for the world's tallest building has remained in Asia since the opening of Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan, in 2004. A number of architectural records, including those of the world's tallest building and tallest free-standing structure, moved to the Middle East with the opening of the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.This geographical transition is accompanied by a change in approach to skyscraper design. For much of the twentieth century large buildings took the form of simple geometrical shapes. This reflected the "international style" or modernist philosophy shaped by Bauhaus architects early in the century. The last of these, the Willis Tower and World Trade Center towers in New York, erected in the 1970s, reflect the philosophy. Tastes shifted in the decade which followed, and new skyscrapers began to exhibit postmodernist influences. This approach to design avails itself of historical elements, often adapted and re-interpreted, in creating technologically modern structures. The Petronas Twin Towers recall Asian pagoda architecture and Islamic geometric principles. Taipei 101 likewise reflects the pagoda tradition as it incorporates ancient motifs such as the ruyi symbol. The Burj Khalifa draws inspiration from traditional Islamic art. Architects in recent years have sought to create structures that would not appear equally at home if set in any part of the world, but that reflect the culture thriving in the spot where they stand.{{citation needed|date=June 2015}}The following list measures height of the roof.WEB,weblink The World's Tallest Buildings | Statistics, Emporis, 12 March 2014, {{Failed verification|date=March 2014}} The more common gauge is the "highest architectural detail"; such ranking would have included Petronas Towers, built in 1996.{| class="sortable wikitable"!Built || Building || City || Country || colspan="2" style="text-align:center;"|Official Height||Floors|| colspan="2" style="text-align:center;"|Pinnacle || Current status
Equitable Life Building (New York City)>Equitable Life Building New York City rowspan=12United States}} 43 m142 ft 8 Destroyed by fire in 1912
Auditorium Building, Chicago>Auditorium Building Chicago 82 m269 ft17 106 m349 ft Standing
New York World Building >| Demolished in 1955
Philadelphia City Hall >Philadelphia >| Standing
Singer Building > New York City 187 m612 ft 47 Demolished in 1968
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower>Met Life Tower 213 m700 ft50 Standing
Woolworth Building >| Standing
40 Wall Street >| Standing
Chrysler Building >| Standing
Empire State Building >| Standing
World Trade Center (1973–2001)>World Trade Center (North Tower) 417 m1,368 ft110 526.8 m1,730 ft Destroyed in 2001 in the September 11 attacks
Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) >| Standing
Petronas Towers >Kuala Lumpur >Malaysia}} 452 m 1,482 ft 88 452 m 1,483 ft Standing
Taipei 101 >Taipei >Republic of China}} (Taiwan) 509 m 1,670 ft 101 509.2 m 1,671 ft Standing
Burj Khalifa >Dubai >United Arab Emirates}} 828 m 2,717 ft 163 829.8 m 2,722 ft Standing

Gallery

File:World Trade Center, New York City - aerial view (March 2001).jpg|The iconic World Trade Center twin towers were destroyed in 2001.File:Sears Tower ss.jpg|The Willis Tower in Chicago was the world's tallest building from 1974 to 1998; many still refer to it as the "Sears Tower," its name from inception to 2009.File:2016 Kuala Lumpur, Petronas Towers (21).jpg|The Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur were the tallest from 1998 to 2004.File:Taipei101.portrait.altonthompson.jpg|Taipei 101, the world's tallest skyscraper from 2004 to 2010, was the first to exceed the 500-metre mark.

Cancellation

Many skyscrapers were never built due to financial problems, politics and culture. The Chicago Spire was to be the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, but it was on hold due to the global financial crisis of 2008. One year later, the project was cancelled.
  • The {{convert|610|m|ft|adj=on}} Russia Tower was cancelled due to the global financial crisis of 2008. It would have dominated the Moscow skyline.
  • Construction began in 1937 on the Palace of the Soviets in Moscow. It would have been the tallest building in the world at the time, but because of the German invasion in 1941 the unfinished steel frame was torn down for scrap to use in the war effort.
  • Proposed in 1989, The Miglin-Beitler Skyneedle of Chicago would have been the tallest freestanding in the world. But it was never built due to the Persian gulf war.
  • The cancelled Chicago World Trade Center would have been the first skyscraper to exceed a height of {{convert|700|m|ft}}. It was proposed in the 1990s, a second one was to be completed but never built.
  • The construction of the 200-floor, Dubai's Nakheel Tower—which was planned to be taller than {{convert|1000|m|ft}}—was halted due to financial problems; 18 months later the project was cancelled.
  • Harry Grant's Grant USA Tower in Newark, New Jersey was never built due to bankruptcy, the tower would have more than 550 meters tall.WEB,weblink Grant USA Tower, Newark - SkyscraperPage.com,
  • Project 2000 Tower in Chicago was cancelled and never built, it would have had a height of {{convert|610|m|ft}}
  • The proposed 1 New York Place would have had a height of {{convert|320|m|ft}}, but was never built.
  • Vision Brisbane was to be the tallest building in Brisbane and third tallest in Australia if built. It was cancelled due to the 2008 global financial crisis and the site was eventually sold where construction of a skyscraper of similar height was approved.
  • The original design of Hong Kong's International Commerce Centre, with a height of {{convert|574|m|ft}}, was supposed to have a crystal façade. It was changed and decreased to {{convert|484|m|ft}} due to height restrictions.
  • India Tower (previously known as the Park Hyatt Tower; also known as the Dynamix Balwas Tower or DB Tower) is a cancelled 126-storey, 718-metre (2,356 ft) supertall skyscraper that began construction in the city of Mumbai, India, in 2010. The tower was originally planned for completion in 2016, but construction work was put on hold in 2011 due to a dispute between the tower's developers and Mumbai's civic authorities

Future developments

{{see also|List of visionary tall buildings and structures|List of future tallest buildings}}Proposals for such structures have been put forward, including the Burj Mubarak Al Kabir in Kuwait and Azerbaijan Tower in Baku. Kilometer-plus structures present architectural challenges that may eventually place them in a new architectural category.WEB,weblink Reaching for the stars, Owainati, Sadek, 3 November 2008, ArabianBusiness.com, 15 November 2008, The first building under construction and planned to be over one kilometre tall is the Jeddah Tower.

Wooden skyscrapers

Several wooden skyscraper designs have been designed and built. A 14-story housing project in Bergen, Norway known as 'Treet' or 'The Tree' became the world's tallest wooden apartment block when it was completed in late 2015.NEWS,weblink Wooden 'plyscrapers' challenge concrete and steel, Editorial, Reuters, U.S., 2018-03-22, en-US, The Tree's record was eclipsed by Brock Commons, an 18-story wooden dormitory at the University of British Columbia in Canada, when it was completed in September 2016.NEWS,weblink The University of British Columbia's Brock Commons Takes the Title of Tallest Wood Tower, 2016-09-16, Architect, 2016-12-10, A 40-story residential building 'Trätoppen' has been proposed by architect Anders Berensson to be built in Stockholm, Sweden.WEB,weblink Anders Berensson proposes wooden skyscraper for Stockholm, 2016-04-25, Dezeen, 2016-12-10, Trätoppen would be the tallest building in Stockholm, though there are no immediate plans to begin construction.WEB,weblink Tratoppen, Stockholm - Designing Buildings Wiki, www.designingbuildings.co.uk, en, 2018-03-22, The tallest currently-planned wooden skyscraper is the 70-story W350 Project in Tokyo, to be built by the Japanese wood products company Sumitomo Forestry Co. to celebrate its 350th anniversary in 2041.WEB,weblink Plyscraper city: Tokyo to build 350m tower made of wood, Hunt, Elle, 2018-02-16, the Guardian, en, 2018-03-22, An 80-story wooden skyscraper, the River Beech Tower, has been proposed by a team including architects Perkins + Will and the University of Cambridge. The River Beech Tower, on the banks of the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois, would be 348 feet shorter than the W350 Project despite having 10 more stories.NEWS,weblink The Tallest Timber Tower Yet: Perkins + Will's Concept Proposal for River Beech Tower, 2016-10-06, ArchDaily, 2018-03-22, en-US, Wooden skyscrapers are estimated to be around a quarter of the weight of an equivalent reinforced-concrete structure as well as reducing the building carbon footprint by 60–75%. Buildings have been designed using cross-laminated timber (CLT) which gives a higher rigidity and strength to wooden structures.WEB,weblink Building materials: Top of the tree, The Economist, 2016-12-10, CLT panels are prefabricated and can therefore speed up building time.WEB,weblink Are High-Rise Wood Buildings in Seattle's Future?, Seattle Business Magazine, 2016-12-10,

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • WEB, Adam, Robert, How to Build Skyscrapers,weblink City Journal, 4 April 2014,
  • Skyscrapers: Form and Function, by David Bennett, Simon & Schuster, 1995.
  • Landau, Sarah Bradford; Condit, Carl W., Rise of the New York skyscraper, 1865–1913, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996. {{ISBN|0-300-06444-6}}
  • Willis, Carol, Form Follows Finance: Skyscrapers and Skylines in New York and Chicago. Princeton Architectural Press, 1995. 224 P. {{ISBN|1-56898-044-2}}
  • Van Leeuwen, Thomas A P, The Skyward Trend of Thought: The Metaphysics of the American Skyscraper, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1988.

External links

{{Commons category|Skyscrapers}} {{TBSW}}{{Supertall skyscrapers}}{{Developments}}

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