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sitting
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{{redirect|Sit}}File:Werner Stoetzer Sitzender Junge.jpg|thumb|Sitzender Junge ("Sitting boy") by Werner StötzerWerner StötzerSitting is a basic human resting position. The body weight is supported primarily by the buttocks in contact with the ground or a horizontal object such as a chair seat. The torso is more or less upright. Sitting for much of the day may pose significant health risks, and people who sit regularly for prolonged periods have higher mortality rates than those who do not.The form of kneeling where the thighs are near horizontal and the buttocks sit back on the heels, for example as in Seiza and Vajrasana (yoga), is also often interpreted as sitting.

Prevalence

File:DeTroy.jpg|thumb|Women reclining in chairs. Painting by Jean-François de TroyJean-François de TroyFile:Börje Ahlstedt helfigur sittande (photo by Sune Frack on Flickr).jpg|thumb|Swedish actor Börje AhlstedtBörje AhlstedtThe British Chiropractic Association said in 2006 that 32% of the British population spent more than ten hours per day sitting down.WEB,weblink Sitting straight 'bad for backs', November 28, 2006, BBC, February 20, 2015,

Positions

On the floor

The most common ways of sitting on the floor involve bending the knees. One can also sit with the legs unbent, using something solid as support for the back or leaning on one's arms. Sitting with bent legs can be done with the legs mostly parallel or by crossing them over each other.A common cross-legged position is with the lower part of both legs folded towards the body, crossing each other at the ankle or calf, with both ankles on the floor, sometimes with the feet tucked under the knees or thighs. The position is known in several European languages as (wikt:tailor style|tailor style), from the traditional working posture of tailors;WEB,weblink The Art of the Cut, History.org, 2012-03-16, compare tailor's bunion. It is also named after various plains-dwelling nomads: in American English (wikt:Indian style|Indian style), in many European languages "Turkish style", and in Japanese {{nihongo|agura|(wikt:胡座|胡座)|The sitting style of non-Han ethnics (particularly Turks, Mongols and other Central Asians.)}}. In yoga it is known as sukhasana.

On a raised seat

File:Buddhist bronze sculpture NMND.JPG|thumb|right|An Indian BuddhaBuddhaMost raised surfaces at the appropriate height can be used as (wiktionary:seat|seat)s for humans, whether they are made for the purpose, such as chairs, stools and benches, or not. While the buttocks are nearly always rested on the raised surface, there are many differences in how one can hold one's legs and back.There are two major styles of sitting on a raised surface. The first has one or two of the legs in front of the sitting person; in the second, sitting astride something, the legs incline outwards on either side of the body.The feet can rest on the floor or on a footrest, which can keep them vertical, horizontal, or at an angle in between. They can also dangle if the seat is sufficiently high. Legs can be kept right to the front of the body, spread apart, or one crossed over the other.The upper body can be held upright, recline to either side or backward, or one can lean forward.

Yoga, traditions, and spirituality

File:Tea ceremony performing 2.jpg|thumb|right|The Japanese tea ceremony is performed sitting in seizaseiza(File:Toddler sitting on a bench.jpg|thumb|Toddler sitting on a bench)There are many seated positions in various traditions and rituals. Four examples are:
  • {{Nihongo|Seiza|正座|extra2="correct sitting"}} is a Japanese word which describes the traditional formal way of sitting in Japan. A related position is {{Nihongo|kiza|跪座}}, which differs in the tops of the feet being raised off the ground.
  • Vajrasana (Diamond Pose) is a yoga posture (asana) similar to seiza.
  • The lotus position involves resting each foot on the opposite thigh so that the soles of the feet face upwards.
  • The Burmese position, named so because of its use in Buddhist sculptures in Burma, places both feet in front of the pelvis with knees bent and touching the floor to the sides. The heels are pointing toward pelvis or upward, and toes are pointed so that the tops of the feet lie on the ground. This looks similar to the cross-legged position, but the feet are not placed underneath the thigh of the next leg, therefore the legs do not cross. Instead, one foot is placed in front of the other.
In various mythologies and folk magic, sitting is a magical act that connects the person who sits with other persons, states or places.JOURNAL, Čajkanović, Veselin, Veselin Čajkanović, Živković, Marko, 1996, Magical Sitting, Anthropology of East Europe Review, 14, 1,weblink 2007-07-09, It is obvious from all the above that sitting, seen from the viewpoint of the history of religion, could be a magical act which, within the framework of analogic magic, will establish a certain relationship, a covenant., yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070703174556weblink">weblink 2007-07-03,

{{anchor|Health effects}}Health risks

File:School of Rembrandt - Sitting nude.jpg|thumb|180px|Back of a sitting nude by school of RembrandtRembrandtThere is a significantly higher mortality rate among people who regularly sit for prolonged periods, and the risk is not negated by regular exercise, though it is lowered. The causes of mortality and morbidity include heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cancer, specifically, breast, endometrial, colorectal, lung, and epithelial ovarian cancer.JOURNAL, Sedentary behaviors and health outcomes among adults: a systematic review of prospective studies, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Feb 2011, 1873-2607, 21238866, 174–182, 40, 2, 10.1016/j.amepre.2010.10.015, Karin I., Proper, Amika S., Singh, Willem, van Mechelen, Mai J. M., Chinapaw, The link between heart disease and diabetes mortality and sitting is well-established, but the risk of cancer mortality is unclear.JOURNAL, Wilmot, E. G., Edwardson, C. L., Achana, F. A., Davies, M. J., Gorely, T., Gray, L. J., Khunti, K., Yates, T., Biddle, S. J. H., Sedentary time in adults and the association with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and death: systematic review and meta-analysis, Diabetologia, 14 August 2012, 55, 11, 2895–2905, 10.1007/s00125-012-2677-z, 22890825, Sedentary time is also associated with an increased risk of depression in children and adolescents.JOURNAL, Liu, M, Wu, L, Yao, S, Dose-response association of screen time-based sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents and depression: a meta-analysis of observational studies., British Journal of Sports Medicine, 9 November 2015, 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095084, 26552416, 4977203, A correlation between occupational sitting specifically and higher body mass index has been demonstrated, but causality has not yet been established.JOURNAL, Occupational sitting and health risks: a systematic review, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Oct 2010, 1873-2607, 20837291, 379–388, 39, 4, 10.1016/j.amepre.2010.05.024, Jannique G. Z., van Uffelen, Jason, Wong, Josephine Y., Chau, Hidde P., van der Ploeg, Ingrid, Riphagen, Nicholas D., Gilson, Nicola W., Burton, Genevieve N., Healy, Alicia A., Thorp, There are several hypotheses explaining why sitting is a health risk. These include changes in cardiac output, vitamin D, inflammation, sex hormone activity, lipoprotein lipase activity, and GLUT4 activity due to long periods of muscular unloading, among others.JOURNAL, Sedentary behavior and cancer: a systematic review of the literature and proposed biological mechanisms, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, Nov 2010, 1538-7755, 20833969, 2691–2709, 19, 11, 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0815, Brigid M., Lynch, Sitting may occupy up to half of an adult's workday in developed countries. Workplace programs to reduce sitting vary in method. They include sit-stand desks, counseling, workplace policy changes, walking/standing meetings, treadmill desks, breaks, therapy ball chairs, and stepping devices.JOURNAL, Shrestha, Nipun, Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina T, Verbeek, Jos H, Ijaz, Sharea, Hermans, Veerle, Bhaumik, Soumyadeep, Workplace interventions for reducing sitting at work, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, CD010912, 2016, 26984326, 10.1002/14651858.CD010912.pub3,weblink {{Update inline|reason=Updated versionweblink|date = July 2018}} Results of these programs are mixed,JOURNAL, Are workplace interventions to reduce sitting effective? A systematic review, Preventive Medicine, Nov 2010, 1096-0260, 20801153, 352–356, 51, 5, 10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.08.012, Josephine Y., Chau, Hidde P. van, der Ploeg, Jannique G. Z., van Uffelen, Jason, Wong, Ingrid, Riphagen, Genevieve N., Healy, Nicholas D., Gilson, David W., Dunstan, Adrian E., Bauman, but there is moderate evidence to show that changes to chairs (adjusting the biomechanics of the chair or using different types of chairs) can effectively reduce musculoskeletal symptoms in workers who sit for most of their day.JOURNAL, The effectiveness of a chair intervention in the workplace to reduce musculoskeletal symptoms. A systematic review, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 2012, 1471-2474, 3552974, 22889123, 145, 13, 10.1186/1471-2474-13-145, Sjan-Mari, van Niekerk, Quinette Abigail, Louw, Susan, Hillier, Public health programs typically focus on increasing physical activity rather than reducing sitting time.JOURNAL, Biswas, A, Oh, PI, Faulkner, GE, Bajaj, RR, Silver, MA, Mitchell, MS, Alter, DA, Sedentary Time and Its Association With Risk for Disease Incidence, Mortality, and Hospitalization in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, Annals of Internal Medicine, 162, 2, 123–32, 2015, 25599350, 10.7326/M14-1651, WEB,weblink World Health Organization, September 2015, October 7, 2015, WHO, WHO, Europe, WHO, One major target for these public health programs is sitting in the workplace. For example, WHO Europe recommended in September 2015 the provision of adjustable desks in the workplace. In general, there is conflicting evidence regarding the precise risks of sitting for long periods. A 2018 Cochrane review found low-quality evidence that providing employees with a standing desk option may reduce the length of time some people sit at work in the first year.JOURNAL, Shrestha, Nipun, Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina T., Verbeek, Jos H., Ijaz, Sharea, Hermans, Veerle, Pedisic, Zeljko, 2018-06-20, Workplace interventions for reducing sitting at work, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 6, CD010912, 10.1002/14651858.CD010912.pub4, 1469-493X, 29926475, This reduction in sitting may decrease with time, and there is no evidence that standing desks are effective in the long term. In addition, a 2018 British Journal of Medicine systematic review concluded that interventions aimed at reducing sitting outside of work were only modestly effective.JOURNAL, Shrestha, N, Grgic, J, Weisner, G, Parker, A, Podnar, H, Bennie, J, Biddle, SJH, Pedisic, Zeljko, Effectiveness of interventions for reducing non-occupational sedentary behaviour in adults and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis., British Journal of Sports Medicine, 13 January 2018, 10.1136/bjsports-2017-098270,weblink It is not clear how standing desks compare to other work-place interventions to reduce the length of time employees are sitting during the work day.

Kneeling chairs

The kneeling chair (often just referred to as "ergonomic chair") was designed to encourage better posture than the conventional chair.{{qualify evidence}} To sit in a kneeling chair, one rests one's buttocks on the upper sloping pad and rests the front of the lower legs atop the lower pad, i.e., the human position as both sitting and kneeling at the same time.

See also

References

{{Reflist|2}}

Further reading

  • JOURNAL, Chau JY, der Ploeg HP, van Uffelen JG, Wong J, Riphagen I, Healy GN, Gilson ND, Dunstan DW, Bauman AE, Owen N, Brown WJ, Are workplace interventions to reduce sitting effective? A systematic review, Preventive Medicine, 51, 5, 352–6, 2010, 20801153, 10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.08.012,
  • JOURNAL, Chinapaw MJ, Proper KI, Brug J, van Mechelen W, Singh AS, Relationship between young peoples' sedentary behaviour and biomedical health indicators: a systematic review of prospective studies, Obesity Reviews, 12, 7, e621–32, 2011, 21438990, 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00865.x,
  • JOURNAL, Proper KI, Singh AS, van Mechelen W, Chinapaw MJ, Sedentary behaviors and health outcomes among adults: a systematic review of prospective studies, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 40, 2, 174–82, 2011, 21238866, 10.1016/j.amepre.2010.10.015,
  • JOURNAL, Roffey DM, Wai EK, Bishop P, Kwon BK, Dagenais S, Causal assessment of occupational sitting and low back pain: results of a systematic review, The Spine Journal, 10, 3, 252–61, 2010, 20097618, 10.1016/j.spinee.2009.12.005,
  • JOURNAL, Shrestha N, Kukkonen-Harjula KT, Verbeek J, Ijaz S, Hermans V, Bhaumik S, Workplace interventions for reducing sitting at work, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, CD010912, 2016, 26984326, 10.1002/14651858.CD010912.pub3,

External links

{{Wiktionary}}


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