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{{about|cultural assimilation|the linguistic meaning|Transcription into Chinese characters}}{{redirect|Hanhua|the subdistrict in Xinye County, Henan|Hanhua Subdistrict}}{{Short description|Assimilation to Chinese culture}}{{Chinese|float=left|showflag=p|t=漢化|s=汉化|l=Han-ization|mi={{IPAc-cmn|h|an|4|-|h|ua|4}}|p=hànhuà|bpmf=ㄏㄢˋㄏㄨㄚˋ|xej=هًا خُوَ|t2=中國化|s2=中国化|l2=Chinese-ization|mi2={{IPAc-cmn|zh|ong|1|.|g|uo|2|-|h|ua|4}}|p2=zhōngguóhuà|bpmf2=ㄓㄨㄙ ㄍㄨㄛˊㄏㄨㄚˋ|xej2=جوْ قُوَع خُوَ|kyujitai=中國化|shinjitai=中国化|hiragana=ちゅうごくか|romaji=Chi ~yuugokuka|hanja=中國化|hangul=중국화|lk=Chinese-ization|rr=jung-gughwa|chuhan=漢化|lqn=Han-ization|qn=Hán hóa}}Sinicization, sinicisation, sinofication, or sinification, or sinonization is a process whereby non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han Chinese culture, language, societal norms, and ethnic identity. Areas of influence include diet, writing, industry, education, language, law, lifestyle, politics, philosophy, religion, science and technology, culture, and value systems. More broadly, "Sinicization" may refer to policies of acculturation, assimilation, or cultural imperialism imposed by China onto neighboring East Asian countries, and minority ethnic groups inside China. Evidence of this can be seen in the value systems, cuisine, architectural style, and lexicons. This is reflected in the histories of Japan, Korea and Vietnam for example, in the adoption of the Chinese writing system as the script of the Han Chinese has long been a unifying feature in the Sinosphere as the vehicle for exporting Chinese culture to these Asian countries.

Integration

The integration or assimilation policy is a type of nationalism aimed at strengthening of the Chinese identity among the population. Proponents believe integration will help to develop shared values, pride in being the country’s citizen, respect and acceptance towards cultural differences among citizens of China. Critics argue that integration destroys ethnic diversity, language diversity, and cultural diversity. Analogous to North America with approximately 300 Native American languages and distinct ethnic groups; in China there are 292 non-Mandarin languages spoken by native peoples of the region.WEB,weblink China, Ethnologue, en, 2018-12-05, There are also a number of immigrant languages, such as Khmer, Portuguese, English, etc.

Historical examples of sinicization

Austronesian peoples

Before sinicization, non-Chinese indigenous peoples of Southern China, collectively termed by the Chinese as Baiyue inhabited the coastline of China from as far north as the Yangtze River to as far south as the Gulf of Tonkin. Analysis of DNA recovered from human remains shows high frequencies of Haplogroup O1 in Liangzhu culture linking this culture to modern Austronesian populations. It is believed that Liangzhu culture was the ancestral homeland of Proto-Austronesian populations before they spread to Taiwan, and the Southeast Asia. Over time, the southward spread of Han Chinese led to the sinicization of most of the Baiyue populations that remained in Southern China, whether in the Yangtze Valley or in coastal areas from the mouth of the Yangtze to the Gulf of Tonkin.BOOK, Prehistoric Settlement of the Pacific, Volume 86, Part 5,weblink 9780871698650, Goodenough, Ward Hunt, 1996, The remnants of these peoples who were not fully sinicized are now recognized officially as the ethnic minorities of the PRC.

Turkic peoples

Descendants of Uyghurs who migrated to Taoyuan County, Hunan have largely assimilated into the Han Chinese and Hui population and practice Chinese customs, speaking varieties of Chinese as their language.

Tang dynasty

During the 8th and 9th centuries in the Tang dynasty, Chinese male soldiers moved into Guizhou (formerly romanized as Kweichow) and married native non-Chinese women, their descendants being known as Lao-han-jen (original Chinese), in contrast to new Chinese people who colonized Guizhou at later times. They still spoke an archaic dialect as of 1929.{{en icon}} BOOK,weblink Scottish geographical magazine, Volumes 45–46, Scottish Geographical Society, 1929, Royal Scottish Geographical Society., 70, 2010-06-28, Many immigrants to Guizhou were descended from these soldiers in garrisons who married non-Chinese women.{{en icon}} BOOK,weblink The Cowrie Shell Miao of Kweichow, Volume 32, Issue 1, Margaret Portia Mickey, 1947, The Museum, 6, 2010-06-28,

Yuan dynasty

The Mongol Yuan dynasty appointed a Muslim from Bukhara, Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar, as governor of Yunnan after conquering the Bai Kingdom of Dali. Sayyid Ajjall then promoted Sinicization and Confucianization of the non-Han Chinese peoples in Yunnan during his reign. Sayyid Ajjal founded a "Chinese style" city where modern Kunming is today, called Zhongjing Cheng. He ordered that a Buddhist temple, a Confucian temple, and two mosques be built in the city.BOOK, Beyond the Great Wall: Urban Form and Transformation on the Chinese Frontiers, Piper Rae, Gaubatz, illustrated, 1996, Stanford University Press,weblink 78, 0804723990, 24 April 2014, harv, Advocating Confucianism was part of his policy. The Confucian temple that Sayyid Ajjall built in 1274, which also doubled as a school, was the first Confucian temple ever to be built in Yunnan.BOOK, Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast Asia, Tan Ta Sen, illustrated, reprint, 2009, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies,weblink 92, 978-9812308375, 24 April 2014, harv, Both Confucianism and Islam were promoted by Sayyid Ajall in his "civilizing mission" during his time in Yunnan.Atwood, Christopher P. "Sayyid Ajall 'Umar Shams-ud-Din". Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2004. Ancient and Medieval History Online. Facts On File, Inc.weblink (accessed July 29, 2014). Sayyid Ajall viewed Yunnan as "backward and barbarian" and utilized Confucianism, Islam, and Buddhism for "civilizing" the area.WEB,weblink SAYYED AJALL, Lane, George, June 29, 2011, Encyclopædia Iranica, Encyclopædia Iranica, 17 November 2012, In Yunnan, the widespread presence of Islam is credited to Sayyid Ajjal's work.BOOK,weblink First encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913–1936, 1993, M. Th Houtsma, BRILL, 847, 90-04-09796-1, Although Saiyid-i Adjall certainly did much for the propagation of Islam in Yunnan, it is his son Nasir al-Din to whom is ascribed the main credit for its dissemination. He was a minister and at first governed the province of Shansi : he later became governor of Yunnan where he died in 1292 and was succeeded by his brother Husain. It cannot be too strongly emphasised that the direction of this movement was from the interior, from the north. The Muhammadan colonies on the coast were hardly affected by it. On the other hand it may safely be assumed that the Muslims of Yunnan remained in constant communication with those of the northern provinces of Shensi and Kansu., December 20, 2011, Sayyid Ajjal was first to bring Islam to Yunnan. He promoted Confucianism and Islam by ordering construction of mosques and temples of Confucianism.(Original from the University of Virginia) BOOK,weblink Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volumes 7–8, 1986, Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Jāmi'at al-Malik 'Abd al-'AzÄ«z. Ma'had Shu'Å«n al AqallÄ«yat al-Muslimah, The Institute, 385, certain that Muslims of Central Asian originally played a major role in the Yuan (Mongol) conquest and subsequent rule of south-west China, as a result of which a distinct Muslim community was established in Yunnan by the late 13th century AD. Foremost among these soldier-administrators was Sayyid al-Ajall Shams al-Din Umar al-Bukhari (Ch. Sai-tien-ch'ih shan-ssu-ting). a court official and general of Turkic origin who participated in the Mongol invasion of Szechwan ... And Yunnan in c. 1252, and who became Yuan Governor of the latter province in 1274–79. Shams al-Din—who is widely believed by the Muslims of Yunnan to have introduced Islam to the region—is represented as a wise and benevolent ruler, who successfully "pacified and comforted" the people of Yunnan, and who is credited with building Confucian temples, as well as mosques and schools, December 20, 2011, Sayyid Ajjal also introduced Confucian education into Yunnan.BOOK, The Silk Road in World History, Xinru, Liu, 2001, Oxford University Press,weblink 116, 019979880X, 24 April 2014, harv, The Hui ethnic minority He was described as making 'the orangutans and butcherbirds became unicorns and phoenixes and their felts and furs were exchanged for gowns and caps', and praised by the Regional Superintendent of Confucian studies, He Hongzuo.BOOK,weblink Where China Meets India: Burma and the New Crossroads of Asia, 2011, Thant Myint-U, Macmillan, 978-1-4668-0127-1, claimed descent from the emir of Bokhara ... and was appointed as the top administrator in Yunnan in the 1270s. Today the Muslims of Yunnan regard him as the founder of their community, a wise and benevolent ruler who 'pacified and comforted' the peoples of Yunnan. Sayyid Ajall was officially the Director of Political Affairs of the Regional Secretariat of Yunnan ... According to Chinese records, he introduced new agricultural technologies, constructed irrigation systems, and tried to raise living standards. Though a Muslims, he built or rebuilt Confucian temples and created a Confucian education system. His contemporary, He Hongzuo, the Regional Superintendent of Confucian studies, wrote that through his efforts 'the orangutans and butcherbirds became unicorns and phonixes and their felts and furs were exchanged for gowns and caps' ..., December 20, 2011, {{page needed|date=December 2014}}Shams al-Din constructed numerous Confucian temples in Yunnan, and promoted Confucian education. He is best known among Chinese for helping sinicize Yunnan province.BOOK,weblink China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects, Michael Dillon, 1999, Curzon Press, Richmond, 23, 0-7007-1026-4, 2010-06-28, He also built multiple mosques in Yunnan. Sayyid Ajall also introduced Confucian rituals and traditions to Yunnan,BOOK, In the Service of the Khan: Eminent Personalities of the Early Mongol-Yüan Period (1200–1300), Igor de, Rachewiltz, Volume 121 of Asiatische Forschungen, 0571-320X, 1993, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag,weblink 476, 3447033398, 24 April 2014, harv, including Chinese social structures, Chinese funeral rituals and Chinese marriage customs.BOOK, In the Service of the Khan: Eminent Personalities of the Early Mongol-Yüan Period (1200–1300), Igor de, Rachewiltz, Volume 121 of Asiatische Forschungen, 0571-320X, 1993, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag,weblink 477, 3447033398, 24 April 2014, harv, The aim of Sayyid Ajall's policy of promoting Confucianism and education in Yunnan was to "civilize" the native "barbarians". Confucian rituals were taught to students in newly founded schools by Sichuanese scholars, and Confucian temples were built.BOOK, Between winds and clouds: the making of Yunnan (second century BCE to twentieth century CE), Bin, Yang, 2009, Columbia University Press,weblink 154, 978-0231142540, 24 April 2014, harv, BOOK, Between winds and clouds: the making of Yunnan (second century BCE to twentieth century CE), Bin, Yang, 2008, Columbia University Press,weblink Chapter 5 Sinicization and Indigenization: The Emergence of the Yunnanese, 978-0231142540, 24 April 2014, harv, {{page needed|date=December 2014}} The natives of Yunnan were instructed in Confucian ceremonies like weddings, matchmaking, funerals, ancestor worship, and kowtow by Sayyid Ajall. The native leaders has their "barbarian" clothing replaced by clothing given to them by Sayyid Ajall.BOOK, Between winds and clouds: the making of Yunnan (second century BCE to twentieth century CE), Bin, Yang, 2009, Columbia University Press,weblink'Ajall+Shams+Al-Din+taught+indigenous+peoples+to+perform+the+Confucian+rituals+of+kneeling+(kowtow),+matchmaking+for+marriage,+marriage+ceremonies,+funerals,+and+ancestral+worship.+He+also+presented+native+chieftains+with+clothes,+hats,+socks,+and+shoes+to+replace+their+%22barbarian%22+dress.&dq=For+instance,+Sayyid'Ajall+Shams+Al-Din+taught+indigenous+peoples+to+perform+the+Confucian+rituals+of+kneeling+(kowtow),+matchmaking+for+marriage,+marriage+ceremonies,+funerals,+and+ancestral+worship.+He+also+presented+native+chieftains+with+clothes,+hats,+socks,+and+shoes+to+replace+their+%22barbarian%22+dress., 157, 978-0231142540, 24 April 2014, harv, Both Marco Polo and Rashid al-Din Vatvat recorded that Yunnan was heavily populated by Muslims during the Yuan Dynasty, with Rashid naming a city with all Muslim inhabitants as the 'great city of Yachi'.(Original from the University of Virginia) BOOK,weblink Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volumes 7–8, 1986, Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Jāmi'at al-Malik 'Abd al-'AzÄ«z. Ma'had Shu'Å«n al AqallÄ«yat al-Muslimah, The Institute, 174, from the Yuan Dynasty, and indicated further Muslim settlement in northeastern and especially southwestern Yunnan. Marco Polo, who travelled through Yunnan "Carajan" at the beginning of the Yuan period, noted the presence of "Saracens" among the population. Similarly, the Persian historian Rashid al-Din (died 1318 AD) recorded in his Jami' ut-Tawarikh that the 'great city of Yachi' in Yunnan was exclusively inhabited by Muslims., December 20, 2011, It has been suggested that Yachi was Dali City (Ta-li). Dali had many Hui Muslim people.(Original from the University of Virginia) BOOK,weblink Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volumes 7–8, 1986, Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Jāmi'at al-Malik 'Abd al-'AzÄ«z. Ma'had Shu'Å«n al AqallÄ«yat al-Muslimah, The Institute, 387, when Maroco Polo visited Yunnan in the early Yuan period he noted the presence of "Saracens" among the population while the Persian historian Rashid al-Din (died 1318 AD) recorded in his Jami' ut-Tawarikh that 'the great city of Yachi' in Yunnan was exclusively inhabited by Muslims. Rashid al-Din may have been referring to the region around Ta-li in western Yunnan, which was to emerge as the earliest centre of Hui Muslim settlement in the province., December 20, 2011, Sayyid Ajjal's son Nasir al-Din became Governor of Yunnan in 1279 after his death.( )BOOK,weblink Where China Meets India: Burma and the New Crossroads of Asia, 2011, Thant Myint-U, Macmillan, 978-1-4668-0127-1, In this way, Yunnan became known to the Islamic world. When Sayyid Ajall died in 1279 he was succeeded by his son Nasir al-Din who governed for give years and led the invasion of Burma. His younger brother became the Transport Commissioner and the entire family entrenched their influence., December 20, 2011, {{page needed|date=December 2014}}(Original from the University of Virginia) BOOK,weblink Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volumes 7–8, 1986, Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Jāmi'at al-Malik 'Abd al-'AzÄ«z. Ma'had Shu'Å«n al AqallÄ«yat al-Muslimah, The Institute, 385, On his death he was succeeded by his eldest son, Nasir al-Din (Ch. Na-su-la-ting, the "Nescradin" of Marco Polo), who governed Yunnan between 1279 and I284. While Arab and South Asian Muslims, pioneers of the maritime expansion of Islam in the Bay of Bengal, must have visited the, December 20, 2011, The historian Jacqueline Armijo-Hussein has written on Sayyid Ajall's Confucianization and Sinicization policies, in her dissertation Sayyid 'Ajall Shams al-Din: A Muslim from Central Asia, serving the Mongols in China, and bringing 'civilization' to Yunnan,Dissertations in Central Eurasian Studies the paper The Origins of Confucian and Islamic Education in Southwest China: Yunnan in the Yuan Period,Session 8: Individual Papers: New Work on Confucianism, Buddhism, and Islam from Han to Yuan and The Sinicization and Confucianization in Chinese and Western Historiography of a Muslim from Bukhara Serving Under the Mongols in China.BOOK, Muslim Chinese: Ethnic Nationalism in the People's Republic, Dru C., Gladney, Volume 149 of Harvard East Asian monographs, 0073-0483, Issue 149 of East Asian Monographs, illustrated, 1996, Harvard Univ Asia Center,weblink 366, 0674594975, 24 April 2014, harv,

Ming dynasty

{{cleanup section|reason=The content should be more related to the topic of the article (sinicization)|date=February 2015}}Massive military campaigns were launched by the Ming dynasty during the Miao Rebellions against the southern indigenous Miao, Yao, and other tribes, settled thousands of Han and Hui in their land after exterminating most of the former indigenous tribes.{{Citation needed|date=December 2018}}During the Ming conquest of Yunnan Chinese military soldiers were settled in Yunnan, and many married the native women.

Qing dynasty

The rulers of the Qing dynasty were ethnic Manchus who adopted the norms of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rules. The "orthodox" historical view emphasized the power of Han Chinese to "sinicize" their conquerors, although more recent research such as the New Qing History school revealed Manchu rulers were savvy in their manipulation of their subjects and from the 1630s through at least the 18th century, the emperors developed a sense of Manchu identity and used Central Asian models of rule as much as Confucian ones. There is also evidence of sinicization, however. For example, Manchus originally had their own separate style of naming from the Han Chinese, but eventually adopted Han Chinese naming practices.Manchu names consisted of more than the two or one syllable Chinese names, and when phonetically transcribed into Chinese, they made no sense at all.BOOK, 2001, Stanford University Press, famous Manchu figure of the early Qing who belonged to the Niohuru clan) would have been the unwieldy "Niu-gu-lu E-bi-long" in Chinese. Moreover, the characters used in names were typically chosen to represent the sounds of Manchu, and not to carry any particular meaning in Chinese. For educated Han Chinese accustomed to names composed of a familiar surname and one or two elegang characters drawn from a poem or a passage from the classics, Manchu names looked not just different, but absurd. What was oneo to make of a name like E-bi-long, written in Chinese characters meaning "repress-must flourish," or Duo-er-gun, meaning "numerous-thou-roll"? S.... To them they looked like nonsense.... But they are not nonsense in Manchu: "E-bi-long" is the transcription of ebilun, meaning "a delicate or sickly child," and "Duo-er-gun" is the Chinese transcription of dorgon, the Manchu word for badger.,weblink 0-8047-4684-2, 242, The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China, illustrated, reprint, Mark C. Elliott, March 2, 2012, The meaning of the names that Manchus used were also very different from the meanings of Chinese names.BOOK, 2001, Stanford University Press, Thus we find names like Nikan (Chinese), Ajige (little), Asiha (young), Haha (nale), Mampi (knot—a reference to the hair?), Kara (black), Fulata (red-eyed), Necin (peaceful), Kirsa (steppe fox), Unahan (colt), Jumara (squirrel), Nimašan (sea eagle), Nomin (lapis lazuli), and Gacuha (toy made out of an animal's anklebone).44 Names such as Jalfungga (long-lived), Fulingga (lucky one), Fulungga (majestic), and Hūturingga (fortunate), were not unknown, either, particularly after the seventeenth century. Although mightily foreign when written as Zha-la-feng-a, Fu-ling-a, Fu-long-a, or Hu-tu-ling-ga,weblink 0-8047-4684-2, 242, The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China, illustrated, reprint, Mark C. Elliott, March 2, 2012, The Manchus also gave numbers as personal names.BOOK, 2001, Stanford University Press, While Chinese names, too, sometimes ended in characters with the sounds "zhu," "bao," and "tai," more often than not, such names in the Qing belonged to Manchus and other bannermen (Chinese bannermen and Mongols sometimes took Manchu-sounding names), even if the attached meaning is not clear (it is not certain that all names in fact had a specific meaning). Giving "numeral names" was another unique Manchu habit. These were names that actually referred to numbers. Sometimes they were given using Manchu numbers—for example, Nadanju (seventy) or Susai (fifty). Other times number names used the Manchu transcriptions of Chinese numbers, as in the name Loišici (= Liushi qi, "sixty-seven"), Bašinu (= bashi wu, "eight-five").45 Such names, unheard of among the Han, were quite common among the Manchus, an appeared from time to time among Chinese bannermen. Popular curiosity about this odd custom in Qing was partly satisfied by the nineteenth-century bannerman-writer Fu-ge, who explained in his book of "jottings" that naming children for their grandparents' ages was a way of wishing longevity to the newly born.46,weblink 0-8047-4684-2, 243, The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China, illustrated, reprint, Mark C. Elliott, March 2, 2012, Eventually, the Qing royal family (the Aisin Gioro) gave their children Chinese names, which were separate from the Manchu names, and even adopted the Chinese practice of generation names, although its usage was inconsistent and error ridden. Eventually{{When|date=December 2018}} they stopped using Manchu names.BOOK, 2001, University of Washington Press, At Xiuyan, in eastern Fengtian, the Manchus in the seventh or eighth generation continued as before to give their sons polysyllabic Manchu personal names that were meaningless when transliterated into Chinese, but at the same time they began to also give them Chinese names that were disyllabic and meaningful and that conformed to the generational principle. Thus, in the seventh generation of the Gūwalgiya lineage were sons with two names, one Manchu and one Chinese, such as Duolunbu/Shiman, Delinbu/Shizhu, and Tehengbu/Shizhen. Within the family and the banner, these boys used their Manchu name, but outside they used their Han-style name. Then, from the eight or ninth generation one, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Gūwalgiya at Xiuyan stopped giving polysyllabic Manchu names to their sons, who thereafter used Chinese names exclusively.,weblink 56, Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861–1928, reprint, illustrated, Edward J. M. Rhoads, March 2, 2012, The Niohuru family of the Manchu changed their family name to Lang, which sounded like "wolf" in Chinese, since wolf in Manchu was Niohuru; thus forming a translation.BOOK, 2001, University of Washington Press, and when the ancient and politically prominent Manchu lineage of Niohuru adopted the Han-style surname Lang, he ridiculed them for having "forgotten their roots." (The Niohuru, whose name was derived from niohe, Manchu for wolf," had chosen Lang as their surname because it was a homophone for the Chinese word for "wolf."),weblink 56, Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861–1928, reprint, illustrated, Edward J. M. Rhoads, March 2, 2012, Although the Manchus replaced their Manchu names with Chinese personal names, the Manchu bannermen followed their traditional practice in typically used their first/personal name to address themselves and not their last name, while Han Chinese bannermen used their last name and first in normal Chinese style.BOOK, 2001, University of Washington Press, Manchu men had abandoned their original polysyllabic personal names infavor of Han-style disyllabic names; they had adopted the Han practice of choosing characters with auspicious meanings for the names; and they had assigned names on a generational basis.... Except among some Hanjun such as the two Zhao brothers, bannermen still did not, by and large, use their,weblink 56, Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861–1928, reprint, illustrated, Edward J. M. Rhoads, March 2, 2012, BOOK, 2001, University of Washington Press, family name but called themselves only by their personal name—for example, Yikuang, Ronglu, Gangyi, Duanfang, Xiliang, and Tieliang. In this respect, most Manchus remained conspicuously different from Han.,weblink 57, Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861–1928, reprint, illustrated, Edward J. M. Rhoads, March 2, 2012, Usage of surnames was not traditional to the Manchu while it was to the Han Chinese.BOOK, 2001, Stanford University Press, Chinese names consist typically of a single-character surname and a given name of one or two characters, the latter usually chosen for their auspicious meaning. Manchu names were different. For one thing, Manchus did not commonly employ surnames, identifying themselves usually by their banner affiliation rather than by their lineage. Even if they had customarily used both surname and given name, this would not have eliminated the difference with Han names, since Manchu names of any kind were very often longer than two characters—that is, two syllables— in length. Where a Han name (to pick at random two names from the eighteenth century) might read Zhang Tingyu or Dai Zhen, the full name of, say, Ebilun (a,weblink 0-8047-4684-2, 241, The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China, illustrated, reprint, Mark C. Elliott, March 2, 2012,

Nguyen dynasty Vietnam

Vietnamese Nguyen Emperor Minh Mạng sinicized ethnic minorities such as Cambodians, Chams and Montagnards, claimed the legacy of Confucianism and China's Han dynasty for Vietnam, and used the term Han people to refer to the Vietnamese.BOOK, Norman G. Owen, The Emergence Of Modern Southeast Asia: A New History,weblink 2005, University of Hawaii Press, 978-0-8248-2890-5, 115–, Minh Mang declared that "We must hope that their barbarian habits will be subconsciously dissipated, and that they will daily become more infected by Han [Sino-Vietnamese] customs."BOOK, A. Dirk Moses, Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History,weblinkweblink 2008, 1 January 2008, Berghahn Books, 978-1-84545-452-4, 209–, These policies were directed at the Khmer and hill tribes.BOOK, Randall Peerenboom, Carole J. Petersen, Albert H.Y. Chen, Human Rights in Asia: A Comparative Legal Study of Twelve Asian Jurisdictions, France and the USA,weblink 27 September 2006, Routledge, 978-1-134-23881-1, 474–, The Nguyen lord Nguyen Phuc Chu had referred to Vietnamese as "Han people" in 1712 when differentiating between Vietnamese and Chamsweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040617071243weblink">weblink Mang used the name "|label=none}}" 中國 (the same hànzì as for "China") to refer to Vietnamweblink clothing was adapted by the Vietnamese people under Nguyễnweblink

Modern examples of sinicization

Kuomintang

The Kuomintang pursued a sinicization policy, which foreign observers understood as "the time had come to set about the business of making all natives either turn Chinese or get out." It was noted that "Chinese colonization" of "Mongolia and Manchuria" led to the conclusion "to a conviction that the day of the barbarian was finally over."BOOK,weblink The new Orient; a series of monographs on Oriental culture ..., 1933, 116, 2011-05-29, BOOK,weblink The Open court, Volume 47, Paul Carus, 1934, The Open Court Pub. Co., 116, 2011-05-29, BOOK,weblink Frontier history, Owen Lattimore, 1962, Oxford University Press, 197, 2011-05-29,

Ma Clique

Hui Muslim General Ma Fuxiang created an assimilationist group and encouraged the integration of Muslims into Chinese society.BOOK,weblink The religious traditions of Asia: religion, history, and culture, Joseph Mitsuo Kitagawa, 2002, Routledge, 368, 0-7007-1762-5, 2010-06-28, Ma Fuxiang was a hardcore assimilationist and said that Hui should assimilate into Han.WEB, 189017, Ethnicity and Politics in Republican China: The Ma Family Warlords of Gansu, Lipman, Jonathan N., Jul 1984, 296, Sage Publications, Inc.,

Xinjiang

The Hui Muslim 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army) governed southern Xinjiang in 1934–1937. The administration that was set up was colonial in nature, putting up street signs and names in Chinese, which used to be in only Uighur language. They lived much like Han Chinese, importing Han cooks and baths.BOOK,weblink Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949, Andrew D. W. Forbes, 1986, CUP Archive, Cambridge, England, 0-521-25514-7, 130, 2010-06-28, The Hui also switched carpet patterns from Uyghur to Han in state owned carpet factories.BOOK,weblink Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949, Andrew D. W. Forbes, 1986, CUP Archive, Cambridge, England, 0-521-25514-7, 131, 2010-06-28,

Taiwan

After the Republic of China took control of Taiwan in 1945 and relocated its capital to Taipei in 1949, the intention of Chiang Kai-shek was to eventually go back to mainland China and retake control of it. Chiang believed that to retake mainland China, it would be necessary to re-Sinicize Taiwan's inhabitants who had undergone assimilation under Japanese rule. Examples of this policy included the renaming of streets with mainland geographical names, use of Mandarin Chinese in schools and punishments for using other regional languages (such as the (wikt:fāngyán|fāngyán) of Hakka and Hokkien), and teaching students to revere traditional ethics, develop pan-Chinese nationalism, and view Taiwan from the perspective of China.CONFERENCE, June Teufel, Dreyer, Taiwan's Evolving Identity,weblink Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, In order to shore up his government’s legitimacy, Chiang set about turning Taiwan’s inhabitants into Chinese. To use Renan’s terminology, Chiang chose to re-define the concept of shared destiny to include the mainland. Streets were re-named; major thoroughfares in Taipei received names associated with the traditional Confucian virtues. The avenue passing in front of the foreign ministry en route to the presidential palace was named chieh-shou (long life), in Chiang’s honor. Students were required to learn Mandarin and speak it exclusively; those who disobeyed and spoke Taiwanese Min, Hakka, or aboriginal tongues could be fined, slapped, or subjected to other disciplinary actions., July 17, 2003, May 20, 2009, WEB,weblink The new KMT concluded that it must “Sinicize” Taiwan if it were ever to unify mainland China. Textbooks were designed to teach young people the dialect of North China as a national language. Pupils also were taught to revere Confucian ethics, to develop Han Chinese nationalism, and to accept Taiwan as a part of China., Starting Anew on Taiwan, Hoover Institution, 2008, 2009-06-05,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090408074759weblink">weblink 2009-04-08, dead, Other reasons for the policy were to combat the Japanese influences on the culture that had occurred in the previous 50 years, and to help unite the recent immigrants from mainland China that had come to Taiwan with the KMT and among whom there was a tendency to be more loyal to one's city, country or province than to China as a nation.WEB, Third-Wave Reform,weblink .... The government initiated educational reform in the 1950s to achieve a number of high-priority goals. First, it was done to help root out fifty years of Japanese colonial influence on the island's populace--"resinicizing" them, one might say- -and thereby guarantee their loyalty to the Chinese motherland. Second, the million mainlanders or so who had fled to Taiwan themselves had the age-old tendency of being more loyal to city, county, or province than to China as a nation. They identified themselves as Hunanese, Cantonese, or Sichuanese first, and as Chinese second., 2019-01-01,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110716110421weblink">weblink 2011-07-16, dead, The process of re-asserting non-Chinese identity, as in the case of ethnic groups in Taiwan, is sometimes known as desinicization. This is an issue in, for example, the Taiwan independence movement and Taiwan localization movements.

Tibet

The sinicization of Tibet is the change of Tibetan society to Han Chinese standards by means of state propaganda, police presence, cultural assimilation, religious persecution, immigration, population transfer and political reform.Burbu, Dawa (2001) China's Tibet Policy, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0-7007-0474-3}}, pp. 100–124Samdup, Tseten (1993) Chinese population—Threat to Tibetan identity {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090205140639weblink |date=2009-02-05 }}NEWS, Warren, James, On Tibet, Senator's Daughter Shows More Spine Than the U.S.,weblink 10 September 2019, Chicago Tribune, May 18, 1997, WEB, "They Say We Should Be Grateful" Mass Rehousing and Relocation Programs in Tibetan Areas of China,weblink hrw.org, Human Rights Watch, 10 September 2019, It has been underway since the Incorporation of Tibet into the People's Republic of China, also called the Chinese invasion of Tibet by the Tibetan Government in Exile,WEB, Invasion & After: Tibet Since the Chinese Invasion,weblink tibetoffice.org, Office of Tibet, Washington D.C., 10 September 2019, in 1951. In present-day Tibet traditional Tibetan festivals have "been turned into a platform for propaganda and political theater” where "government workers and retirees are barred from engaging in religious activities, and government workers and students in Tibetan schools are forbidden from visiting local monasteries.”NEWS, Lodoe, Kalden, Demo, Yangdon, Gelek, Lobsang, Tibetan Religious Festival Marred by Police Presence, State Propaganda,weblink 10 September 2019, Radio Free Asia, September 6, 2019, According to president of the Central Tibetan Administration, Lobsang Sangay, with the ongoing expulsion of monks and nuns from monasteries and nunneries, and destruction of the Larung Gar monastery,NEWS, Wong, Edward, U.N. Human Rights Experts Unite to Condemn China Over Expulsions of Tibetans,weblink 10 September 2019, New York Times, February 27, 2017, Tibet's largest Buddhist institution, "unfortunately what is happening is that the Chinese government is reviving something akin to cultural revolution in Tibet.”NEWS, China could not succeed in destroying Buddhism in Tibet: Sangay,weblink 10 September 2019, May 25, 2017, The Tribune, NEWS, Wong, Edward, China Takes a Chain Saw to a Center of Tibetan Buddhism,weblink 10 September 2019, New York Times, November 28, 2016,

In popular culture

In some forms of fiction, due to China's communist statehood, Soviet-themed characters are de-Sovietized and switched over to become Chinese to fit modern (post-Cold War) times. The original cut of the 2012 Red Dawn remake depicted a Chinese invasion before having said information leaked to the Global Times, sparking controversy in China and threatening its airing in the country (the invaders were changed to North Koreans).WEB, Schrader, Chris, 'Red Dawn' Villains Switched from China to North Korea,weblink Screen Rant, 1 June 2014, In 2006, Chinese versions of the Crimson Dynamo and the Abomination were created and made members of the Liberators in Marvel Comics, the comic book The Ultimates 2.

See also

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References

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External links

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