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sharbat
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{{About|a sweet, syrupy beverage||Sherbet (disambiguation)}}{{Distinguish | Sorbet}}(File:Sharbat.JPG|thumb|Two kinds of Iranian sharbat (center and right) along with Iranian tea (left).)Sharbat, shorbot, serbat or sherbet ({{IPA-all|ʃərbət̪|pron}}) is a popular West Asian, Indian subcontinent and Indonesia drink prepared from fruits or flower petals.BOOK, Persian Pilgrimages, Molavi, Afshin, 2002, W. W. Norton & Company, 0-393-05119-6, 113, It is sweet cordial{{dn|date=July 2019}} and usually served chilled. It can be served in concentrate form and eaten with a spoon or diluted with water to create the drink.Popular sharbats are made of one or more of the following: basil seeds, rose water, fresh rose petals, sandalwood, bael, hibiscus, lemon, orange, mango, pineapple, falsa (Grewia asiatica) and chia seeds.Sharbat is common in Iranian, Indian, Turkish, Bosnian, Arab, Afghan, Pakistani, Sri Lankan and Bangladeshi homes, and are popularly consumed by Muslims when breaking their daily fast during the month of Ramadan.WEB,weblink The World's First Soft Drink, Muslim Heritage,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161224200942weblink">weblink 2016-12-24, no, A South-Indian version commonly called 'Sarbbath' is popular in Kerala and Tamil Nadu regions of India wherein a specially made syrup of Indian Sarsaparilla and lemon is dissolved in milk or soda water.An Indonesian especially Javanese drinks called 'Serbat' is commonly found during the month of Ramadan. The most popular is made by mixing cold water, simple syrup, and shredded cantaloupe, popularly known as 'Serbat blewah' or cantaloupe Sherbet.

Etymology

File:Afza Syrup (Lal sharbat).JPG|thumb|Rooh Afza sharbat or shorbot drink made from fruits and herbs formulated in 1906 in Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, and launched from Old Delhi, IndiaOld Delhi, IndiaThe term comes from the Persian word sharbat,WEB,weblink Sherbet {{!, frozen dessert|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|language=en|access-date=2019-07-23|quote=The word sherbet derives from the Persian sharbat, an iced fruit drink; iced desserts were introduced to the West via the Middle East. In the late 20th century there was a revival of the practice of serving a tart sherbet or sorbet between the courses of an elaborate meal to refresh the palate.}} meaning a drink of sugar and water. This in turn came from shariba, "to drink".BOOK, Wain, Harry, The story behind the word: some interesting origins of medical terms, 1958, Thomas, 288,weblink By the late Middle Ages, the Arabic word sharāb (شراب) had come to mean "alcoholic beverage" and the alternate form sharbāt (شربات) and its Persian and Turkish variations, sharbat (شربت), and şerbet respectively, took on the meaning of a sweet non-alcoholic beverage.BOOK, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-931339-6, Weir, Robin, Quinzio, Jeri, The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets, Sherbet, 2018-07-20, 2015-07-23,weblink Oxford Reference,

History

The origins of soft drinks lie in the development of fruit-flavored drinks. In the medieval Middle East, a variety of fruit-flavoured soft drinks were widely drunk, such as sharbat, and were often sweetened with ingredients such as sugar, syrup and honey. Other common ingredients included lemon, apple, pomegranate, tamarind, jujube, sumac, musk, mint and ice. Middle Eastern drinks later became popular in medieval Europe, where the word "syrup" was derived from Arabic.BOOK, Meri, Josef W., Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, 2005, Routledge, 1135455961, 106,weblink In the 12th century, Persian book of Zakhireye Khwarazmshahi, Gorgani describes different types of Sharbats in Iran, including Ghoore, Anar, Sekanjebin, etc.Several syrups are listed in the 11th-century Canon of Medicine by Persian writer Ibn Sīnā.WEB, 100 farklı Osmanlı şerbeti bir kitapta toplandı, 2018-07-19,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171207194711weblink">weblink 2017-12-07, no, Sharbat was introduced to India by the Mughals in the 16th century.NEWS, 0261-3077, Sukhadwala, Sejal, Diwali drinks: sharbat to champagne, The Guardian, 2018-07-19, 2012-11-12,weblinkweblink 2016-07-22, no, It was popularised in the Indian subcontinent by Babur, who sent for frequent loads of ice from the Himalayas to make a cool refreshing drink.WEB,weblink Keeping cool, The Hindu, 3 January 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161126092340weblink">weblink 26 November 2016, no, dmy-all, The first Western mention of sherbet is an Italian reference to something that Turks drink. The word enters Italian as sorbetto which becomes sorbet in French. In the 17th-century, England began importing "sherbet powders" made from dried fruit and flowers mixed with sugar. In the modern era sherbet powder is still popular in the UK. A contemporary English writer traveling in the Middle East wrote of "sundry sherbets … some made of sugar and lemons, some of violets, and the like." When Europeans figured out how to freeze sherbet they began making sorbetto by adding fruit juices and flavorings to a frozen simple syrup base. In the US sherbet generally meant an ice milk, but recipes from early soda fountain manuals include ingredients like gelatin, beaten egg whites, cream, or milk.In the gardens of the Ottoman Palace, spices and fruits to be used in sherbet were grown under the control of pharmacists and doctors of the Palace.One sharbat recorded in the 19th-century cookbook by Friedrich Unger is called gülgülü tiryaki şerbet which means "pink opium-eater's sherbet".BOOK, Kegan Paul, 978-0-7103-0936-5, Unger, Friedrich, A King's Confectioner in the Orient: Friedrich Unger, Court Confectioner to King Otto I of Greece, 2003, 74, Sharbat was traditionally made with cane juice, but in modern times it is commonly made at home with sugar and water. Lime is sometimes added to improve the texture and flavor of the sharbat.WEB, Sharbat, NDTV Food, 2018-07-19,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171101001914weblink">weblink 2017-11-01, no, Honey is also commonly used as a sweetener. Sherbet comes in many flavors including lemon, pomegranate, quince, strawberry, cherry, orange, rose, orange blossom, tamarind, mulberry and violet.

Varieties

File:Imli Aloo Bukharay Sharbat.jpg|thumb|Tamarind and plumplumTamarind sherbet is a popular non-alcoholic beverage in Muslim countries that is commonly prepared during Ramadan. In Turkey tamarind sherbet, called demirhindi şerbeti, might be flavored with cloves, cardamom, fresh ginger, a cinnamon stick, honey, sage and dried linden flowers.WEB, Demirhindi Şerbeti, Arda'nın Mutfağı, 2018-07-19,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180104182140weblink">weblink 2018-01-04, no, WEB, Demirhindi şerbeti tarifi, Milliyet Haber, 2018-07-19,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170125030700weblink">weblink 2017-01-25, no, In Pakistan tamarind is called imli and is commonly paired with dried plums (aaloo bukhara).WEB, Health benefits of Imli and Aaloo Bukhara drink, Samaa TV, 2018-07-19,weblink Almond sherbet can be spiced with cardamom and kewra.WEB, Badaam ka Sharbat Recipe by Niru Gupta, NDTV Food, 2018-07-19,weblinkweblink 2018-03-07, no, Another version of almond sherbet is made with milk and saffron and musk melon seeds are sometimes added.WEB, Make this cooling almond sharbat this summer, The Indian Express, 2018-07-19, 2016-06-03,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170821130405weblink">weblink 2017-08-21, no, WEB, Recipe: Badam ka sharbat (almond-saffron milk) - The Boston Globe, BostonGlobe.com, 2018-07-19,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170708094322weblink">weblink 2017-07-08, no, File:Bael_Sherbat_Indian_Beverage.jpg|thumb|BaelBaelWood apple sharbat can be flavored with salt, pepper and mentha or simply sugar and lemon juice.WEB, Here Is How You Can Make Bael Sherbet At Home, NDTV Food, 2018-07-19,weblinkweblink 2018-05-14, no, Called bael ka sharbat it is one of the most popular beverages in India and was discussed in the 1894 Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales.BOOK, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-3-662-07774-0, Bajaj, Y. P. S., High-Tech and Micropropagation V, 2013-03-09,weblink 2018-07-19,weblink 2018-07-20, no, BOOK, Government printer., Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, 1894,weblink 2018-07-19,weblink 2018-07-20, no, Another sharbat variation from India is made with powdered sandalwood (chandan) and sugared milk.WEB, Chandan ka Sharbat Recipe by Niru Gupta, NDTV Food, 2018-07-19,weblinkweblink 2018-07-20, no, Phalsa berries are another base for some varieties of south Asian sherbet.WEB, Phalse Ka Sharbat Recipe, NDTV Food, 2018-07-19,weblinkweblink 2018-06-25, no, Some sour sharbet variations might make use of citrus fruits, tamarind, or aamla berries. An Indian lemonade called nimbu pani is made with fresh squeezed lemon or lime juice with additional flavorings like ginger, mint, saffron, kewra or even crushed black pepper.Vetiver sherbet (khus syrup) can be made by adding khus essence to sugar and water. The khus essence itself is made from the roots of vetiver grass. Vetiver sherbet can be used as a flavoring for milkshakes, lassi and other yogurt drinks, ice cream, Shirley Temples and other mixed beverages. It can also be used as a general purpose dessert topping.WEB, Khus ka Sharbat Recipe by Niru Gupta, NDTV Food, 2018-07-19,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171119055039weblink">weblink 2017-11-19, no, BOOK, Springer, 978-3-319-26062-4, Lim, T. K., Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 11 Modified Stems, Roots, Bulbs, 2016-02-08,weblink The most common sharbat flavor is probably rose. Rose sharbat can be used as a topping for the milk pudding muhallebi. One Turkish method of making rose sharbat involves kneading fresh rose petals with a little citric acid or sugar to release their fragrance. (If sugar is used the petals are left in the fridge overnight and a small amount of lemon juice is added the following day.) This petal mixture is called gül mayası and can be added to a sharbat base of sugar and water to make a rose sharbat topping that can be used to flavor desserts like muhallebi, and other cookies and cakes.WEB, Gül Şerbetli Su Muhallebisi {{!, Kolay Tatlılar| work = www.showtv.com.tr| accessdate = 2018-07-19| url =weblink| archive-url =weblink| archive-date = 2018-07-19| dead-url = no| df = }}Kokam Sharbat can be prepared with kokam, sugar, and red chili powder.BOOK, Aliza Green, Field Guide to Herbs & Spices: How to Identify, Select, and Use Virtually....,weblink 1-59474-082-8, Quirk Books, 201, Garnish with the glass slice of lemon and crushed some of the mint leaves in sharbat.{{cit web|author=Pankaj Bhadouria|url=https://livingfoodz.com/recipes/kokam-sharbat-713|title=Kokam Sharbat|publisher=Livingfoodz.com}}

Turkey

File:Kunefe and dondurma.jpg|thumb|Künefe dessert made from kadayif soaked in şerbet served with Maraş ice creamMaraş ice cream Many Ottoman Muslims did not have a custom of consuming or serving alcoholic beverages, which contributed to the popularity of sherbet during the Middle Ages. Sherbet could take three forms: syrups called şurup, pastes called çevirme and tablets. Ottoman confectioners would create concentrated essences out of fresh ingredients that could be diluted to make sherbet. In modern times, sherbet production has declined but in some regions of Turkey syrups are still made. Pastes are rare and can only be found in speciality shops; most commercially available pastes today are limited to bergamot or mastic flavors. Tablets were a specialty item, even during Ottoman Times, made only by confectioner's in professional shops. To make the tablets, fruit juices and essential oils, like rose or cinnamon, were added to boiling sugared water and stirred against the sides of the pan until the sugar began to crystallize. Spices, ground nuts, and herbs might be added to the mixture, which was poured onto a large marble slab and allowed to set.BOOK, I.B.Tauris, 978-1-84885-898-5, Isin, Mary, Sherbet and Spice: The Complete Story of Turkish Sweets and Desserts, 2013-01-08, In the 19th-century Isaac Edrehi wrote about a shopkeep named Mustafa who made two types of beverages called sherbet and khoshâb:BOOK, I. Edrehi, Edrehi, Moses, History of the capital of Asia and the Turks: together with an account of the domestic manners of the Turks in Turkey, 1855,weblink 2018-07-19,weblink 2018-07-20, no, One of the dainties on the happy mixture of which Hadjy Mustafa prides himself is khoshâb. This beverage, though nearly related to, must not be confounded with, sherbet. The latter is slightly acidulated, and in general made of fresh lemon, quince, orange or cherry juice, or of candied grapes, mulberries, and Damascus plums, squeezed or diluted in cold water, and thus drank at all hours. But the khoshâb (agreeable water) forms the termination of all orthodox dinners, and is composed of preserved fruits or syrups, such as Aidin pomegranates, Mardin plums, Damascus and Bokhara apricots, Rodosto peaches, Scala Nuova cherries, Beybek strawberries, Adrianople roses, tamarinds, and so forth."The Ottoman writer Evliya Çelebi records that the Merchants of Khoshâb in Ottoman Egypt made khoshâb, which he calls "a kind of sherbet", from "the juice of the most excellent fruits, such as apricots of Bokhara, plums of Mardin, pears of Azerbaijan, mulberries of Arabguir, grapes of Smyrna, sour cherries (aigriottes) of Rodosto, apples of Koja Ili, prunes of Temesvar, and peaches of Constantinople." According to this account the khoshâb is flavored with "amber and musk". He goes on to describe a different group of sherbet-merchants whose shops are decorated with "many thousand cups and bowls of China and Fayence, which are filled with sherbet, made of rhubarb, roses, lemons, lotus, tamarinds and grapes."BOOK, Oriental Translation Fund, 1834,weblink 2018-07-19,weblink 2018-07-20, no, The 15th-century Ottoman poem by Süleyman Çelebi wrote: "As I burned with raging thirst, They handed me a glass of sherbet" describing how the Islamic prophet Muhammad{{'}}s mother was given a glass of sherbet while she was in labor.BOOK, Oxford Symposium, 978-1-903018-89-7, McWilliams, Mark, Celebration: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 2011, 2012-07-01,weblink When a woman in Anatolia gives birth it is still customary to offer a hot sherbet called lohusa şerbeti to guests.BOOK, Oxford Symposium, 978-0-907325-46-8, Walker, Harlan, Oxford Symposium on Food & Cookery, 1990: Feasting and Fasting : Proceedings, 1991,weblink 2018-07-19,weblink 2018-07-20, no, Common sharbat flavors include tamarind, pomegranate, black mulberry, sour grape, licorice, morello cherry, rose, honey.Özdoğan, Yahya, and Nermin Işık. "Geleneksel Türk Mutfağında Şerbet." (2008). One version uses fresh purple wisteria flowers. The petals are soaked in water for a full day and then strained through cheesecloth. The petals are bundled in the cheesecloth and their highly fragranced liquid is also squeezed into the bowl containing the scented water. Sugar is added and the sugared mixture is allowed to rest overnight.AV MEDIA, Refika'nın Mutfağı, Refika'dan Kolay Mor Salkımlı Şerbet Tarifi, 2018-07-19,weblinkweblink 2018-07-20, no,
A simple sherbet of lemon, citric acid and water, without additional spices, is called nişan şerbeti or "betrothal sherbet" in Turkish and is traditionally served at engagement ceremonies.BOOK, Esform Ofset, 978-975-95385-4-5, Üçer, Müjgân, Akkaya, H. Suna Eretkin, Arapgir, 2008, Some versions of lemon sherbet may be optionally flavored with honey and cloves.AV MEDIA, Migros Türkiye, Limon Şerbeti Tarifi, 2018-07-19,weblinkweblink 2018-07-20, no, A similar sherbet flavored with cloves and lemon juice can also be made with fresh peaches.AV MEDIA, Migros Türkiyeundefined (Director), Şeftali Şerbeti, 2018-07-19,weblinkweblink 2018-07-20, no, Green apple and cinnamon is another possible flavor combination.AV MEDIA, Migros Türkiye, Elma Şerbeti, 2018-07-19,weblink One recipe for "Ottoman sherbet" calls for sugared sour cherries, dried plums, golden raisins, fresh ginger, cloves, cinnamon sticks to be simmered together.AV MEDIA, Migros Türkiye, Osmanlı Şerbeti Nasıl Yapılır? {{!, Osmanlı Şerbeti Tarifi| accessdate = 2018-07-19| time = 48 seconds| url =weblink| archive-url =weblink| archive-date = 2018-07-20| dead-url = no| df = }}

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

{{commons category|Sharbat}}{{wiktionary|sherbet}} {{Cuisine of Turkey}}

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