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(File:Semigroup associative image.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.75|The associative property of string concatenation.)In mathematics, a semigroup is an algebraic structure consisting of a set together with an associative binary operation.The binary operation of a semigroup is most often denoted multiplicatively: xÂ·y, or simply xy, denotes the result of applying the semigroup operation to the ordered pair {{nowrap|(x, y)}}. Associativity is formally expressed as that {{nowrap|1=(xÂ·y)Â·z = xÂ·(yÂ·z)}} for all x, y and z in the semigroup.Semigroups may be considered a special case of magmas, where the operation is associative, or as a generalization of groups, without requiring the existence of an identity element or inverses. The closure axiom is implied by the definition of a binary operation on a set. Some authors thus omit it and specify three axioms for a group and only axiom (associativity) for a semigroup. As in the case of groups or magmas, the semigroup operation need not be commutative, so xÂ·y is not necessarily equal to yÂ·x; a well-known example of an operation that is associative but non-commutative is matrix multiplication. If the semigroup operation is commutative, then the semigroup is called a commutative semigroup or (less often than in the analogous case of groups) it may be called an abelian semigroup.A monoid is an algebraic structure intermediate between groups and semigroups, and is a semigroup having an identity element, thus obeying all but one of the axioms of a group; existence of inverses is not required of a monoid. A natural example is strings with concatenation as the binary operation, and the empty string as the identity element. Restricting to non-empty strings gives an example of a semigroup that is not a monoid. Positive integers with addition form a commutative semigroup that is not a monoid, whereas the non-negative integers do form a monoid. A semigroup without an identity element can be easily turned into a monoid by just adding an identity element. Consequently, monoids are studied in the theory of semigroups rather than in group theory. Semigroups should not be confused with quasigroups, which are a generalization of groups in a different direction; the operation in a quasigroup need not be associative but quasigroups preserve from groups a notion of division. Division in semigroups (or in monoids) is not possible in general.The formal study of semigroups began in the early 20th century. Early results include a Cayley theorem for semigroups realizing any semigroup as transformation semigroup, in which arbitrary functions replace the role of bijections from group theory. Other fundamental techniques of studying semigroups like Green's relations do not imitate anything in group theory though. A deep result in the classification of finite semigroups is Krohnâ€“Rhodes theory. The theory of finite semigroups has been of particular importance in theoretical computer science since the 1950s because of the natural link between finite semigroups and finite automata via the syntactic monoid. In probability theory, semigroups are associated with Markov processes.{{harv|Feller|1971}}JOURNAL, On the variety of linear recurrences and numerical semigroups, Semigroup Forum, 2013-11-14, 0037-1912, 569â€“574, 88, 3, 10.1007/s00233-013-9551-2, en, Ivan, Martino, Luca, Martino, 1207.0111, In other areas of applied mathematics, semigroups are fundamental models for linear time-invariant systems. In partial differential equations, a semigroup is associated to any equation whose spatial evolution is independent of time. There are numerous special classes of semigroups, semigroups with additional properties, which appear in particular applications. Some of these classes are even closer to groups by exhibiting some additional but not all properties of a group. Of these we mention: regular semigroups, orthodox semigroups, semigroups with involution, inverse semigroups and cancellative semigroups. There also interesting classes of semigroups that do not contain any groups except the trivial group; examples of the latter kind are bands and their commutative subclass—semilattices, which are also (:Category:Ordered algebraic structures|ordered algebraic structure)s.{{Algebraic structures |Group}}

## Definition

A semigroup is a set S together with a binary operation "cdot" (that is, a function cdot:Stimes Srightarrow S) that satisfies the associative property:
For all a,b,cin S, the equation (acdot b)cdot c = acdot(bcdot c) holds.
More succinctly, a semigroup is an associative magma.

## Basic concepts

### Identity and zero

A left identity of a semigroup S (or more generally, magma) is an element e such that for all x in S, ex = x. Similarly, a right identity is an element f such that for all x in S, xf = x. Left and right identities are both called one-sided identities. A semigroup may have one or more left identities but no right identity, and vice versa.A two-sided identity (or just identity) is an element that is both a left and right identity. Semigroups with a two-sided identity are called monoids. A semigroup may have at most one two-sided identity. If a semigroup has a two-sided identity, then the two-sided identity is the only one-sided identity in the semigroup. If a semigroup has both a left identity and a right identity, then it has a two-sided identity (which is therefore the unique one-sided identity).A semigroup S without identity may be embedded in a monoid formed by adjoining an element e notin S to S and defining e cdot s = s cdot e = s for all s in S cup {e}.{{harvnb|Jacobson|2009|p=30, ex. 5}}{{harvnb|Lawson|1998|loc=[{{Google books|plainurl=y|id=_F78nQEACAAJ|page=20|text=adjoining an identity}} p. 20]}} The notation S^1 denotes a monoid obtained from S by adjoining an identity if necessary (S^1 = S for a monoid).Similarly, every magma has at most one absorbing element, which in semigroup theory is called a zero. Analogous to the above construction, for every semigroup S, one can define S^0, a semigroup with 0 that embeds S.

### Subsemigroups and ideals

The semigroup operation induces an operation on the collection of its subsets: given subsets A and B of a semigroup S, their product {{nowrap|A Â· B}}, written commonly as AB, is the set {{nowrap|{ ab {{!}} a in A and b in B }.}} (This notion is defined identically as it is for groups.) In terms of this operation, a subset A is called
• a subsemigroup if AA is a subset of A,
• a right ideal if AS is a subset of A, and
• a left ideal if SA is a subset of A.
If A is both a left ideal and a right ideal then it is called an ideal (or a two-sided ideal).If S is a semigroup, then the intersection of any collection of subsemigroups of S is also a subsemigroup of S.So the subsemigroups of S form a complete lattice.An example of semigroup with no minimal ideal is the set of positive integers under addition. The minimal ideal of a commutative semigroup, when it exists, is a group.Green's relations, a set of five equivalence relations that characterise the elements in terms of the principal ideals they generate, are important tools for analysing the ideals of a semigroup and related notions of structure.The subset with the property that its every element commutes with any other element of the semigroup is called the center of the semigroup.BOOK, Mati, Kilp, U., Knauer, Aleksandr V., Mikhalev, Monoids, Acts, and Categories: With Applications to Wreath Products and Graphs : a Handbook for Students and Researchers,weblink 2000, Walter de Gruyter, 978-3-11-015248-7, 25, 0945.20036, The center of a semigroup is actually a subsemigroup.BOOK, E. S., LiÍ¡apin, Semigroups,weblink 1968, American Mathematical Soc., 978-0-8218-8641-0, 96,

### Homomorphisms and congruences

A semigroup homomorphism is a function that preserves semigroup structure. A function {{nowrap|f: S â†’ T}} between two semigroups is a homomorphism if the equation
{{nowrap|1=f(ab) = f(a)f(b)}}.
holds for all elements a, b in S, i.e. the result is the same when performing the semigroup operation after or before applying the map f.A semigroup homomorphism between monoids preserves identity if it is a monoid homomorphism. But there are semigroup homomorphisms which are not monoid homomorphisms, e.g. the canonical embedding of a semigroup S without identity into S^1. Conditions characterizing monoid homomorphisms are discussed further. Let f:S_0to S_1 be a semigroup homomorphism. The image of f is also a semigroup. If S_0 is a monoid with an identity element e_0, then f(e_0) is the identity element in the image of f. If S_1 is also a monoid with an identity element e_1 and e_1 belongs to the image of f, then f(e_0)=e_1, i.e. f is a monoid homomorphism. Particularly, if f is surjective, then it is a monoid homomorphism.Two semigroups S and T are said to be isomorphic if there is a bijection {{nowrap|f : S â†” T}} with the property that, for any elements a, b in S, {{nowrap|1=f(ab) = f(a)f(b)}}. Isomorphic semigroups have the same structure.A semigroup congruence sim is an equivalence relation that is compatible with the semigroup operation. That is, a subset sim;subseteq Stimes S that is an equivalence relation and xsim y, and usim v, implies xusim yv, for every x,y,u,v in S. Like any equivalence relation, a semigroup congruence sim induces congruence classes
[a]_sim = {xin Svert; xsim a}
and the semigroup operation induces a binary operation circ on the congruence classes:
[u]_simcirc [v]_sim = [uv]_sim
Because sim is a congruence, the set of all congruence classes of sim forms a semigroup with circ, called the quotient semigroup or factor semigroup, and denoted S/sim. The mapping x mapsto [x]_sim is a semigroup homomorphism, called the quotient map, canonical surjection or projection; if S is a monoid then quotient semigroup is a monoid with identity [1]_sim. Conversely, the kernel of any semigroup homomorphism is a semigroup congruence. These results are nothing more than a particularization of the first isomorphism theorem in universal algebra. Congruence classes and factor monoids are the objects of study in string rewriting systems.A nuclear congruence on S is one which is the kernel of an endomorphism of S.{{harvnb|Lothaire|2011|p=463}}A semigroup S satisfies the maximal condition on congruences if any family of congruences on S, ordered by inclusion, has a maximal element. By Zorn's lemma, this is equivalent to saying that the ascending chain condition holds: there is no infinite strictly ascending chain of congruences on S.{{harvnb|Lothaire|2011|p=465}}Every ideal I of a semigroup induces a subsemigroup, the Rees factor semigroup via the congruence {{nowrap|x Ï y}}   â‡”   either {{nowrap|1=x = y}} or both x and y are in I.

### Quotients and divisions

The following notionsBOOK, Pin, Jean-Ã‰ric, Mathematical Foundations of Automata Theory, November 30, 2016, 19,weblink introduce the idea that a semigroup is contained in another one.A semigroup T is a quotient of a semigroup S if there is a surjective semigroup morphism from S to T. For example, (mathbb Z/2mathbb Z,+) is a quotient of (mathbb Z/4mathbb Z,+), using the morphism consisting of taking the remainder modulo p of an integer.A semigroup T divides a semigroup S, noted Tpreceq S if T is a quotient of a subsemigroup S. In particular, subsemigroups of S divides T, while it is not necessarily the case that there are a quotient of S.Both of those relation are transitive.

## Structure of semigroups

For any subset A of S there is a smallest subsemigroup T of S which contains A, and we say that A generates T. A single element x of S generates the subsemigroup {{nowrap|{ xn {{!}} n is a positive integer }.}}If this is finite, then x is said to be of finite order, otherwise it is of infinite order.A semigroup is said to be periodic if all of its elements are of finite order.A semigroup generated by a single element is said to be monogenic (or cyclic). If a monogenic semigroup is infinite then it is isomorphic to the semigroup of positive integers with the operation of addition.If it is finite and nonempty, then it must contain at least one idempotent.It follows that every nonempty periodic semigroup has at least one idempotent.A subsemigroup which is also a group is called a subgroup. There is a close relationship between the subgroups of a semigroup and its idempotents. Each subgroup contains exactly one idempotent, namely the identity element of the subgroup. For each idempotent e of the semigroup there is a unique maximal subgroup containing e. Each maximal subgroup arises in this way, so there is a one-to-one correspondence between idempotents and maximal subgroups. Here the term maximal subgroup differs from its standard use in group theory.More can often be said when the order is finite. For example, every nonempty finite semigroup is periodic, and has a minimal ideal and at least one idempotent. The number of finite semigroups of a given size (greater than 1) is (obviously) larger than the number of groups of the same size. For example, of the sixteen possible "multiplication tables" for a set of two elements {{nowrap|{a, b},}} eight form semigroupsNamely: the trivial semigroup in which (for all x and y) {{nowrap|1=xy = a}} and its counterpart in which {{nowrap|1=xy = b}}, the semigroups based on multiplication modulo 2 (choosing a or b as the identity element 1), the groups equivalent to addition modulo 2 (choosing a or b to be the identity element 0), and the semigroups in which the elements are either both left identities or both right identities. whereas only four of these are monoids and only two form groups. For more on the structure of finite semigroups, see Krohnâ€“Rhodes theory.

## Special classes of semigroups

• A monoid is a semigroup with identity.
• A subsemigroup is a subset of a semigroup that is closed under the semigroup operation.
• A band is a semigroup the operation of which is idempotent.
• A cancellative semigroup is one having the cancellation property:{{harvnb|Clifford|Preston|1967|p=3}} {{nowrap|1=a Â· b = a Â· c}} implies {{nowrap|1=b = c}} and similarly for {{nowrap|1=b Â· a = c Â· a}}.
• A semilattice is a semigroup whose operation is idempotent and commutative.
• 0-simple semigroups.
• Transformation semigroups: any finite semigroup S can be represented by transformations of a (state-) set Q of at most {{nowrap|{{abs|S}} + 1}} states. Each element x of S then maps Q into itself {{nowrap|x: Q â†’ Q}} and sequence xy is defined by {{nowrap|1=q(xy) = (qx)y}} for each q in Q. Sequencing clearly is an associative operation, here equivalent to function composition. This representation is basic for any automaton or finite state machine (FSM).
• The bicyclic semigroup is in fact a monoid, which can be described as the free semigroup on two generators p and q, under the relation {{nowrap|1=pq = 1}}.
• C0-semigroups.
• Regular semigroups. Every element x has at least one inverse y satisfying {{nowrap|1=xyx=x}} and {{nowrap|1=yxy=y}}; the elements x and y are sometimes called "mutually inverse".
• Inverse semigroups are regular semigroups where every element has exactly one inverse. Alternatively, a regular semigroup is inverse if and only if any two idempotents commute.
• Affine semigroup: a semigroup that is isomorphic to a finitely-generated subsemigroup of Zd. These semigroups have applications to commutative algebra.

## Structure theorem for commutative semigroups

There is a structure theorem for commutative semigroups in terms of semilattices.{{harvnb|Grillet|2001}} A semilattice (or more precisely a meet-semilattice) (L, le) is a partially ordered set where every pair of elements a,b in L has a greatest lower bound, denoted a wedge b. The operation wedge makes L into a semigroup satisfying the additional idempotence law a wedge a = a .Given a homomorphism f: S to L from an arbitrary semigroup to a semilattice, each inverse image S_a = f^{-1} {a } is a (possibly empty) semigroup. Moreover, S becomes graded by L, in the sense that
S_a S_b subseteq S_{a wedge b}
If f is onto, the semilattice L is isomorphic to the quotient of S by the equivalence relation sim such that x sim y iff f(x) = f(y) . This equivalence relation is a semigroup congruence, as defined above.Whenever we take the quotient of a commutative semigroup by a congruence, we get another commutative semigroup. The structure theorem says that for any commutative semigroup S, there is a finest congruence sim such that the quotient of S by this equivalence relation is a semilattice. Denoting this semilattice by L , we get a homomorphism f from S onto L . As mentioned, S becomes graded by this semilattice.Furthermore, the components S_a are all Archimedean semigroups. An Archimedean semigroup is one where given any pair of elements x, y , there exists an element z and n > 0 such that x^n = y z .The Archimedean property follows immediately from the ordering in the semilattice L, since with this ordering we have f(x) le f(y) if and only if x^n = y z for some z and n > 0 .

## Group of fractions

The group of fractions or group completion of a semigroup S is the group {{nowrap|1=G = G(S)}} generated by the elements of S as generators and all equations {{nowrap|1=xy = z}} which hold true in S as relations.{{citation |first=B. |last=Farb |title=Problems on mapping class groups and related topics |publisher=Amer. Math. Soc. |year=2006 |isbn=978-0-8218-3838-9 |page=357 }} There is an obvious semigroup homomorphism {{nowrap|j : SG(S)}} which sends each element of S to the corresponding generator. This has a universal property for morphisms from S to a group:BOOK, M., Auslander, D. A., Buchsbaum, Groups, rings, modules, Harper & Row, 1974, 978-0-06-040387-4, 50, given any group H and any semigroup homomorphism {{nowrap|k : SH}}, there exists a unique group homomorphism {{nowrap|f : GH}} with k=fj. We may think of G as the "most general" group that contains a homomorphic image of S.An important question is to characterize those semigroups for which this map is an embedding. This need not always be the case: for example, take S to be the semigroup of subsets of some set X with set-theoretic intersection as the binary operation (this is an example of a semilattice). Since {{nowrap|1=A.A = A}} holds for all elements of S, this must be true for all generators of G(S) as well: which is therefore the trivial group. It is clearly necessary for embeddability that S have the cancellation property. When S is commutative this condition is also sufficient{{harvnb|Clifford|Preston|1961|p=34}} and the Grothendieck group of the semigroup provides a construction of the group of fractions. The problem for non-commutative semigroups can be traced to the first substantial paper on semigroups.{{harv|Suschkewitsch|1928}}{{citation|url=http://www.gap-system.org/~history/Extras/Preston_semigroups.html|title=Personal reminiscences of the early history of semigroups|first=G. B.|last=Preston|year=1990|accessdate=2009-05-12|authorlink=Gordon Preston|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090109045100weblink|archivedate=2009-01-09|df=}} Anatoly Maltsev gave necessary and sufficient conditions for embeddability in 1937.{{Citation | doi=10.1007/BF01571659 | last=Maltsev | first=A. | authorlink=Anatoly Maltsev | title=On the immersion of an algebraic ring into a field | journal=Math. Annalen | volume=113 | year=1937 | pages=686â€“691 | postscript=.}}

## Semigroup methods in partial differential equations

{{further|C0-semigroup}}Semigroup theory can be used to study some problems in the field of partial differential equations. Roughly speaking, the semigroup approach is to regard a time-dependent partial differential equation as an ordinary differential equation on a function space. For example, consider the following initial/boundary value problem for the heat equation on the spatial interval {{nowrap|(0, 1) âŠ‚ R}} and times {{nowrap|t â‰¥ 0}}:
begin{cases} partial_{t} u(t, x) = partial_{x}^{2} u(t, x), & x in (0, 1), t > 0; u(t, x) = 0, & x in { 0, 1 }, t > 0; u(t, x) = u_{0} (x), & x in (0, 1), t = 0. end{cases}
Let {{nowrap|1=X = L2((0, 1) R)}} be the Lp space of square-integrable real-valued functions with domain the interval {{nowrap|(0, 1)}} and let A be the second-derivative operator with domain
D(A) = big{ u in H^{2} ((0, 1); mathbf{R}) big| u(0) = u(1) = 0 big},
where H2 is a Sobolev space. Then the above initial/boundary value problem can be interpreted as an initial value problem for an ordinary differential equation on the space X:
begin{cases} dot{u}(t) = A u (t); u(0) = u_{0}. end{cases}
On an heuristic level, the solution to this problem "ought" to be {{nowrap|1=u(t) = exp(tA)u0}}. However, for a rigorous treatment, a meaning must be given to the exponential of tA. As a function of t, exp(tA) is a semigroup of operators from X to itself, taking the initial state u0 at time {{nowrap|1=t = 0}} to the state {{nowrap|1=u(t) = exp(tA)u0}} at time t. The operator A is said to be the infinitesimal generator of the semigroup.

## History

The study of semigroups trailed behind that of other algebraic structures with more complex axioms such as groups or rings. A number of sourcesEarliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics An account of Suschkewitsch's paper by Christopher Hollings attribute the first use of the term (in French) to J.-A. de SÃ©guier in Ã‰lements de la ThÃ©orie des Groupes Abstraits (Elements of the Theory of Abstract Groups) in 1904. The term is used in English in 1908 in Harold Hinton's Theory of Groups of Finite Order.Anton Suschkewitsch obtained the first non-trivial results about semigroups. His 1928 paper "Ãœber die endlichen Gruppen ohne das Gesetz der eindeutigen Umkehrbarkeit" ("On finite groups without the rule of unique invertibility") determined the structure of finite simple semigroups and showed that the minimal ideal (or Green's relations J-class) of a finite semigroup is simple. From that point on, the foundations of semigroup theory were further laid by David Rees, James Alexander Green, Evgenii Sergeevich Lyapin, Alfred H. Clifford and Gordon Preston. The latter two published a two-volume monograph on semigroup theory in 1961 and 1967 respectively. In 1970, a new periodical called Semigroup Forum (currently edited by Springer Verlag) became one of the few mathematical journals devoted entirely to semigroup theory.In recent years researchers in the field have become more specialized with dedicated monographs appearing on important classes of semigroups, like inverse semigroups, as well as monographs focusing on applications in algebraic automata theory, particularly for finite automata, and also in functional analysis.

## Generalizations

{{Group-like structures}}If the associativity axiom of a semigroup is dropped, the result is a magma, which is nothing more than a set M equipped with a binary operation {{math|1=M Ã— M â†’ M}}.Generalizing in a different direction, an n-ary semigroup (also n-semigroup, polyadic semigroup or multiary semigroup) is a generalization of a semigroup to a set G with a n-ary operation instead of a binary operation.{{Citation |last=Dudek |first=W.A. |title=On some old problems in n-ary groups |url=http://www.quasigroups.eu/contents/contents8.php?m=trzeci |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090714003319weblink |dead-url=yes |archive-date=2009-07-14 |journal=Quasigroups and Related Systems |year=2001 |volume=8 |pages=15â€“36 }} The associative law is generalized as follows: ternary associativity is {{math|1=(abc)de = a(bcd)e = ab(cde)}}, i.e. the string abcde with any three adjacent elements bracketed. N-ary associativity is a string of length {{math|n + (n âˆ’ 1)}} with any n adjacent elements bracketed. A 2-ary semigroup is just a semigroup. Further axioms lead to an n-ary group.A third generalization is the semigroupoid, in which the requirement that the binary relation be total is lifted. As categories generalize monoids in the same way, a semigroupoid behaves much like a category but lacks identities.Infinitary generalizations of commutative semigroups have sometimes been considered by various authors.See references in Udo Hebisch and Hanns Joachim Weinert, Semirings and Semifields, in particular, Section 10, Semirings with infinite sums, in M. Hazewinkel, Handbook of Algebra, Vol. 1, Elsevier, 1996. Notice that in this context the authors use the term semimodule in place of semigroup.

## Notes

{{reflist|group="note"}}

{{reflist}}

## References

General references
• {{citation|last= Howie|first= John M.|authorlink=John Mackintosh Howie|title=Fundamentals of Semigroup Theory|year=1995|publisher=Clarendon Press|isbn=978-0-19-851194-6|zbl=0835.20077}}.
• {{citation |first=A. H. |last=Clifford |first2=G. B. |last2=Preston |title=The Algebraic Theory of Semigroups |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=4vXG2rjCUmUC |year=1961 |publisher=American Mathematical Society |isbn=978-0-8218-0271-7 |volume=1 |authorlink1= Alfred H. Clifford |authorlink2=Gordon Preston |zbl=0111.03403}}.
• {{citation |first=A. H. |last=Clifford |first2=G. B. |last2=Preston |title=The Algebraic Theory of Semigroups |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=756KAwAAQBAJ |year=1967 |publisher=American Mathematical Society |isbn=978-0-8218-0272-4 |volume=2 |zbl=0178.01203}}.
• {{citation |first=Pierre A. |last=Grillet |title=Semigroups: An Introduction to the Structure Theory |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=yM544W1N2UUC |year=1995 |publisher=Marcel Dekker |isbn=978-0-8247-9662-4 |zbl=0830.20079 }}.
• {{citation |first=Pierre A. |last=Grillet |title=Commutative Semigroups |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=7QOOxYbCpggC |year=2001 |publisher=Springer Verlag |isbn=978-0-7923-7067-3 |zbl=1040.20048}}.
• {{citation |first=Christopher |last=Hollings|title=Mathematics across the Iron Curtain: A History of the Algebraic Theory of Semigroups|year=2014|publisher=American Mathematical Society|isbn=978-1-4704-1493-1|zbl=1317.20001}}.
• {{citation |first=Mario |last=Petrich|title=Introduction to Semigroups|year=1973|publisher=Charles E. Merrill|isbn=978-0-675-09062-9|zbl=0321.20037}}.

Specific references
• {{Citation | last1=Feller | first1=William | author1-link=William Feller | title=An introduction to probability theory and its applications |volume=II | publisher=Wiley |edition=2nd | mr=0270403 | year=1971}}.
• {{Citation | last1=Hille | first1=Einar | authorlink1=Einar Hille | last2=Phillips | first2=Ralph S. | authorlink2=Ralph Phillips (mathematician) | title=Functional analysis and semi-groups | publisher=American Mathematical Society | mr=0423094 | year=1974 |isbn=978-0821874646 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=gf2VAwAAQBAJ}}.
• {{Citation | last1=Suschkewitsch | first1=Anton | title=Ãœber die endlichen Gruppen ohne das Gesetz der eindeutigen Umkehrbarkeit | doi=10.1007/BF01459084 | mr=1512437 | year=1928 | journal=Mathematische Annalen | issn=0025-5831 | volume=99 | issue=1 | pages=30â€“50}}.
• {{citation |first=Shmuel |last=Kantorovitz |title=Topics in Operator Semigroups |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=bQdLAAAAQBAJ&pg=PP5 |year=2009 |publisher=Springer |isbn=978-0-8176-4932-6 |zbl=1187.47003}}.
• {{Citation| last=Jacobson| first=Nathan| author-link=Nathan Jacobson| year=2009| title=Basic algebra| edition=2nd| volume = 1 | publisher=Dover| isbn = 978-0-486-47189-1}}
• {{citation |last1=Lawson |first1=M.V. |title=Inverse semigroups: the theory of partial symmetries |year=1998 |publisher=World Scientific |isbn=978-981-02-3316-7 |zbl=1079.20505 }}
• {{citation | last=Lothaire | first=M. | authorlink=M. Lothaire | title=Algebraic combinatorics on words | origyear=2002 | series=Encyclopedia of Mathematics and Its Applications | volume=90| publisher=Cambridge University Press | year=2011 | isbn=978-0-521-18071-9 | zbl=1221.68183 }}

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