rump state

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rump state
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File:Detailed Domain of Soissons.svg|thumb|Kingdom of Soissons, a Roman rump state.]]A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state, left with a reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, occupation, decolonization, or a successful coup d'état or revolution on part of its former territory.CONFERENCE, Tir, Jaroslav, Keeping the Peace After Secessions: Territorial Conflicts Between Rump and Secessionist States, Annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Feb 22, 2005,weblink Oct 26, 2014, harv, Hawaii Online, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, In the latter case, a government stops short of going into exile because it still controls part of its former territory.


Ancient history

Post-classical history

Modern history

  • The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was left as a rump state after the First Partition of Poland by Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772.BOOK, Fazal, Tanisha M., State Death: The Politics and Geography of Conquest, Occupation, and Annexation, 2011, Princeton University Press, 9781400841448, 110, The resulting rump state was partitioned again in 1793 and annexed outright in 1795. After Napoleon's victory in the War of the Fourth Coalition in 1807, he created a new Polish rump state, the Duchy of Warsaw.BOOK, Lerski, George J., Historical dictionary of Poland, 966-1945, 1996, Greenwood Press, 9780313260070, 121, After Napoleon's defeat, the Congress of Vienna created a state, Congress Poland in 1815; it is unclear whether this should be seen as a rump state or a puppet state.BOOK, Marcus, Joseph, Social and political history of the Jews in Poland, 1919-1939, 2011, Mouton Publishers, 9783110838688, 73,
  • The Hungarian Soviet RepublicBOOK, John C. Swanson, Tangible Belonging: Negotiating Germanness in Twentieth-Century Hungary, University of Pittsburgh Press, 2017, 80, 9780822981992,weblink was proclaimed in March 1919 after the resignation of the government of the First Hungarian Republic when, following their absorption of the Social Democrats, the Communists took control of the country. Though sometimes controlling only around 23% of the Hungarian state, after some initial military successes, in the end the army was defeated and the government fell in August, 1919.
  • The Republic of German-Austria was created in 1918 as the initial rump state for areas with a predominantly German-speaking population within what had been the Austro-Hungarian Empire.BOOK, Magocsi, Paul Robert, Historical atlas of Central Europe: Third Revised and Expanded Edition, 2018, University of Toronto Press, 9781487523312, 128,
  • The rump Republic of Salò (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, 1943-1945), led by Benito Mussolini, claimed to be the legitimate successor of the Kingdom of Italy; it was in fact a puppet state of Nazi Germany.James Hartfield, Unpatriotic History of the Second World War, {{isbn|178099379X}}, 2012, p. 424Eric Morris, Circles of Hell: The War in Italy 1943-1945, {{isbn|0091744741}}, 1993, p. 140BOOK, Neville, Peter, Mussolini, 2014, Routledge, 9781317613046, 199, 2nd,
  • Ethiopia was left a rump state by the independence of Eritrea in 1991 after the Eritrean War of Independence.JOURNAL, Tir, Jaroslav, Keeping the Peace after Secession: Territorial Conflicts between Rump and Secessionist States, The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2005, 49, 5, 714,
  • The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, that is, the name the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro used from 1992 to 2003, was often viewed as the rump state left behind by the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1945–1992) when it broke up.{{Citation |last=Sudetic |first=Chuck |date=1991-10-24 |title=Top Serb Leaders Back Proposal To Form Separate Yugoslav State |journal=New York Times |url= |accessdate=2018-03-07 |postscript=.}} This view of it was held not only by its founders, but also by many people antagonistic to them.
  • Since the secession of South Sudan in 2011, the northern portion of Sudan has formed a rump state.JOURNAL, Beber, Bernd, Roessler, Philip, Scacco, Alexandra, Intergroup Violence and Political Attitudes: Evidence from a Dividing Sudan, The Journal of Politics, 2014, 76, 3, 652,

Disputed cases

  • The Republic of China: Following the victory of the Communist Party of China in establishing the People's Republic of China on Mainland China during the Chinese Civil War, the Government of the Republic of China fled to the island of Taiwan and continues to claim authority over all of China. Since then, a few regard it as a rump stateBOOK, Problematic Sovereignty: Contested Rules and Political Possibilities, Krasner, Stephen D., Columbia University Press, 2001, 148, For some time the Truman administration had been hoping to distance itself from the rump state on Taiwan and to establish at least a minimal relationship with the newly founded PRC., while others regard it as a government in exile.WEB, TIMELINE: Milestones in China-Taiwan relations since 1949,weblink Reuters, March 4, 2015,weblink December 29, 2014, live, 1949: Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists lose civil war to Mao Zedong's Communist forces, sets up government-in-exile on Taiwan., For more details, see political status of Taiwan.
  • According to some observers,{{who?|date=September 2019}} Ukraine became a rump state following the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation in 2014 and war in Donbass. However, according to Ukraine's allies who do not recognize Russia's claim to Crimea, Crimea still belongs to Ukraine, and hence Ukraine is not a rump state according to their laws.{{Citation needed|date=September 2019}}

See also





  • BOOK, Shaughnessy, Edward L., Edward L. Shaughnessy, Western Zhou History, Michael Loewe, Edward L. Shaughnessy, harv, The Cambridge History of ancient China - From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C, 1999, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 9780521470308, 292–351
, {{gov-stub}}

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Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott