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radian
please note:
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{{about||a measure of ionizing radiation|Rad (unit)|other uses|Radian (disambiguation)}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
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Definition
Radian describes the plane angle subtended by a circular arc as the length of the arc divided by the radius of the arc. One radian is the angle subtended at the center of a circle by an arc that is equal in length to the radius of the circle. More generally, the magnitude in radians of such a subtended angle is equal to the ratio of the arc length to the radius of the circle; that is, {{nowrap|1=Î¸ = s / r}}, where Î¸ is the subtended angle in radians, s is arc length, and r is radius. Conversely, the length of the enclosed arc is equal to the radius multiplied by the magnitude of the angle in radians; that is, {{nowrap|1=s = rÎ¸}}.As the ratio of two lengths, the radian is a "pure number" that needs no unit symbol, and in mathematical writing the symbol "rad" is almost always omitted. When quantifying an angle in the absence of any symbol, radians are assumed, and when degrees are meant the symbol Â° is used.File:2pi-unrolled.gif|thumb|right|A complete revolution is 2{{pi}} radians (shown here with a circle of radius one and thus circumferencecircumferenceIt follows that the magnitude in radians of one complete revolution (360 degrees) is the length of the entire circumference divided by the radius, or {{nowrap|2{{pi}}r / r}}, or 2{{pi}}. Thus 2{{pi}} radians is equal to 360 degrees, meaning that one radian is equal to 180/{{pi}} degrees.The relation 2pitext{ rad}=360^{circ} can be derived using the formula for arc length. Taking the formula for arc length, or ell_{arc}=2pi rleft(frac{theta}{360^{circ}}right). Assuming a unit circle; the radius is therefore one. Knowing that the definition of radian is the measure of an angle that subtends an arc of a length equal to the radius of the circle, we know that 1=2pileft(frac{1text{ rad}}{360^{circ}}right). This can be further simplified to 1=frac{2pitext{ rad}}{360^{circ}}. Multiplying both sides by 360^{circ} gives 360^{circ}=2pitext{ rad}.History
The concept of radian measure, as opposed to the degree of an angle, is normally credited to Roger Cotes in 1714.WEB,weblink Biography of Roger Cotes, The MacTutor History of Mathematics, February 2005, O'Connor, J. J., E. F., Robertson, Roger Cotes died in 1716. By 1722, his cousin Robert Smith had collected and published Cotes' mathematical writings in a book, Harmonia mensurarum â€¦ . In a chapter of editorial comments by Smith, he gives, for the first time, the value of one radian in degrees. See: Roger Cotes with Robert Smith, ed., Harmonia mensurarum â€¦ (Cambridge, England: 1722), chapter: Editoris notÃ¦ ad Harmoniam mensurarum, top of page 95. From page 95: After stating that 180Â° corresponds to a length of {{pi}} (3.14159â€¦) along a unit circle (i.e., {{pi}} radians), Smith writes: "Unde Modulus Canonis Trigonometrici prodibit 57.2957795130 &c. " (Whence the unit of trigonometric measure, 57.2957795130â€¦ [degrees per radian], will appear.) He described the radian in everything but name, and he recognized its naturalness as a unit of angular measure. The idea of measuring angles by the length of the arc was already in use by other mathematicians. For example, al-Kashi (c. 1400) used so-called diameter parts as units where one diameter part was {{sfrac|1|60}} radian and they also used sexagesimal subunits of the diameter part.BOOK, Paul, Luckey, A., Siggel, Berlin, Akademie Verlag, Translation of 1424 book, 1953, Der Lehrbrief Ã¼ber den kreisumfang von Gamshid b. Mas'ud al-Kasi, Treatise on the Circumference of al-Kashi, 6, 40, The term radian first appeared in print on 5 June 1873, in examination questions set by James Thomson (brother of Lord Kelvin) at Queen's College, Belfast. He had used the term as early as 1871, while in 1869, Thomas Muir, then of the University of St Andrews, vacillated between the terms rad, radial, and radian. In 1874, after a consultation with James Thomson, Muir adopted radian.BOOK, Florian Cajori, Florian, Cajori, 1929, History of Mathematical Notations, 2, 147â€“148, 0-486-67766-4, JOURNAL, Nature, 1910, 83, 156, 10.1038/083156a0, The Term "Radian" in Trigonometry, Muir, Thos., 2110, 1910Natur..83..156M, JOURNAL, Nature, 1910, 83, 217, 10.1038/083217c0, The Term "Radian" in Trigonometry, Thomson, James, 2112, 1910Natur..83..217T, JOURNAL, Nature, 1910, 83, 459â€“460, 10.1038/083459d0, The Term "Radian" in Trigonometry, Muir, Thos., 2120, 1910Natur..83..459M, WEB,weblink Nov 23, 2009, Sep 30, 2011, Miller, Jeff, Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics,Conversions
(File:Degree-Radian Conversion.svg|thumb|300px|A chart to convert between degrees and radians){{Table of angles}}Conversion between radians and degrees
As stated, one radian is equal to 180/{{pi}} degrees. Thus, to convert from radians to degrees, multiply by 180/{{pi}}.
text{angle in degrees} = text{angle in radians} cdot frac {180^circ} {pi}
For example:
1 text{ rad} = 1 cdot frac {180^circ} {pi} approx 57.2958^circ
2.5 text{ rad} = 2.5 cdot frac {180^circ} {pi} approx 143.2394^circ
frac {pi} {3} text{ rad} = frac {pi} {3} cdot frac {180^circ} {pi} = 60^circ
Conversely, to convert from degrees to radians, multiply by {{pi}}/180.
text{angle in radians} = text{angle in degrees} cdot frac {pi} {180^circ}
For example:
1^circ = 1 cdot frac {pi} {180^circ} approx 0.0175 text{ rad}
23^circ = 23 cdot frac {pi} {180^circ} approx 0.4014 text{ rad}Radians can be converted to turns (complete revolutions) by dividing the number of radians by 2{{pi}}.Radian to degree conversion derivation
The length of circumference of a circle is given by 2pi r, where r is the radius of the circle.So the following equivalent relation is true:360^circ iff 2pi r{{pad|4em}}[Since a 360^circ sweep is needed to draw a full circle]By the definition of radian, a full circle represents:
frac{2pi r}{r} text{ rad}
= 2pi text{ rad}
Combining both the above relations:
2pi text{ rad} = 360^circ
Rrightarrow 1 text{ rad} = frac{360^circ}{2pi}
Rrightarrow 1 text{ rad} = frac{180^circ}{pi}
Conversion between radians and gradians
2pi radians equals one turn, which is by definition 400 gradians (400 gons or 400g). So, to convert from radians to gradians multiply by 200/pi, and to convert from gradians to radians multiply by pi/200. For example,
1.2 text{ rad} = 1.2 cdot frac {200^text{g}} {pi} approx 76.3944^text{g}
50^text{g} = 50 cdot frac {pi} {200^text{g}} approx 0.7854 text{ rad}
Advantages of measuring in radians
File:Radian-common.svg|thumb|357px|right|Some common angles, measured in radians. All the large polygons in this diagram are regular polygonregular polygonIn calculus and most other branches of mathematics beyond practical geometry, angles are universally measured in radians. This is because radians have a mathematical "naturalness" that leads to a more elegant formulation of a number of important results.Most notably, results in analysis involving trigonometric functions are simple and elegant when the functions' arguments are expressed in radians. For example, the use of radians leads to the simple limit formula
lim_{hrightarrow 0}frac{sin h}{h}=1,
which is the basis of many other identities in mathematics, including
frac{d}{dx} sin x = cos x
frac{d^2}{dx^2} sin x = -sin x.
Because of these and other properties, the trigonometric functions appear in solutions to mathematical problems that are not obviously related to the functions' geometrical meanings (for example, the solutions to the differential equation frac{d^2 y}{dx^2} = -y , the evaluation of the integral int frac{dx}{1+x^2} , and so on). In all such cases it is found that the arguments to the functions are most naturally written in the form that corresponds, in geometrical contexts, to the radian measurement of angles.The trigonometric functions also have simple and elegant series expansions when radians are used; for example, the following Taylor series for sin x :
sin x = x - frac{x^3}{3!} + frac{x^5}{5!} - frac{x^7}{7!} + cdots .
If x were expressed in degrees then the series would contain messy factors involving powers of {{pi}}/180: if x is the number of degrees, the number of radians is {{nowrap|1=y = {{pi}}x / 180}}, so
sin x_mathrm{deg} = sin y_mathrm{rad} = frac{pi}{180} x - left (frac{pi}{180} right )^3 frac{x^3}{3!} + left (frac{pi}{180} right )^5 frac{x^5}{5!} - left (frac{pi}{180} right )^7 frac{x^7}{7!} + cdots .
Mathematically important relationships between the sine and cosine functions and the exponential function (see, for example, Euler's formula) are, again, elegant when the functions' arguments are in radians and messy otherwise.Dimensional analysis
Although the radian is a unit of measure, it is a dimensionless quantity. This can be seen from the definition given earlier: the angle subtended at the centre of a circle, measured in radians, is equal to the ratio of the length of the enclosed arc to the length of the circle's radius. Since the units of measurement cancel, this ratio is dimensionless.Although polar and spherical coordinates use radians to describe coordinates in two and three dimensions, the unit is derived from the radius coordinate, so the angle measure is still dimensionless.For a debate on this meaning and use see:JOURNAL, 10.1119/1.18616, Anglesâ€”Let's treat them squarely, 1997, Brownstein, K. R., American Journal of Physics, 65, 7, 605, 1997AmJPh..65..605B, ,JOURNAL, Angles as a fourth fundamental quantity, 1962, Romain, J.E., Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards Section B, 66B, 3, 97,weblink ,JOURNAL, 10.1119/1.18964, Dimensional angles and universal constants, 1998, LÃ©Vy-Leblond, Jean-Marc, American Journal of Physics, 66, 9, 814, 1998AmJPh..66..814L, , and JOURNAL, 10.1119/1.19185, Unitsâ€”SI-Only, or Multicultural Diversity?, 1999, Romer, Robert H., American Journal of Physics, 67, 13, 1999AmJPh..67...13R,Use in physics
The radian is widely used in physics when angular measurements are required. For example, angular velocity is typically measured in radians per second (rad/s). One revolution per second is equal to 2{{pi}} radians per second.Similarly, angular acceleration is often measured in radians per second per second (rad/s2).For the purpose of dimensional analysis, the units of angular velocity and angular acceleration are sâˆ’1 and sâˆ’2 respectively.Likewise, the phase difference of two waves can also be measured in radians. For example, if the phase difference of two waves is (kâ‹…2{{pi}}) radians, where k is an integer, they are considered in phase, whilst if the phase difference of two waves is ({{nowrap|kâ‹…2{{pi}} + {{pi}}}}), where k is an integer, they are considered in antiphase.SI multiples
Metric prefixes have limited use with radians, and none in mathematics. A milliradian (mrad) is a thousandth of a radian and a microradian (Î¼rad) is a millionth of a radian, i.e. {{nowrap|1=1 rad = 103 mrad = 106 Î¼rad}}.There are 2{{pi}} Ã— 1000 milliradians (â‰ˆ 6283.185 mrad) in a circle. So a trigonometric milliradian is just under {{sfrac|1|6283}} of a circle. This â€œrealâ€ trigonometric unit of angular measurement of a circle is in use by telescopic sight manufacturers using (stadiametric) rangefinding in reticles. The divergence of laser beams is also usually measured in milliradians.An approximation of the trigonometric milliradian (0.001 rad) is used by NATO and other military organizations in gunnery and targeting. Each angular mil represents {{sfrac|1|6400}} of a circle and is {{sfrac|15|8}}% or 1.875% smaller than the trigonometric milliradian. For the small angles typically found in targeting work, the convenience of using the number 6400 in calculation outweighs the small mathematical errors it introduces. In the past, other gunnery systems have used different approximations to {{sfrac|1|2000{{pi}}}}; for example Sweden used the {{sfrac|1|6300}} streck and the USSR used {{sfrac|1|6000}}. Being based on the milliradian, the NATO mil subtends roughly 1 m at a range of 1000 m (at such small angles, the curvature is negligible).Smaller units like microradians (Î¼rad) and nanoradians (nrad) are used in astronomy, and can also be used to measure the beam quality of lasers with ultra-low divergence. More common is arc second, which is {{sfrac|{{pi}}|648,000}} rad (around 4.8481 microradians). Similarly, the prefixes smaller than milli- are potentially useful in measuring extremely small angles.See also
- Angular frequency
- Milliradian
- Gradian (also known as gon)
- Harmonic analysis
- Steradian â€“ the "square radian"
- Trigonometry
Notes and references
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