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{{distinguish|protostates|state within a state}}File:Near East ISIS controlled areas-fr.svg|thumb|285px|Areas controlled by (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant|ISIL]], frequently described as a "proto-state", on 21 May 2015|alt=A map of the Middle East showing areas controlled by ISIL as of May 2015: a number of major cities in northern Syria and Iraq, and corridors connecting them.)A proto-state, also known as a quasi-state,WEB,weblink How the Islamic State Declared War on the World, Foreign Policy, 2016-07-20, is a political entity that does not represent a fully institutionalized or autonomous sovereign state.BOOK, Hahn, Gordon, Russia's Revolution from Above, 1985-2000: Reform, Transition, and Revolution in the Fall of the Soviet Communist Regime, 2002, 527, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, 978-0765800497, The precise definition of "proto-state" in political literature fluctuates depending on the context in which it is used. For instance, it has been used by some modern scholars to describe the self-governing British colonies and dependencies that exercised a form of home rule but remained integral parts of the British Empire and subject firstly to the metropole's administration.BOOK,weblink Age of Secession: The International and Domestic Determinants of State Birth, Griffiths, Ryan, 2016, Cambridge University Press, 978-1107161627, Cambridge, 85–102, 213–242, Likewise, the Republics of the Soviet Union, which represented individual administrative units with their own respective national distinctions, have also been described as proto-states. In more recent usage, the term proto-state has most often been evoked in reference to militant secessionist groups that claim, and exercise some form of territorial control over, a specific region but lack institutional cohesion. Such proto-states include the Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia during the Bosnian War and Azawad during the 2012 Tuareg rebellion.WEB, Independent Azawad: Tuaregs, Jihadists, and an Uncertain Future for Mali, Alvarado, David,weblink Barcelona! Proto-state !! Parent state !! Achieved statehood !!Since!! Source|Indian reservations
date=May 2012archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170325064003weblinkIslamic State of Iraq and the Levant is also widely held to be an example of a modern proto-state.LIATITLE=UNDERSTANDING JIHADI PROTO-STATESJOURNAL=PERSPECTIVES ON TERRORISMVOLUME=9ISSN=2334-3745NEWSPAPER=THE ECONOMISTACCESS-DATE=2016-07-20, HTTP://WWW.E-IR.INFO/2015/04/03/THE-ISLAMIC-STATE-MORE-THAN-A-TERRORIST-GROUP/>TITLE=THE ISLAMIC STATE: MORE THAN A TERRORIST GROUP?ACCESS-DATE=2016-07-20,

History

The term "proto-state" has been used in contexts as far back as Ancient Greece to refer to the phenomenon that the formation of a large and cohesive nation would often be preceded by very small and loose forms of statehood.BOOK,weblink The Dynamics of Ancient Empires: State Power from Assyria to Byzantium, Scheidel, Walter, Morris, Ian, 2009, Oxford University Press, 978-0195371581, Oxford, 5–6, 132, For instance, historical sociologist Gary Runciman noted that Greek city-states in classical antiquity such as Athens were initially weak proto-states that later evolved into larger and more centralised political entities. Most ancient proto-states were the product of tribal societies, consisting of relatively short-lived confederations of communities that united under a single warlord or chieftain endowed with symbolic authority and military rank. These were not considered sovereign states since they rarely achieved any degree of institutional permanence and authority was often exercised over a mobile people rather than measurable territory. Loose confederacies of this nature were the primary means of embracing a common statehood by people in many regions, such as the Central Asian steppes, throughout ancient history.BOOK, Kim, Hyun Jin, The Huns, 2015, 3–6, Routledge Books, Abingdon, 978-1138841758, Proto-states proliferated in Western Europe during the Middle Ages, likely as a result of a trend towards political decentralisation following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the adoption of feudalism.BOOK, Borza, Eugene, In the Shadow of Olympus: The Emergence of Macedon, 1992, 238–240, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 978-0691008806, While theoretically owing allegiance to a single monarch under the feudal system, many lesser nobles administered their own fiefs as miniature "states within states" that were independent of each other.BOOK, Duverger, Maurice, The Study of Politics, 1972, 144–145, Thomas Nelson and Sons, Publishers, Surrey, 978-0690790214, This practice was especially notable with regards to large, decentralised political entities such as the Holy Roman Empire, that incorporated many autonomous and semi-autonomous proto-states.BOOK, Beattie, Andrew, The Danube: A Cultural History, 2011, 35, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 978-0199768356, Following the Age of Discovery, the emergence of European colonialism resulted in the formation of colonial proto-states in Asia, Africa, and the Americas.BOOK, Abernethy, David, The Dynamics of Global Dominance: European Overseas Empires, 1415-1980, 2002, 327–328, Yale University Press, New Haven, 978-0300093148, A few colonies were given the unique status of protectorates, which were effectively controlled by the metropole but retained limited ability to administer themselves, self-governing colonies, dominions, and dependencies. These were distinct administrative units that each fulfilled many of the functions of a state without actually exercising full sovereignty or independence. Colonies without a sub-national home rule status, on the other hand, were considered administrative extensions of the colonising power rather than true proto-states.BOOK, Morier-Genoud, Eric, Sure Road? Nationalisms in Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, 2012, 2, Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 978-9004222618, Colonial proto-states later served as the basis for a number of modern nation states, particularly on the Asian and African continents.During the twentieth century, some proto-states existed as not only distinct administrative units, but their own theoretically self-governing republics joined to each other in a political union such as the socialist federal systems observed in Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union.BOOK, Kostovicova, Denisa, Kosovo: The Politics of Identity and Space, 2005, 5–7, Routledge Books, New York, 978-0415348065, File:Les rebelles touaregs joignent leurs forces dans le nord du Mali (8248043080).jpg|thumb|250px|Tuareg rebels in the short-lived proto-state of AzawadAzawadAnother form of proto-state that has become especially common since the end of World War II is established through the unconstitutional seizure of territory by an insurgent or militant group that proceeds to assume the role of a de facto government. Although denied recognition and bereft of civil institutions, insurgent proto-states may engage in external trade, provide social services, and even undertake limited diplomatic activity.BOOK, Sellström, Tor, Sweden and National Liberation in Southern Africa: Solidarity and assistance, 1970–1994, 2002, 97–99, Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, 978-91-7106-448-6, These proto-states are usually formed by movements drawn from geographically concentrated ethnic or religious minorities, and are thus a common feature of inter-ethnic civil conflicts.BOOK, Christian, Patrick James, A Combat Advisor's Guide to Tribal Engagement: History, Law and War as Operational Elements, 2011, 36–37, Universal Publishers, Boca Raton, 978-1599428161, This is often due to the inclinations of an internal cultural identity group seeking to reject the legitimacy of a sovereign state's political order, and create its own enclave where it is free to live under its own sphere of laws, social mores, and ordering. The accumulation of territory by an insurgent force to form a sub-national geopolitical system and eventually, a proto-state, was a calculated process in China during the Chinese Civil War that set a precedent for many similar attempts throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Proto-states established as a result of civil conflict typically exist in a perpetual state of warfare and their wealth and populations may be limited accordingly.NEWS,weblink Estados-embrión, Torreblanca, José Ignacio, 12 July 2010, El País, Spanish, 18 March 2016,weblink One of the most prominent examples of a wartime proto-state in the twenty-first century is the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant,NEWS,weblink ¿Por qué Estado Islámico le está ganando la partida a los herederos de Bin Laden?, Segurado, Nacho, 16 April 2015, 20 minutos, spanish, 12 March 2016,weblink NEWS,weblink Javier Martín: "El Estado Islámico tiene espíritu de gobernar y permanecer", Rengel, Carmen, 5 April 2015, Spanish, 12 March 2016,weblink NEWS,weblink Islamic State: The struggle to stay rich - BBC News, en-GB, 17 March 2016, 2016-03-08, Keatinge, Tom, that maintained its own administrative bureaucracy and imposed taxes.BOOK,weblink Estado Islámico. Geopolítica del Caos, Martín Rodríguez, Javier, Los Libros de la Catarata, 2015, 978-84-9097-054-6, 3rd, 15, Madrid, Spain, Spanish, Islamic State: Geopolitics of Chaos,

Theoretical basis

File:Oslobođena teritorija u vreme prvog zasedanja AVNOJ-a.jpg|thumb|left|250px|Territory controlled by the Anti-Fascist Council of Yugoslavia, which established its own proto-state in 1942]]The definition of a proto-state is not concise, and has been confused by the interchangeable use of the terms state, country, and nation to describe a given territory.BOOK, Middleton, Nick, An Atlas of Countries That Don't Exist: A Compendium of Fifty Unrecognized and Largely Unnoticed States, 2015, 14–16, Macmillan Publishers, London, 978-1447295273, The term proto-state is preferred to "proto-nation" in an academic context, however, since some authorities also use nation to denote a social, ethnic, or cultural group capable of forming its own state.A proto-state does not meet the four essential criteria for statehood as elaborated upon in the declarative theory of statehood of the 1933 Montevideo Convention: a permanent population, a defined territory, a government with its own institutions, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states. A proto-state is not necessarily synonymous with a state with limited recognition that otherwise has all the hallmarks of a fully functioning sovereign state, such as Rhodesia or the Republic of China, also known as Taiwan. However, proto-states frequently go unrecognised since a state actor that recognises a proto-state does so in violation of another state actor's external sovereignty.BOOK, Coggins, Bridget, Power Politics and State Formation in the Twentieth Century: The Dynamics of Recognition, 2014, 35–64, 173, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 978-1107047358, If full diplomatic recognition is extended to a proto-state and embassies exchanged, it is defined as a sovereign state in its own right and may no longer be classified as a proto-state.Throughout modern history, partially autonomous regions of larger recognised states, especially those based on a historical precedent or ethnic and cultural distinctiveness that places them apart from those who dominate the state as a whole, have been considered proto-states. Home rule generates a sub-national institutional structure that may justifiably be defined as a proto-state.BOOK, Augusteijn, Joost, The Irish Revolution, 1913-1923, 2002, 13, Palgrave, Basingstoke, 978-0333982266, When a rebellion or insurrection seizes control and begins to establish some semblance of administration in regions within national territories under its effective rule, it has also metamorphosed into a proto-state.BOOK, Araoye, Ademola, Okome, Mojubaolu, Contesting the Nigerian State: Civil Society and the Contradictions of Self-Organization, 2013, 35, Palgrave-Macmillan, Basingstoke, 978-1137324528, These wartime proto-states, sometimes known as insurgent states, may eventually transform the structure of a state altogether, or demarcate their own autonomous political spaces. While not a new phenomenon, the modern formation of a proto-states in territory held by a militant non-state entity was popularised by Mao Zedong during the Chinese Civil War, and the national liberation movements worldwide that adopted his military philosophies.BOOK, McColl, R. W., Encyclopedia of World Geography, Volume 1, 2005, 397–398, 466, Facts on File, Incorporated, New York, 978-0-8160-5786-3, The rise of an insurgent proto-state was sometimes also an indirect consequence of a movement adopting Che Guevara's foco theory of guerrilla warfare.Secessionist proto-states are likeliest to form in preexisting states that lack secure boundaries, a concise and well-defined body of citizens, or a single sovereign power with a monopoly on the legitimate use of military force.BOOK, Newton, Kenneth, Van Deth, Jan, Foundations of Comparative Politics, 2016, 364–365, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 978-1107582859, They may be created as a result of putsches, insurrections, separatist political campaigns, foreign intervention, sectarian violence, civil war, and even the bloodless dissolution or division of the state.Proto-states can be important regional players, as their existence impacts the options available to state actors, either as potential allies or as impediments to their political or economic policy articulations.

List of modern proto-states

{{expand list|date=March 2017}}

Constituent proto-states

Current {| class"wikitable sortable" style"text-align:left"

Adjara}}Georgia}} {{No}} |1921|
Adygea}}Russia}} {{No}} |1922|
Ã…land}}Finland}} {{No}} |1921WEBSITE=WWW.UOC.EDU, 2017-11-11,
Altai Republic}}Russia}} {{No}} |1922|
Aosta Valley}}Italy}} {{No}} |1948|
Aruba}}Netherlands}} {{No}} |1986
Flag of Ashanti.svg}} Ashanti Region >Ghana}} {{No}} 1957 ROEDER>FIRST=PHILIPDATE=2007PUBLISHER=PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESSISBN=978-0691134673,
Azad Kashmir}}Pakistan}} {{No}} |1949|
Azores}}Portugal}} {{No}} |1816|
Balochistan}}Pakistan}} {{No}} |1947|
Bashkortostan}}Russia}} {{No}} |1919|
British Virgin Islands}} {{flag|
Bougainville}}Papua New Guinea}} {{No}} |2001|
Buryatia}}Russia}} {{No}} |1923|
Canary Islands}}Spain| {{No}} |1816|
Catalonia}}Spain| {{No}} |1978|
Cayman Islands}} {{flag|
Chechnya}}Russia}} {{No}} |1922|
Chin State}}Myanmar}} {{No}} |1949|
Christmas Island}}Australia}} {{No}} |1958|
Chuvashia}}Russia}} {{No}} |1920|
Cook Islands}}New Zealand}} {{No}} |1888|
Corsica}}France}} {{No}} |1978|
Curaçao}}Netherlands}} {{No}} |1816|
Dagestan}}Russia}} {{No}} |1921|
Easter Island}}Chile}} {{No}} |1944|
Euskadi}}Spain| {{No}} |1978|
Falkland Islands}} {{flag|
Faroe Islands}}Denmark}} {{No}} |1816
Flanders}}Belgium}} {{No}} |1970|
French Polynesia}}France}} {{No}} |1847|
Friuli-Venezia Giulia}}Italy}} {{No}} |1963|
Gagauzia}}Moldova}} {{No}} |1991|
Galicia}}Spain| {{No}} |1978|
Gaza Strip}} {{flagPalestine}} {{PartialDe facto}} >Although officially controlled by the Palestinian National Authority, the Gaza Strip is administered separately and has achieved its own unique sub-national status as a Palestinian proto-state.DYER>FIRST=GWYNNEDATE=2010PUBLISHER=RANDOM HOUSE OF CANADA, LTDISBN=978-0307358929, group=note}}
Greenland}}Denmark}} {{No}} |1816|
Guam}}United States}} {{No}} |1816|
Guernsey}} {{flag|
United States}} {{No}} |1658 |
Ingushetia}}Russia}} {{No}} |1924|
Iraqi Kurdistan}} {{flagDe facto}} 1991 DYER>FIRST=GWYNNEDATE=2015PUBLISHER=RANDOM HOUSE CANADAISBN=978-0345815866,
Isle of Man}} {{flag|
Jammu and Kashmir}}India}} {{No}} |1921|
Jersey}} {{flag|
Jubaland}} {{flagJubaland declared itself independent of Somalia in 1998.PISKUNOVA>FIRST=NATALIAEDITOR-FIRST=SAI FELICIADATE=2010PUBLISHER=ROUTLEDGE BOOKSISBN=978-140940505-4, It technically rejoined Somalia in 2001 when its ruling Juba Valley Alliance became part of the country's Transitional Federal Government. However, Jubaland has continued to persist as a more or less autonomous state.SOMALIA > WORK=WORLD STATESMEN ACCESSDATE=MARCH 9, 2006, - also shows Italian colonial flag & links to mapgroup=note}}
Kabardino-Balkaria}}Russia}} {{No}} |1921|
Kachin State}}Myanmar}} {{No}} |1949|
Kalmykia}}Russia}} {{No}} |1920|
Karachay-Cherkessia}}Russia}} {{No}} |1922|
Karelia}}Russia}} {{No}} |1923|
Kayah State}}Myanmar}} {{No}} |1949|
Kayin State}}Myanmar}} {{No}} |1949|
Khakassia}}Russia}} {{No}} |1934|
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa}}Pakistan}} {{No}} |1947|
Komi Republic}}Russia}} {{No}} |1922|
Kosovo}}Serbia}} {{Partial|De facto}} |2008|
Madeira}}Portugal}} {{No}} |1816|
Mari El}}Russia}} {{No}} |1920|
Marquesas Islands}}France}} {{No}} |1844|
Montserrat}} {{flag|
Mon State}}Myanmar}} {{No}} |1949|
Mordovia}}Russia}} {{No}} |1934|
New Caledonia}}France}} {{No}} |1853|
Northern Ireland}}United Kingdom}} {{No}} |1922|
Northern Marianas}}United States}} {{No}} |1899|
North Ossetia-Alania}}Russia}} {{No}} |1921|
Nunavut}}Canada}} {{No}} |1999|
Palestinian National Authority}} {{flagDe jure}} 1993 TILLERY>FIRST=VIRGINIAEDITOR-FIRST=HANIDATE=2013PUBLISHER=I.B.TAURIS, PUBLISHERSISBN=978-1780760940,
Puerto Rico}}United States}} {{No}} |1816|
Punjab, Pakistan}}Pakistan}} {{No}} |1947|
Puntland}} {{flagTITLE=THE NEW PIRATES: MODERN GLOBAL PIRACY FROM SOMALIA TO THE SOUTH CHINA SEAPAGE=74LOCATION=LONDON, 978-1848856332,
Quebec}}Canada}} {{No}} |1816|
Republika Srpska}}Bosnia-Herzegovina}} {{No}} |1995LAST=MACDONALDDATE=ARCHIVE-URL=DEAD-URL=, 2017-11-09,
Saint Helena}} {{flag|
Sardinia}}Italy}} {{No}} |1816|
Sakha Republic}}Russia}} {{No}} |1922|
Scotland}}United Kingdom}} {{No}} |1816|
Shan State}}Myanmar}} {{No}} |1949|
Sicily}}Italy}} {{No}} |1816|
Sindh}}Pakistan}} {{No}} |1947|
Sint Maarten}}Netherlands}} {{No}} |1848|
Svalbard}}Norway}} {{No}} |1992|
Tatarstan}}Russia}} {{No}} |1920|
Temotu}}Solomon Islands}} {{No}} |1981|
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol}}Italy}} {{No}} |1948|
Turks and Caicos}} {{flag|
Tuva}}Russia}} {{No}} |1911|
Udmurtia}}Russia}} {{No}} |1920|
United States Virgin Islands}}United States}} {{No}} |1816|
Wales}}United Kingdom}} {{No}} |1816|
Wallonia}}Belgium}} {{No}} |1970|
Zanzibar}}Tanzania}} {{No}} |1964|
">

Former {| class"wikitable sortable" style"text-align:left"

! Proto-state !! Parent state !! Achieved statehood !!Dates!! SourceBophuthatswana}}South AfricaDe jure}} |1977–1994FIRST=ANTHONYPUBLISHER=CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESSLOCATION=CAMBRIDGE, 106, Flag of SR Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg}} Bosnia-HerzegovinaYugoslavia}} {{Yes}} |1943–1992|Ciskei}}South AfricaDe jure}} |1981–1994|Flag of Crimea.svg}} CrimeaUkraine}} {{Partial|De facto}}|1991–2014|Ukraine crisis: Crimea parliament asks to join Russia. BBC. 6 March 2014Flag of SR Croatia.svg}} CroatiaYugoslavia}} {{Yes}} |1943–1991|Czech Socialist Republic}}Czechoslovakia}} {{Yes}} |1969–1993|East Caprivi}}South Africa| {{No}} |1972–1989|Gazankulu}}South Africa| {{No}} |1971–1994|Hereroland}}South Africa| {{No}} |1970–1989|KaNgwane}}South Africa| {{No}} |1972–1994|Kavangoland}}South Africa| {{No}} |1973–1989|KwaNdebele}}South Africa| {{No}} |1981–1994|KwaZulu}}South Africa| {{No}} |1981–1994|Lebowa}}South Africa| {{No}} |1972–1994|Flag of North Macedonia (1946–1992).svg}} MacedoniaYugoslavia}} {{Yes}} |1944–1991|Flag of the Socialist Republic of Montenegro.svg}} MontenegroYugoslavia}} {{Yes}} |1945–1992|Ovamboland}}South Africa| {{No}} |1973–1989|QwaQwa}}South Africa| {{No}} |1974–1994|Russian SFSR}}Soviet Union}} {{Yes}} |1917–1991|Flag of SR Serbia.svg}} SerbiaYugoslavia}} {{Yes}} |1945–1992|Singapore}} SingaporeMalaysia}} {{Yes}} |1963–1965|Slovak Socialist Republic}}Czechoslovakia}} {{Yes}} |1969–1993|Flag of Slovenia (1945-1991).svg}} SloveniaYugoslavia}} {{Yes}} |1945–1991|South Africa|1928}} South West Africa (Namibia)South Africa| {{Yes}} |1915–1991DATE=1978ISBN=978-90-286-0759-0PAGES=100–101, South Sudan}} Southern SudanSudan}} {{Yes}} |2005–2011FIRST=EISUKEPUBLISHER=HART PUBLISHINGEDITOR1-LAST=NOORTMANNLOCATION=PORTLANDEDITOR2-LAST=REINISCHEDITOR3-LAST=RYNGAERT, Cedric, Transkei}}South AfricaDe jure}} |1976–1994|Trucial States}}United Kingdom}} {{Yes}} |1820–1971FIRST=KRISTIAN COATESPUBLISHER=WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING COMPANYEDITOR-LAST=DARGINLOCATION=SINGAPORE, 155–156, Flag of Turkestan ASSR (1919-1921).svg}} Turkestan ASSRRussian SFSR}} {{No}} |1918–1924FIRST=MADELEINEPUBLISHER=CORNELL UNIVERSITY PRESSLOCATION=ITHACA, 66, Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets}}Russian SFSR|1918}}| {{No}} | 1917–1918| Ukrainian Soviet Republic}}Russian SFSR|1918}}| {{No}} | 1918| Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic}}Russian SFSRSoviet Union}}| {{Yes}}| 1919–1991FIRST=MYKOLAPUBLISHER=UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN PRESSEDITOR-LAST=KENNEDYLOCATION=ANN ARBORCHAPTER=BETWEEN CIVIL SOCIETY AND THE NEW ETATISM: DEMOCRACY IN THE MAKING AND STATE BUILDING IN UKRAINE, For Ukraine, even the formal declaration of the Ukrainian SSR, however puppet like, was extremely important. First, it somewhat legitimized the very existence of the Ukrainian state and nation, even if by an “inviolable” union with Russia. Second, it provided an opportunity to create certain state structure, establish state symbols, and even attain an only informal but, as it turned out, crucial membership in the United Nations. Third, the formal existence of the Ukrainian SSR as a distinct ethnic, territorial, and administrative entity with state like features objectively created a legitimate and psychological basis for the eventual formation of a political nation. It has proven much easier to change a nominal “sovereignty” to a real one than to build a state out of several provinces (gubernia) threatened by foreign intervention and civil war, as in 1917–20., Venda}} {{flag1928}} {{PartialDe jure}} >|

Secessionist and insurgent proto-states

Current {|class"wikitable sortable" style"text-align:left"

! Proto-state !! Parent state !! Achieved statehood !! Since !! SourceFlag of Abkhazia.svg}} Abkhazia {{flagDe facto}} 1992 ShababFlag.svg}} Al-Shabaab (militant group) >Somalia}} {{No}} 2009 Flag of ADF.png}} Allied Democratic Forces {{flagUganda}} {{No}} 1996 HTTPS://WWW.WASHINGTONPOST.COM/NEWS/MONKEY-CAGE/WP/2015/02/19/NEW-INSIGHTS-ON-CONGOS-ISLAMIST-REBELS/ >TITLE=NEW INSIGHTS ON CONGO'S ISLAMIST REBELS WORK=THE WASHINGTON POST ACCESS-DATE=16 OCTOBER 2017, Flag of the Federal Republic of Southern Cameroons.svg}} Ambazonia {{flag|AQMI Flag asymmetric.svg}} Ansar al-Sharia (Yemen) {{flag| Flag of Dar El Kuti Republic.svg}} Republic of Logone >Central African Republic}} {{PartialDe facto}} >DATE=15 DECEMBER 2015ACCESSDATE=20 DECEMBER 2015, Donetsk People's Republic}} {{flagDe facto}} 2014 SOCOR>FIRST=VLADIMIREDITOR1-FIRST=NICULAEEDITOR2-FIRST=ANDREIEDITOR3-FIRST=CRISTIANEDITOR4-FIRST=MIHAELADATE=2016PUBLISHER=IOS PRESSISBN=978-1614996507, InfoboxHez.PNG}} Hezbollah {{flag TITLE=PROTO-STATE REALIGNMENT AND THE ARAB SPRING VOLUME=23 PAGES=75–91 LAST1=SZEKELY DOI-BROKEN-DATE=2019-08-20, Islamic State}} Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) >Iraq}}{{flagAfghanistan}}{{flagYemen}}{{flagLibya}} {{No}} 2013 weblinkweblink Luhansk People's Republic}} {{flagDe facto}} 2014 Flag of Artsakh.svg}} Nagorno Karabakh Republic {{flagDe facto}} 1991 Flag of Rojava.svg}} Autonomous Administration of North and East SyriaSyria}} {{Partial}} |2013LAST=WILLIAMSDATE=2016-10-20ISBN=9780812248678, en, Sahrawi Republic}} {{flag| Somaliland}} {{flagDe facto}} 1991 Flag of South Ossetia.svg}} South Ossetia {{flagDe facto}} 1991 Flag of Transnistria (state).svg}} Transnistria {{flagDe facto}} 1990 Flag of South Yemen.svg}} Southern Transitional Council {{flag| AfghanistanTaliban >Afghanistan}} {{No}} 2002 ">

Former {|class"wikitable sortable" style"text-align:left"

! Proto-state !! Parent state !! Achieved statehood !! Dates !! SourceFlag of Jabhat Fatah al-Sham.svg}} Al-Nusra Front {{flag| Flag of Ansar al-Islam.svg}} Ansar al-Islam {{flag| Movimento_Popular_de_Libertação_de_Angola_(bandeira).svg}} Portuguese Angola >Portugal}} {{Yes}} 1961–1975 Flag of Ansar al-Sharia (Libya).svg}} Ansar al-Sharia (Libya) {{flag| AQMI Flag asymmetric.svg}} Ansar Dine {{flag| Russia}} Armed Forces of South Russia {{flagname=Russia}} {{No}} 1919–1920 Shambarov, V. ''The State and revolutions (Государство и революции). "Algoritm". Moscow, 2001 {{ru icon}}Azawad}} {{flag| Islamic State}} Boko Haram {{flagCameroon}} {{No}} 2013–2015 Carpatho-Ukraine}}Czechoslovakia}}, {{Flag1920}}| {{No}} | 1938–1939|Flag of Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.svg}} Chechen Republic of Ichkeria >Russia}} {{No}} 1991–2000 Chinese Soviet Republic}} {{flagiconRepublic of China (1912–49)>China {{No}} 1931–1937 Flag of the Chinese Communist Party (Pre-1996).svg}} Communist-controlled China (1927–49) >Taiwan}} Republic of China (1912–49) >| Flag of the FARC-EP.svg}} FARC {{flagLAST2=ZARTMANTITLE=ENGAGING EXTREMISTS: TRADE-OFFS, TIMING, AND DIPLOMACYPAGE=5LOCATION=WASHINGTON, D.C., 978-1601270740, Armed Islamic Group of Algeria>Groupe islamique armé {{flag| Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia}} Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia >Bosnia-Herzegovina}} {{No}} 1991–1996 Hyderabad State}} {{flag| Flag of Idel-Ural State.svg}} Idel-Ural State {{flagiconRussian Republic>Russia {{No}} 1917–1918 ROBERTS>FIRST=GLENNDATE=2007PUBLISHER=UNIVERSAL PUBLISHERS (UNITED STATES)>LOCATION=BOCA RATON, 978-1581123494, Ireland}} Irish Republic {{flagTITLE=ETHNIC NATIONALISM AND STATE POWER: THE RISE OF IRISH NATIONALISM, AFRIKANER NATIONALISM AND ZIONISMPAGES=144–145LOCATION=BASINGSTOKE, 978-0312220280, Flag of Jamiat-e Islami.svg}} Jamiat-e Islami {{flag1987}} {{No}} 1982–1989 Defence Journal. Ikram ul-Majeed Sehgal, 2006, Volume 9-10 Collected Issues 12(9)-12 (10) page 47.Flag of Albania.svg}} Republic of Kosova {{flagStatement of Albanian PM Sali Berisha during the recognition of the Republic of Kosovo, stating that this is based on a 1991 Albanian law, which recognized the Republic of Kosova {{webarchive >url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120420190957weblink |date=April 20, 2012 }}Jubaland}} {{flag| Flag of Afghanistan (1978).svg}} Junbish-e Milli {{flag1992}} {{No}} 1992-1997 HTTPS://WWW.INDEPENDENT.CO.UK/NEWS/PEOPLE/PROFILES/RASHID-DOSTUM-THE-TREACHEROUS-GENERAL-9224857.HTML > TITLE=RASHID DOSTUM: THE TREACHEROUS GENERAL, December 2001, Yugoslav Partisans flag (1942-1945).svg}} Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia >Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg}} Independent State of Croatia{{flagicon image>Flag of the Government of National Salvation (occupied Yugoslavia).svg}} Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia >TITLE=GUERRILLA WARFARE: A HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL STUDYPAGE=218LOCATION=PISCATAWAY, NEW JERSEY, 978-0765804068, MozambiquePortugal}} {{Yes}} 1964–1974 {{refnMozambican War of Independence allowed local guerrillas to establish a proto-state there, which survived until the war ended in 1974. Home to about a million people, the miniature insurgent proto-state was managed by FRELIMO's civilian wing and was able to provide administrative services, open trade relations with Tanzania, and even supervise the construction of its own schools and hospitals with foreign aid.>name=KBS|group=note}}FNL Flag.svg}} Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam >South Vietnam}} {{No}} 1969–1976 BOOK, Domínguez, Jorge, To Make a World Safe for Revolution: Cuba's Foreign Policy, 1989, 127–128, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 978-0674893252, Flag_of_Republika_Srpska.svg}} Republika Srpska (1991–95) >Bosnia-Herzegovina}} {{No}} 1991–1995 Red Spears' uprising in Shandong (1928–1929)>Red Spears' rebel area in Penglai, Shandong >Flag of the Republic of China.svg}} Republic of China (1912–1949) >Biancop=6}}State Flag of Serbian Krajina (1991).svg}} Republic of Serbian Krajina >Croatia}} {{No}} 1991–1995 GLAURDIC>FIRST=JOSIPDATE=2011PUBLISHER=YALE UNIVERSITY PRESSISBN=978-0300166293, Flag of Province Sudetenland.Svg}} SudetenlandCzechoslovakia}} {{No}} |1918–1938FIRST1=MARTIN FIRST2=RICHARD PUBLISHER=WEIDENFELD & NICOLSON LONDON >YEAR=1967, Liberia}} "Taylorland" or Greater Liberia {{flagIn course of the First Liberian Civil War, the Liberian central government effectively collapsed, allowing warlords to establish their own fiefs. One of the most powerful rebel leaders in Liberia, Charles Taylor (Liberian politician), set up his own domain in a way resembling an actual state: He reorganized his National Patriotic Front of Liberia>militia into a military-like organization (split into Army, Marines, Navy, and Executive Mansion Guard), established his de facto capital at Gbarnga, and created a civilian government and justice system under his control that were supposed to enforce law and order. The area under his control was commonly called "Taylorland" or "Greater Liberia" and even became somewhat stable and peaceful until it largely disintegrated in 1994/5 as result of attacks by rival militias. In the end, however, Taylor won the civil war and was elected President of Liberia, with his regime becoming the new central government.{{sfn2015Lidowpp=116–130}}group=note}}Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam>Tamil Eelam {{flag| Ukrainian National Government}}Soviet UnionGermany|Nazi}}| {{No}} | 1941| Ukrainian People's Republic}}Russian Republic}}, {{Flag1918}}| {{No}} | 1917–1921| Flag of UNITA.svg}} UNITA {{flagTITLE=THE NORMALITY OF CIVIL WAR: ARMED GROUPS AND EVERYDAY LIFE IN ANGOLAPAGES=83–84LOCATION=FRANKFURT, 978-3593397566, United States}}United Kingdom}} {{Yes}} |1776-1783|West Ukrainian People's Republic}}Austria-HungaryPoland|1918}}| {{No}} | 1918–1919| Zaporozhian Sich}}Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg|border=no}} Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth| {{Yes}} | 16th century–1649Essenp=83}}

See also

Notes and references

Annotations

{{reflist |group=note}}

References

{{reflist}}

Bibliography

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