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{{short description|Plane figure bounded by line segments}}{{Other uses}}(File:Assorted polygons.svg|thumb|400px|right|Some polygons of different kinds: open (excluding its boundary), boundary only (excluding interior), closed (including both boundary and interior), and self-intersecting.)In elementary geometry, a polygon ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|p|ɒ|l|ɪ|ɡ|ɒ|n}}) is a plane figure that is described by a finite number of straight line segments connected to form a closed polygonal chain or polygonal circuit. The solid plane region, the bounding circuit, or the two together, may be called a polygon.The segments of a polygonal circuit are called its edges or sides, and the points where two edges meet are the polygon's vertices (singular: vertex) or corners. The interior of a solid polygon is sometimes called its body. An n-gon is a polygon with n sides; for example, a triangle is a 3-gon.A simple polygon is one which does not intersect itself. Mathematicians are often concerned only with the bounding polygonal chains of simple polygons and they often define a polygon accordingly. A polygonal boundary may be allowed to cross over itself, creating star polygons and other self-intersecting polygons.A polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more general polytope in any number of dimensions. There are many more generalizations of polygons defined for different purposes.

Etymology

The word polygon derives from the Greek adjective πολύς (polús) "much", "many" and γωνία (gōnía) "corner" or "angle". It has been suggested that γόνυ (gónu) "knee" may be the origin of gon.BOOK, A new universal etymological technological, and pronouncing dictionary of the English language, John, Craig, Oxford University, 1849, 404,weblink Extract of p. 404

Classification

(File:Polygon types.svg|thumb|right|300px|Some different types of polygon)

Number of sides

Polygons are primarily classified by the number of sides. See the table below.

Convexity and non-convexity

Polygons may be characterized by their convexity or type of non-convexity:
  • Convex: any line drawn through the polygon (and not tangent to an edge or corner) meets its boundary exactly twice. As a consequence, all its interior angles are less than 180°. Equivalently, any line segment with endpoints on the boundary passes through only interior points between its endpoints.
  • Non-convex: a line may be found which meets its boundary more than twice. Equivalently, there exists a line segment between two boundary points that passes outside the polygon.
  • Simple: the boundary of the polygon does not cross itself. All convex polygons are simple.
  • Concave. Non-convex and simple. There is at least one interior angle greater than 180°.
  • Star-shaped: the whole interior is visible from at least one point, without crossing any edge. The polygon must be simple, and may be convex or concave. All convex polygons are star-shaped.
  • Self-intersecting: the boundary of the polygon crosses itself. The term complex is sometimes used in contrast to simple, but this usage risks confusion with the idea of a complex polygon as one which exists in the complex Hilbert plane consisting of two complex dimensions.
  • Star polygon: a polygon which self-intersects in a regular way. A polygon cannot be both a star and star-shaped.

Equality and symmetry

Miscellaneous

  • Rectilinear: the polygon's sides meet at right angles, i.e., all its interior angles are 90 or 270 degrees.
  • Monotone with respect to a given line L: every line orthogonal to L intersects the polygon not more than twice.

Properties and formulas

Euclidean geometry is assumed throughout.

Angles

Any polygon has as many corners as it has sides. Each corner has several angles. The two most important ones are:
  • Interior angle – The sum of the interior angles of a simple n-gon is {{nowrap|(n − 2)Ï€}} radians or {{nowrap|(n − 2) × 180}} degrees. This is because any simple n-gon ( having n sides ) can be considered to be made up of {{nowrap|(n − 2)}} triangles, each of which has an angle sum of Ï€ radians or 180 degrees. The measure of any interior angle of a convex regular n-gon is left(1-tfrac{2}{n}right)pi radians or 180-tfrac{360}{n} degrees. The interior angles of regular star polygons were first studied by Poinsot, in the same paper in which he describes the four regular star polyhedra: for a regular tfrac{p}{q}-gon (a p-gon with central density q), each interior angle is tfrac{pi(p-2q)}{p} radians or tfrac{180(p-2q)}{p} degrees.BOOK, Kappraff, Jay, Beyond measure: a guided tour through nature, myth, and number, World Scientific, 2002, 258, 978-981-02-4702-7,weblink
  • Exterior angle – The exterior angle is the supplementary angle to the interior angle. Tracing around a convex n-gon, the angle "turned" at a corner is the exterior or external angle. Tracing all the way around the polygon makes one full turn, so the sum of the exterior angles must be 360°. This argument can be generalized to concave simple polygons, if external angles that turn in the opposite direction are subtracted from the total turned. Tracing around an n-gon in general, the sum of the exterior angles (the total amount one rotates at the vertices) can be any integer multiple d of 360°, e.g. 720° for a pentagram and 0° for an angular "eight" or antiparallelogram, where d is the density or starriness of the polygon. See also orbit (dynamics).

Area

(File:Polygon vertex labels.svg|thumb|320px|right|Coordinates of a non-convex pentagon.)In this section, the vertices of the polygon under consideration are taken to be (x_0, y_0), (x_1, y_1), ldots, (x_{n - 1}, y_{n - 1}) in order. For convenience in some formulas, the notation {{math|1=(xn, yn) = (x0, y0)}} will also be used.If the polygon is non-self-intersecting (that is, simple), the signed area is
A = frac{1}{2} sum_{i = 0}^{n - 1}( x_i y_{i + 1} - x_{i + 1} y_i) quad text {where } x_{n}=x_{0} text{ and } y_n=y_{0},
or, using determinants
16 A^{2} = sum_{i=0}^{n-1} sum_{j=0}^{n-1} begin{vmatrix} Q_{i,j} & Q_{i,j+1}
Q_{i+1,j} & Q_{i+1,j+1} end{vmatrix} , where Q_{i,j} is the squared distance between (x_i, y_i) and (x_j, y_j). B.Sz. Nagy, L. Rédey: Eine Verallgemeinerung der Inhaltsformel von Heron. Publ.Math. Debrecen 1, 42–50 (1949)WEB
,weblink
, Calculating The Area And Centroid Of A Polygon
, Bourke
, Paul
, July 1988
,
,
, 6 Feb 2013
, The signed area depends on the ordering of the vertices and of the orientation of the plane. Commonly, the positive orientation is defined by the (counterclockwise) rotation that maps the positive {{mvar|x}}-axis to the positive {{mvar|y}}-axis. If the vertices are ordered counterclockwise (that is, according to positive orientation), the signed area is positive; otherwise, it is negative. In either case, the area formula is correct in absolute value. This is commonly called the shoelace formula or Surveyor's formula.JOURNAL, Bart Braden, The Surveyor's Area Formula, The College Mathematics Journal, 17, 4, 1986, 326–337,weblink 10.2307/2686282, The area A of a simple polygon can also be computed if the lengths of the sides, a1, a2, ..., an and the exterior angles, θ1, θ2, ..., θn are known, from:
begin{align}A = frac12 ( a_1[a_2 sin(theta_1) + a_3 sin(theta_1 + theta_2) + cdots + a_{n-1} sin(theta_1 + theta_2 + cdots + theta_{n-2})]
{} + a_2[a_3 sin(theta_2) + a_4 sin(theta_2 + theta_3) + cdots + a_{n-1} sin(theta_2 + cdots + theta_{n-2})] {} + cdots + a_{n-2}[a_{n-1} sin(theta_{n-2})] ). end{align}The formula was described by Lopshits in 1963.BOOK, Computation of areas of oriented figures, A.M. Lopshits, D C Heath and Company: Boston, MA, translators: J Massalski and C Mills, Jr., 1963, If the polygon can be drawn on an equally spaced grid such that all its vertices are grid points, Pick's theorem gives a simple formula for the polygon's area based on the numbers of interior and boundary grid points: the former number plus one-half the latter number, minus 1.In every polygon with perimeter p and area A , the isoperimetric inequality p^2 > 4pi A holds.Dergiades, Nikolaos, "An elementary proof of the isoperimetric inequality", Forum Mathematicorum 2, 2002, 129–130.For any two simple polygons of equal area, the Bolyai–Gerwien theorem asserts that the first can be cut into polygonal pieces which can be reassembled to form the second polygon.The lengths of the sides of a polygon do not in general determine its area.Robbins, "Polygons inscribed in a circle," American Mathematical Monthly 102, June–July 1995. However, if the polygon is cyclic then the sides do determine the area.{{cn|date=February 2019}} Of all n-gons with given side lengths, the one with the largest area is cyclic. Of all n-gons with a given perimeter, the one with the largest area is regular (and therefore cyclic).Chakerian, G. D. "A Distorted View of Geometry." Ch. 7 in Mathematical Plums (R. Honsberger, editor). Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America, 1979: 147.

Regular polygons

Many specialized formulas apply to the areas of regular polygons.The area of a regular polygon is given in terms of the radius r of its inscribed circle and its perimeter p by
A = tfrac{1}{2} cdot p cdot r.
This radius is also termed its apothem and is often represented as a.The area of a regular n-gon with side s inscribed in a unit circle is
A = frac{ns}{4} sqrt{4-s^{2}}.
The area of a regular n-gon in terms of the radius R of its circumscribed circle and its perimeter p is given by
A = frac {R}{2} cdot p cdot sqrt{1- tfrac{p^{2}}{4n^{2}R^{2}}}.
The area of a regular n-gon inscribed in a unit-radius circle, with side s and interior angle alpha, can also be expressed trigonometrically as
A = frac{ns^{2}}{4}cot frac{pi}{n} = frac{ns^{2}}{4}cotfrac{alpha}{n-2}=n cdot sin frac{pi}{n} cdot cos frac{pi}{n} = n cdot sin frac{alpha}{n-2} cdot cos frac{alpha}{n-2}.

Self-intersecting

The area of a self-intersecting polygon can be defined in two different ways, giving different answers:
  • Using the formulas for simple polygons, we allow that particular regions within the polygon may have their area multiplied by a factor which we call the density of the region. For example, the central convex pentagon in the center of a pentagram has density 2. The two triangular regions of a cross-quadrilateral (like a figure 8) have opposite-signed densities, and adding their areas together can give a total area of zero for the whole figure.{{cn|date=February 2019}}
  • Considering the enclosed regions as point sets, we can find the area of the enclosed point set. This corresponds to the area of the plane covered by the polygon or to the area of one or more simple polygons having the same outline as the self-intersecting one. In the case of the cross-quadrilateral, it is treated as two simple triangles.{{cn|date=February 2019}}

Centroid

Using the same convention for vertex coordinates as in the previous section, the coordinates of the centroid of a solid simple polygon are
C_x = frac{1}{6 A} sum_{i = 0}^{n - 1} (x_i + x_{i + 1}) (x_i y_{i + 1} - x_{i + 1} y_i), C_y = frac{1}{6 A} sum_{i = 0}^{n - 1} (y_i + y_{i + 1}) (x_i y_{i + 1} - x_{i + 1} y_i).
In these formulas, the signed value of area A must be used.For triangles ({{math|1=n = 3}}), the centroids of the vertices and of the solid shape are the same, but, in general, this is not true for {{math|n > 3}}. The centroid of the vertex set of a polygon with {{mvar|n}} vertices has the coordinates
c_x=frac 1n sum_{i = 0}^{n - 1}x_i, c_y=frac 1n sum_{i = 0}^{n - 1}y_i.

Generalizations

The idea of a polygon has been generalized in various ways. Some of the more important include:
  • A spherical polygon is a circuit of arcs of great circles (sides) and vertices on the surface of a sphere. It allows the digon, a polygon having only two sides and two corners, which is impossible in a flat plane. Spherical polygons play an important role in cartography (map making) and in Wythoff's construction of the uniform polyhedra.
  • A skew polygon does not lie in a flat plane, but zigzags in three (or more) dimensions. The Petrie polygons of the regular polytopes are well known examples.
  • An apeirogon is an infinite sequence of sides and angles, which is not closed but has no ends because it extends indefinitely in both directions.
  • A skew apeirogon is an infinite sequence of sides and angles that do not lie in a flat plane.
  • A complex polygon is a configuration analogous to an ordinary polygon, which exists in the complex plane of two real and two imaginary dimensions.
  • An abstract polygon is an algebraic partially ordered set representing the various elements (sides, vertices, etc.) and their connectivity. A real geometric polygon is said to be a realization of the associated abstract polygon. Depending on the mapping, all the generalizations described here can be realized.
  • A polyhedron is a three-dimensional solid bounded by flat polygonal faces, analogous to a polygon in two dimensions. The corresponding shapes in four or higher dimensions are called polytopes.Coxeter (3rd Ed 1973) (In other conventions, the words polyhedron and polytope are used in any dimension, with the distinction between the two that a polytope is necessarily bounded.Günter Ziegler (1995). "Lectures on Polytopes". Springer Graduate Texts in Mathematics, {{isbn|978-0-387-94365-7}}. p. 4.)

Naming

The word polygon comes from Late Latin polygōnum (a noun), from Greek πολύγωνον (polygōnon/polugōnon), noun use of neuter of πολύγωνος (polygōnos/polugōnos, the masculine adjective), meaning "many-angled". Individual polygons are named (and sometimes classified) according to the number of sides, combining a Greek-derived numerical prefix with the suffix -gon, e.g. pentagon, dodecagon. The triangle, quadrilateral and nonagon are exceptions.Beyond decagons (10-sided) and dodecagons (12-sided), mathematicians generally use numerical notation, for example 17-gon and 257-gon.MathworldExceptions exist for side counts that are more easily expressed in verbal form (e.g. 20 and 30), or are used by non-mathematicians. Some special polygons also have their own names; for example the regular star pentagon is also known as the pentagram.{|class="wikitable"|+ Polygon names and miscellaneous properties
!style="width:20em;" | Name!style="width:2em;" | Edges!style="width:auto;" | Properties
monogon >| Not generally recognised as a polygon,Grunbaum, B.; "Are your polyhedra the same as my polyhedra", Discrete and computational geometry: the Goodman-Pollack Festschrift, Ed. Aronov et al., Springer (2003), p. 464. although some disciplines such as graph theory sometimes use the term.{{citation
| last1 = Hass | first1 = Joel
| last2 = Morgan | first2 = Frank
| doi = 10.1090/S0002-9939-96-03492-2
| issue = 12
| journal = Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society
| jstor = 2161556
| mr = 1343696
| pages = 3843–3850
| title = Geodesic nets on the 2-sphere
| volume = 124
| year = 1996}}.
digon >| Not generally recognised as a polygon in the Euclidean plane, although it can exist as a spherical polygon.Coxeter, H.S.M.; Regular polytopes, Dover Edition (1973), p. 4.
triangle (or trigon) >triangular tiling>tile the plane.
quadrilateral (or tetragon) >square tiling>tile the plane.
pentagon >| The simplest polygon which can exist as a regular star. A star pentagon is known as a pentagram or pentacle.
hexagon >hexagonal tiling>tile the plane.
heptagon (or septagon) >constructible polygon>constructible with compass and straightedge. However, it can be constructed using a Neusis construction.
octagon >|
nonagon (or enneagon) >| "Nonagon" mixes Latin [novem = 9] with Greek, "enneagon" is pure Greek.
decagon >|
hendecagon (or undecagon) >| The simplest polygon such that the regular form cannot be constructed with compass, straightedge, and angle trisector.
dodecagon (or duodecagon) >|
tridecagon (or triskaidecagon)>|
tetradecagon (or tetrakaidecagon)>|
pentadecagon (or pentakaidecagon) >|
hexadecagon (or hexakaidecagon) >|
heptadecagon (or heptakaidecagon)>| Constructible polygon
octadecagon (or octakaidecagon)>|
enneadecagon (or enneakaidecagon)>|
icosagon >|
icositetragon (or icosikaitetragon) >|
triacontagon >|
tetracontagon (or tessaracontagon) >|
pentacontagon (or pentecontagon) >| ''The New Elements of Mathematics: Algebra and Geometry by Charles Sanders Peirce (1976), p.298
hexacontagon (or hexecontagon) >|
heptacontagon (or hebdomecontagon) >|
octacontagon (or ogdoëcontagon) >|
enneacontagon (or enenecontagon) >|
hectogon (or hecatontagon) >TITLE=THE COMPUTER GRAPHICS MANUAL DATE=2011 ISBN=978-0-85729-886-7, 88–90,
257-gon >| Constructible polygon
chiliagon >René Descartes,SEPKOSKITITLE=NOMINALISM AND CONSTRUCTIVISM IN SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY MATHEMATICAL PHILOSOPHYYEAR=2005PAGES=33–59ACCESSDATE=18 APRIL 2012DEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=12 MAY 2012, Immanuel Kant,Gottfried Martin (1955), Kant's Metaphysics and Theory of Science, Manchester University Press, p. 22. David Hume,David Hume, The Philosophical Works of David Hume, Volume 1, Black and Tait, 1826, p. 101. have used the chiliagon as an example in discussions.
myriagon >| Used as an example in some philosophical discussions, for example in Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy
65537-gon >| Constructible polygon
megagonGIBILISCO TITLE=GEOMETRY DEMYSTIFIED PUBLISHER=MCGRAW-HILL ISBN=978-0-07-141650-4 The universal book of mathematics: from Abracadabra to Zeno's paradoxes, John Wiley & Sons, 2004. p. 249. {{isbn>0-471-27047-4}}.Dugopolski, Mark, College Algebra and Trigonometry, 2nd ed, Addison-Wesley, 1999. p. 505. {{isbnScholastic Metaphysics, Loyola University Press, 1928, p. 18.Merrill, John Calhoun and Odell, S. Jack, Philosophy and Journalism, Longman, 1983, p. 47, {{isbn>0-582-28157-1}}.Hospers, John, An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis, 4th ed, Routledge, 1997, p. 56, {{isbnKey Terms in Philosophy of Mind, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2010, p. 26, {{isbn>1-84706-349-7}}.Kenny, Anthony, The Rise of Modern Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 124, {{isbnFundamental Philosophy, Vol II, Sadlier and Co., Boston, 1856, p. 27.Potter, Vincent G., On Understanding Understanding: A Philosophy of Knowledge, 2nd ed, Fordham University Press, 1993, p. 86, {{isbn>0-8232-1486-9}}. The megagon is also used as an illustration of the convergence of regular polygons to a circle.Russell, Bertrand, History of Western Philosophy, reprint edition, Routledge, 2004, p. 202, {{isbn|0-415-32505-6}}.
apeirogon >| A degenerate polygon of infinitely many sides.

Constructing higher names

To construct the name of a polygon with more than 20 and less than 100 edges, combine the prefixes as follows. The "kai" term applies to 13-gons and higher and was used by Kepler, and advocated by John H. Conway for clarity to concatenated prefix numbers in the naming of quasiregular polyhedra.WEB, Naming Polygons and Polyhedra,weblink Ask Dr. Math, The Math Forum – Drexel University, 3 May 2015, {|class="wikitable" style="vertical-align:center;" style="text-align:center;"!colspan="2" rowspan="2" | Tens!and!colspan="2" | Ones!final suffix
-kai-|1-hena- -gon
| -di-
| -tri-
| -tetra-
| -penta-
| -hexa-
| -hepta-
| -octa-
| -ennea-

History

(File:Fotothek df tg 0003352 Geometrie ^ Dreieck ^ Viereck ^ Vieleck ^ Winkel.jpg|thumb|Historical image of polygons (1699))Polygons have been known since ancient times. The regular polygons were known to the ancient Greeks, with the pentagram, a non-convex regular polygon (star polygon), appearing as early as the 7th century B.C. on a krater by Aristophanes, found at Caere and now in the Capitoline Museum.{{citation|title=A History of Greek Mathematics, Volume 1|first=Sir Thomas Little|last=Heath|authorlink=Thomas Little Heath|publisher=Courier Dover Publications|year=1981|isbn=978-0-486-24073-2|page=162|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=drnY3Vjix3kC&pg=PA162}}. Reprint of original 1921 publication with corrected errata. Heath uses the Latinized spelling "Aristophonus" for the vase painter's name.Cratere with the blinding of Polyphemus and a naval battle {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131112080845weblink |date=2013-11-12 }}, Castellani Halls, Capitoline Museum, accessed 2013-11-11. Two pentagrams are visible near the center of the image,The first known systematic study of non-convex polygons in general was made by Thomas Bradwardine in the 14th century.Coxeter, H.S.M.; Regular Polytopes, 3rd Edn, Dover (pbk), 1973, p. 114In 1952, Geoffrey Colin Shephard generalized the idea of polygons to the complex plane, where each real dimension is accompanied by an imaginary one, to create complex polygons.Shephard, G.C.; "Regular complex polytopes", Proc. London Math. Soc. Series 3 Volume 2, 1952, pp 82-97

In nature

File:Giants causeway closeup.jpg|thumb|The Giant's Causeway, in Northern IrelandNorthern IrelandPolygons appear in rock formations, most commonly as the flat facets of crystals, where the angles between the sides depend on the type of mineral from which the crystal is made.Regular hexagons can occur when the cooling of lava forms areas of tightly packed columns of basalt, which may be seen at the Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland, or at the Devil's Postpile in California.In biology, the surface of the wax honeycomb made by bees is an array of hexagons, and the sides and base of each cell are also polygons.

Computer graphics

{{refimprove section|date=October 2018}}In computer graphics, a polygon is a primitive used in modelling and rendering. They are defined in a database, containing arrays of vertices (the coordinates of the geometrical vertices, as well as other attributes of the polygon, such as color, shading and texture), connectivity information, and materials.WEB,weblink opengl vertex specification, WEB,weblink direct3d rendering, based on vertices & triangles, Naming conventions differ from those of mathematicians:{{clarify|post-text=(What is the difference?)|date=February 2017}}
  • A simple polygon is convex, planar, more easily handled by algorithms and hardware.
  • a concave polygon is a simple polygon having at least one interior angle greater than 180°.
  • A complex polygon may have arbitrary topology including holes, requiring more advanced algorithms (often systems will tesselate these into simple polygons).{{citation needed|date=January 2015|reason=differs from standard mathematical usage}}
Any surface is modelled as a tessellation called polygon mesh. If a square mesh has {{nowrap|n + 1}} points (vertices) per side, there are n squared squares in the mesh, or 2n squared triangles since there are two triangles in a square. There are {{nowrap|(n + 1)2 / 2(n2)}} vertices per triangle. Where n is large, this approaches one half. Or, each vertex inside the square mesh connects four edges (lines).The imaging system calls up the structure of polygons needed for the scene to be created from the database. This is transferred to active memory and finally, to the display system (screen, TV monitors etc.) so that the scene can be viewed. During this process, the imaging system renders polygons in correct perspective ready for transmission of the processed data to the display system. Although polygons are two-dimensional, through the system computer they are placed in a visual scene in the correct three-dimensional orientation.In computer graphics and computational geometry, it is often necessary to determine whether a given point P = (x0,y0) lies inside a simple polygon given by a sequence of line segments. This is called the Point in polygon test.{{citation needed|date=January 2015|reason=differs from standard mathematical usage}}

See also

{{div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}

References

Bibliography

  • Coxeter, H.S.M.; Regular Polytopes, Methuen and Co., 1948 (3rd Edition, Dover, 1973).
  • Cromwell, P.; Polyhedra, CUP hbk (1997), pbk. (1999).
  • Grünbaum, B.; Are your polyhedra the same as my polyhedra? Discrete and comput. geom: the Goodman-Pollack festschrift, ed. Aronov et al. Springer (2003) pp. 461–488.'' (pdf)

Notes

{{Reflist}}

External links

{{Wiktionary|polygon}}{{Commons category|Polygons}} {{Polygons}}{{Polytopes}}

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