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{{about|penises of animals in general|the human organ|human penis|the male reproductive system|Male reproductive system}}{{redirect2|PENIS|Penile|the magnetic resonance imaging technique|Proton-enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy|the community in Kentucky|Penile, Louisville}}{{redirect|Penes}}{{pp-semi-protected|small=yes}}{{Pp-move-indef}}{{short description|primary sexual organ of male animals}}{{multiple image| align = right| total_width = 250| footer = Penis of an Asian elephant
width1=2736|height1=3316width2=2736|height2=3648}}A penis (plural penises or penes {{IPAc-en|-|n|iː|z}}) is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate sexually receptive mates (usually females and hermaphrodites) during copulation.BOOK, Janet Leonard, Alex Cordoba-Aguilar R, The Evolution of Primary Sexual Characters in Animals,weblink 20 July 2013, 18 June 2010, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-971703-3, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131011093915weblink">weblink 11 October 2013, Such organs occur in many animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate, but males do not bear a penis in every animal species, and in those species in which the male does bear a so-called penis, the penes in the various species are not necessarily homologous. For example, the penis of a mammal is at most analogous to the penis of a male insect or barnacle.{{citation needed|date=March 2014}}The term penis applies to many intromittent organs, but not to all; for example the intromittent organ of most cephalopoda is the hectocotylus, a specialised arm, and male spiders use their pedipalps. Even within the Vertebrata there are morphological variants with specific terminology, such as hemipenes.In most species of animals in which there is an organ that might reasonably be described as a penis, it has no major function other than intromission, or at least conveying the sperm to the female, but in the placental mammals the penis bears the distal part of the urethra, which discharges both urine during urination and semen during copulation.BOOK, Marvalee H. Wake, Hyman's Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy,weblink 23 July 2013, 15 September 1992, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-87013-7, 583, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131231143932weblink">weblink 31 December 2013, {{TOC limit|4}}{{Category see also|Animal penises}}

Vertebrates

Birds

{{see also|Intromittent organ#Birds|Bird anatomy#Urogenital and Endocrine systems}}{{anchor|Birds}}File:Mallard with visible pseudo-penis (croped).jpg|thumb|right|Mallard (pseudo-penis]]{{dubious|1=Talk:Pseudo-penis#Dubious|date=February 2017}})Most male birds (e.g., roosters and turkeys) have a cloaca (also present on the female), but not a penis. Among bird species with a penis are paleognathes (tinamous and ratites)BOOK, Julian Lombardi, Comparative Vertebrate Reproduction,weblink 5 December 2012, 1998, Springer, 978-0-7923-8336-9, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326171659weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, and Anatidae (ducks, geese and swans).BOOK, MobileReference, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of European Birds: An Essential Guide to Birds of Europe,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326174050weblink">weblink yes, 26 March 2014, 5 December 2012, 15 December 2009, MobileReference, 978-1-60501-557-6, A bird penis is different in structure from mammal penises, being an erectile expansion of the cloacal wall and being erected by lymph, not blood.BOOK, Frank B. Gill, Ornithology,weblink 5 December 2012, 6 October 2006, Macmillan, 978-0-7167-4983-7, 414–, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140107223055weblink">weblink 7 January 2014, It is usually partially feathered and in some species features spines and brush-like filaments, and in flaccid state curls up inside the cloaca. The lake duck (also called Argentine blue-bill) has the largest penis in relation to body size of all vertebrates; while usually about half the body size (20 cm), a specimen with a penis 42.5 cm long is documented.While most male birds have no external genitalia, male waterfowl (Anatidae) have a phallus. Most birds mate with the males balancing on top of the females and touching cloacas in a "cloacal kiss"; this makes forceful insemination very difficult. The phallus that male waterfowl have evolved everts out of their bodies (in a clockwise coil) and aids in inseminating females without their cooperation.Brennan, P. L. R. et al. Coevolution of male and female genital morphology in waterfowl. PLoS ONE 2, e418 (2007). The male waterfowl evolution of a phallus to forcefully copulate with females has led to counteradaptations in females in the form of vaginal structures called dead end sacs and clockwise coils. These structures make it harder for males to achieve intromission. The clockwise coils are significant because the male phallus everts out of their body in a counter-clockwise spiral; therefore, a clockwise vaginal structure would impede forceful copulation. Studies have shown that the longer a male's phallus is, the more elaborate the vaginal structures were.The lake duck is notable for possessing, in relation to body length, the longest penis of all vertebrates; the penis, which is typically coiled up in flaccid state, can reach about the same length as the animal himself when fully erect, but is more commonly about half the bird's length.JOURNAL, McCracken, Kevin G., 2000, The 20-cm Spiny Penis of the Argentine Lake Duck (Oxyura vittata), The Auk, 117, 3, 820–825,weblink 10.2307/4089612, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150923185838weblink">weblink 2015-09-23, 4089612, JOURNAL, McCracken, Kevin G., Robert E., Wilson, Pamela J., McCracken, Kevin P., Johnson, 2001, Sexual selection: Are ducks impressed by drakes' display?, Nature (journal), Nature, 413, 6852, 128, 10.1038/35093160,weblink 11557968, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160123225012weblink">weblink 2016-01-23, It is theorized that the remarkable size of their spiny penises with bristled tips may have evolved in response to competitive pressure in these highly promiscuous birds, removing sperm from previous matings in the manner of a bottle brush.Male and female emus are similar in appearance,Eastman, p. 23. although the male's penis can become visible when it defecates.Coddington and Cockburn, p. 366.The male tinamou has a corkscrew shaped penis, similar to those of the ratites and to the hemipenis of some reptiles. Females have a small phallic organ in the cloaca which becomes larger during the breeding season.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Cabot, J., Carboneras, C., Folch, A., de Juanca, E., Llimona, F., Matheu, E., 1992, J.
publisher=Lynx Edicions volume= I: Ostrich to Duckstitle= Tinamiformes,

Mammals

{{commons category|Mammal penis}}File:Hundepenis.jpg|thumb|200px|External male genitalia of a Labrador RetrieverLabrador RetrieverAs with any other bodily attribute, the length and girth of the penis can be highly variable between mammals of different species.BOOK, Tim Birkhead, Promiscuity: An Evolutionary History of Sperm Competition,weblink 23 July 2013, 2000, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-00666-9, 102, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326175533weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, BOOK, Virginia Douglass Hayssen, Ari Van Tienhoven, Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-Specific Data,weblink 23 July 2013, 1993, Cornell University Press, 978-0-8014-1753-5, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131009033912weblink">weblink 9 October 2013, In many mammals, the size of a flaccid penis is smaller than its erect size. In the realm of absolute size, the smallest vertebrate penis belongs to the common shrew (5 mm or 0.2 inches).{{citation needed|date = March 2013}}A bone called the baculum or os penis is present in most mammals but absent in humans, cattle and horses.In mammals the penis is divided into three parts: The internal structures of the penis consist mainly of cavernous, erectile tissue, which is a collection of blood sinusoids separated by sheets of connective tissue (trabeculae). Some mammals have a lot of erectile tissue relative to connective tissue, for example horses. Because of this a horse's penis can enlarge more than a bull's penis. The urethra is on the ventral side of the body of the penis. As a general rule, a mammal's penis is proportional to its body size, but this varies greatly between species{{spaced ndash}}even between closely related ones. For example, an adult gorilla's erect penis is about {{convert|4|cm|in|round=0.5|abbr=on}} in length; an adult chimpanzee, significantly smaller (in body size) than a gorilla, has a penis size about double that of the gorilla. In comparison, the human penis is larger than that of any other primate, both in proportion to body size and in absolute terms.BOOK, Sue Taylor Parker, Karin Enstam Jaffe, Darwin's Legacy: Scenarios in Human Evolution,weblink 23 July 2013, 2008, AltaMira Press, 978-0-7591-0316-0, 121, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326182559weblink">weblink 26 March 2014,

Even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla)

The penises of even-toed ungulates are curved in an S-shape when not erect.BOOK, Uwe Gille, urinary and sexual apparatus, urogenital Apparatus. In: F.-V. Salomon and others (eds.): Anatomy for veterinary medicine, 2008, 368–403, 978-3-8304-1075-1, In bulls, rams and boars, the sigmoid flexure of the penis straightens out during erection.BOOK, Sergi Bonet, Isabel Casas, William V Holt, Marc Yeste, Boar Reproduction: Fundamentals and New Biotechnological Trends,weblink 1 February 2013, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-3-642-35049-8, no,weblink 5 May 2016, When mating, the tip of a male pronghorn's penis is often the first part to touch the female pronghorn.BOOK, John A. Byers, American Pronghorn: Social Adaptations and the Ghosts of Predators Past,weblink 23 July 2013, 1997, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-08699-6, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326172111weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, The pronghorn's penis is about {{convert|5|in|cm}} long, and is shaped like an ice pick.BOOK, John A. Byers, Built for Speed: A Year in the Life of Pronghorn,weblink 23 July 2013, 30 June 2009, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-02913-2, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326180331weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, The front of a pronghorn's glans penis is relatively flat, while the back is relatively thick.BOOK, Bart W. O'Gara, James D. Yoakum, Pronghorn: ecology and management,weblink 23 July 2013, 2004, University Press of Colorado, 978-0-87081-757-1, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326182136weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, The male pronghorn usually ejaculates immediately after intromission.BOOK, John A. Byers, American Pronghorn: Social Adaptations and the Ghosts of Predators Past,weblink 15 July 2013, 1997, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-08699-6, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140101052335weblink">weblink 1 January 2014, BOOK, John A. Byers, Built for Speed: A Year in the Life of Pronghorn,weblink 15 July 2013, 30 June 2009, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-02913-2, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140101045402weblink">weblink 1 January 2014, The penis of a dromedary camel is covered by a triangular penile sheath opening backwards,BOOK, R. Yagil, The desert camel: comparative physiological adaptation,weblink 5 September 2013, 1985, Karger, 978-3-8055-4065-0, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140101072733weblink">weblink 1 January 2014, and is about {{convert|60|cm|in|abbr=on}} long.JOURNAL, Kohler-Rollefson, I. U., Camelus dromedarius, Mammalian Species, 12 April 1991, 375, 1–8,weblink 10.2307/3504297, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130521140058weblink">weblink 21 May 2013, 3504297, BOOK, Malie Marie Sophie Smuts, Abraham Johannes Bezuidenhout, Anatomy of the dromedary,weblink 11 June 2013, 1987, Clarendon Press, 978-0-19-857188-9, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326180636weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, The camelmen often aid the male to enter his penis into the female's vulva, though the male is considered able to do it on his own. Copulation time ranges from 7 to 35 minutes, averaging 11–15 minutes.BOOK, Mukasa-Mugerwa, E.,weblink The Camel (Camelus dromedarius): A Bibliographical Review, 20, 2013-11-08, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326180541weblink">weblink 2014-03-26, 1981-01-01, BOOK, Nomadic Peoples,weblink 11 June 2013, 1992, Commission on Nomadic Peoples, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326181036weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, {{anchor|Bulls}}{{Commons category|Bull penis}}Bulls have a fibro-elastic penis. Given the small amount of erectile tissue, there is little enlargement after erection. The penis is quite rigid when non-erect, and becomes even more rigid during erection. Protrusion is not affected much by erection, but more by relaxation of the retractor penis muscle and straightening of the sigmoid flexure.BOOK, Sarkar, A., Sexual Behaviour In Animals, Discovery Publishing House, 2003, 978-81-7141-746-9, BOOK, Functional Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals,weblink 2009-03-04, John Wiley & Sons, 9780813814513, William O. Reece, no,weblink 2018-03-20, BOOK,weblink Modern Livestock and Poultry Production - James R. Gillespie, Frank B. Flanders, 2012-12-02, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130204074837weblink">weblink 2013-02-04, 978-1428318083, Gillespie, James R., Flanders, Frank, 2009-01-28, The male genitalia of mouse deer are similar to those of pigs.Vidyadaran, M. K., et al. "Male genital organs and accessory glands of the lesser mouse deer, Tragulus javanicus." Journal of mammalogy 80.1 (1999): 199-204. A boar's penis, which rotates rhythmically during copulation,BOOK, William G. Eberhard, Female Control: Sexual Selection by Cryptic Female Choice,weblink 23 July 2013, 1996, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-01084-7, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326175332weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, is about {{convert|18|in|cm}} long, and ejaculates about a pint of semen.BOOK, Geoffrey Miller, The Mating Mind: How Sexual Choice Shaped the Evolution of Human Nature,weblink 23 July 2013, 21 December 2011, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 978-0-307-81374-9, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326181700weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, Wild boars have a roughly egg-sized sack near the opening of the penis, which collects urine and emits a sharp odour. The purpose of this is not fully understood.Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988) Mammals of the Soviet Union, Volume I, Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp. 19-82

Deer

A stag's penis forms an S-shaped curve when it is not erect, and is retracted into its sheath by the retractor penis muscle.BOOK,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130528110804weblink">weblink yes, 2013-05-28, The Deer of North America: The Standard Reference on All North American Deer Species--Behavior, Habitat, Distribution, and More, Leonard Lee Rue III, 2004, LYONS Press, 9781592284658, 2013-05-05, Some deer species spray urine on their bodies by urinating from an erect penis.BOOK, Fritz R. Walther, Communication and expression in hoofed mammals,weblink 5 July 2013, 1984, Indiana University Press, 978-0-253-31380-5, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131012223637weblink">weblink 12 October 2013, One type of scent-marking behavior in elk is known as "thrash-urination,BOOK, Dale R. McCullough, The tule elk: its history, behavior, and ecology,weblink 22 July 2013, 1969, University of California Press, 978-0-520-01921-8, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130511011553weblink">weblink 11 May 2013, BOOK,weblink Current Therapy in Large Animal Theriogenology, 9781437713404, Youngquist, Robert S, Threlfall, Walter R, 2006-11-23, harv, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130511035842weblink">weblink 2013-05-11, which typically involves palpitation of the erect penis.BOOK,weblink Ultimate Elk Hunting: Strategies, Techniques & Methods, Jay Houston, 2013-02-10, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130511054339weblink">weblink 2013-05-11, JOURNAL,weblink Behavior of elk (Cervus canadensis) during the rut, Struhsaker, Thomas T, 1967, harv, 2013-11-08, A male elk's urethra points upward so that urine is sprayed almost at a right angle to the penis. A sambar stag will mark himself by spraying urine directly in the face with a highly mobile penis, which is often erect during its rutting activities.Deer of the world: their evolution, behaviour, and ecology. Valerius Geist. Stackpole Books. 1998. Pg. 73-77. Red deer stags often have erect penises during combat.BOOK, Sommer, Volker, Vasey, Paul L., Homosexual Behaviour in Animals: An Evolutionary Perspective,weblink 5 May 2013, 2006-07-27, Cambridge University Press, 9780521864466, 166–, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140105050941weblink">weblink 5 January 2014,

Cetaceans

File:Penises in Jars ( 4890599548.jpg|thumb|left|Penises of minke whales on display at the Icelandic Phallological MuseumIcelandic Phallological Museum{{anchor|Whales}}{{commons category|Cetacea penis}}{{See also|Dolphin#anatomy}}Cetaceans' reproductive organs are located inside the body. Male cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) have two slits, the genital groove concealing the penis and one further behind for the anus.BOOK, William F. Perrin, Bernd Wursig, J. G.M. Thewissen, Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals,weblink 28 June 2013, 26 February 2009, Academic Press, 978-0-08-091993-5, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131011084144weblink">weblink 11 October 2013, BOOK, Spencer Wilkie Tinker, Whales of the World,weblink 1 January 1988, Brill Archive, 978-0-935848-47-2, BOOK,weblink The Dusky Dolphin: Master Acrobat Off Different Shores - Bernd G. Würsig, Bernd Wursig, Melany Wursig, 2012-11-22, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131011092813weblink">weblink 2013-10-11, 9780080920351, Würsig, Bernd, Wursig, Melany, 2009-07-17, BOOK,weblink Conservation Endangered Spe: An Interdisciplinary Approach - Edward F. Gibbons, Jr., Barbara Susan Durrant, Jack Demarest, 2012-11-22, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130204074833weblink">weblink 2013-02-04, 9780791419113, Gibbons, Edward F., Durrant, Barbara Susan, Demarest, Jack, 1995, Cetaceans have fibroelastic penises, similar to those of Artiodactyla.BOOK, Debra Lee Miller, Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Cetacea: Whales, Porpoises and Dolphins,weblink 19 April 2016, CRC Press, 978-1-4398-4257-7, 133–, no,weblink 20 March 2018, The tapering tip of the cetacean penis is called the pars intrapraeputialis or terminal cone.BOOK, American Institute of Biological Sciences, Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises,weblink 8 August 2013, 1977, University of California Press, GGKEY:T3BKXB87GHT, The blue whale has the largest penis of any organism on the planet, typically measuring {{convert|8|–|10|ft}}.WEB,weblink Reproduction, University of Wisconsin, 3 October 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120730002050weblink">weblink 30 July 2012, Accurate measurements are difficult to take because its erect length can only be observed during mating,WEB,weblink The Largest Penis in the World – Both for humans and animals, size does matter! – Softpedia, News.softpedia.com, 2007-01-05, 2011-05-28, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110515095449weblink">weblink 2011-05-15, which occurs underwater. The penis on a right whale can be up to {{convert|2.7|m|ft|abbr=on}} – the testes, at up to {{convert|2|m|ft|abbr=on}} in length, {{convert|78|cm|ft|abbr=on}} in diameter, and weighing up to {{convert|525|lbs|kg|abbr=on}}, are also by far the largest of any animal on Earth.BOOK, Feldhamer, George A., Thompson, Bruce C., Chapman, Joseph A., Wild mammals of North America : biology, management, and conservation, 2003, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md., 9780801874161,weblink 2nd, 432, 2013-11-08, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131104003415weblink">weblink 2013-11-04, {{anchor|Dolphins}}On at least one occasion, a dolphin towed bathers through the water by hooking his erect penis around them.NEWS, 'Tougher laws' to protect friendly dolphins,weblink Unwin, Brian, 2008-01-22, The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, London, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121227064311weblink">weblink 2012-12-27, Between male bottlenose dolphins, homosexual behaviour includes rubbing of genitals against each other, which sometimes leads to the males swimming belly to belly, inserting the penis in the other's genital slit and sometimes anus.JOURNAL, Wells, R.S., Community structure of Bottlenose Dolphins near Sarasota, Florida, 1995, Paper presented at the 24th International Ethological Conference, Honoluly, Hawaii,

Odd-toed ungulates (Perissodactyla)

{{Anchor|Horses}}{{anchor|Stallion}} Stallions (male horses) have a vascular penis. When non-erect, it is quite flaccid and contained within the prepuce (foreskin, or sheath).{{anchor|Tapiridae}}Tapirs have exceptionally long penises relative to their body size.BOOK, Endangered Wildlife and Plants of the World,weblink 23 January 2013, 1 January 2001, Marshall Cavendish, 978-0-7614-7194-3, 1460–, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130528120713weblink">weblink 28 May 2013, BOOK, M. R. N. Prasad, Männliche Geschlechtsorgane,weblink 23 January 2013, 1974, Walter de Gruyter, 978-3-11-004974-9, 119–, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130528094845weblink">weblink 28 May 2013, BOOK, Daniel W. Gade, Nature & Culture in the Andes,weblink 4 March 2013, 1999, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 978-0-299-16124-8, 125–, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130528094026weblink">weblink 28 May 2013, BOOK, Jeffrey Quilter, Cobble Circles and Standing Stones: Archaeology at the Rivas Site, Costa Rica,weblink 4 March 2013, 1 April 2004, University of Iowa Press, 978-1-58729-484-6, 181–, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130528100618weblink">weblink 28 May 2013, The glans of the Malayan tapir resembles a mushroom, and is similar to the glans of the horse.JOURNAL, Lilia, K., Rosnina, Y., Abd Wahid, H., Zahari, Z. Z., Abraham, M., Gross Anatomy and Ultrasonographic Images of the Reproductive System of the Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus), 10.1111/j.1439-0264.2010.01030.x, Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, 39, 6, 569–575, 2010, The penis of the Sumatran rhinoceros contains two lateral lobes and a structure called the processus glandis.Zainal Zahari, Z., et al. "Gross anatomy and ultrasonographic images of the reproductive system of the sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis). {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180320145847weblink |date=2018-03-20 }}" Anatomia, histologia, embryologia 31.6 (2002): 350-354.

Carnivorans

{{anchor|Carnivora}}{{see also|Carnivora#Reproductive system}}All members of Carnivora (except hyenas) have a baculum.WEB,weblink Baculum length and copulatory behaviour in carnivores and pinnipeds (Grand Order Ferae), no,weblink 2016-06-03, {{anchor|Caniformia}}Canine penises have a structure at the base called the bulbus glandis.BOOK, Susan Long, Veterinary Genetics and Reproductive Physiology,weblink 2006, Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 978-0-7506-8877-2, 2013-11-08, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326180538weblink">weblink 2014-03-26, During copulation, the spotted hyena inserts his penis through the female's pseudo-penis instead of directly through the vagina, which is blocked by the false scrotum and testes. Once the female retracts her clitoris, the male enters the female by sliding beneath her, an operation facilitated by the penis's upward angle.JOURNAL, Szykman, M., Van Horn, R. C., Engh, A.L. Boydston, Holekamp, K. E., 2007, Courtship and mating in free-living spotted hyenas,weblink Behaviour, 144, 7, 815–846, 10.1163/156853907781476418, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121130193631weblink">weblink 2012-11-30, 10.1.1.630.5755, {{Harvnb|Estes|1998|p=293}} The pseudo-penis closely resembles the male hyena's penis, but can be distinguished from the male's genitalia by its greater thickness and more rounded glans.JOURNAL, Glickman, SE, Cunha, GR, Drea, CM, Conley, AJ, Place, NJ, 2006, Mammalian sexual differentiation: lessons from the spotted hyena,weblink Trends Endocrinol Metab, 17, 9, 349–356, 10.1016/j.tem.2006.09.005, 17010637, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130222022824weblink">weblink 2013-02-22, In male spotted hyenas, as well as females, the base of the glans is covered with penile spines.BOOK, R. F. Ewer, The Carnivores,weblink 9 January 2013, 1973, Cornell University Press, 978-0-8014-8493-3, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130528110801weblink">weblink 28 May 2013, BOOK, R. D. Estes, The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates,weblink 23 July 2013, 1991, University of California Press, 978-0-520-08085-0, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131011083721weblink">weblink 11 October 2013, BOOK, Catherine Blackledge, The Story of V: A Natural History of Female Sexuality,weblink 23 July 2013, 2003, Rutgers University Press, 978-0-8135-3455-8, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131011083623weblink">weblink 11 October 2013, {{anchor|Felidae}}Domestic cats have barbed penises, with about 120–150 one millimeter long backwards-pointing spines.JOURNAL, Aronson, L. R., Cooper, M. L., Penile spines of the domestic cat: their endocrine-behavior relations, Anat. Rec., 157, 1, 71–8, 1967, 6030760, 10.1002/ar.1091570111,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170620212227weblink">weblink 2017-06-20, Upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which is a trigger for ovulation. Lions also have barbed penises.BOOK, Cats of Africa,weblink 23 July 2013, 2005, Struik, 978-1-77007-063-9, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326182705weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, BOOK, Philip Caputo, Ghosts of Tsavo: Stalking the Mystery Lions of East Africa,weblink 23 July 2013, 1 June 2003, Adventure Press, National Geographic, 978-0-7922-4100-3, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326175500weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, Male felids urinate backwards by curving the tip of the glans penis backward.BOOK, R. F. Ewer, The Carnivores,weblink 23 July 2013, 1998, Cornell University Press, 978-0-8014-8493-3, 116, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326181627weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, BOOK, Reena Mathur, Animal Behaviour 3/e,weblink 23 July 2013, 2009, Rastogi Publications, 978-81-7133-747-7, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326180352weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, When male cheetahs urine-mark their territories, they stand one meter away from a tree or rock surface with the tail raised, pointing the penis either horizontally backward or 60° upward.BOOK, T. M. Caro, Cheetahs of the Serengeti Plains: Group Living in an Asocial Species,weblink 23 July 2013, 15 August 1994, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-09433-5, 203, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326182439weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, {{anchor|Fossa}}The male fossa has an unusually long penis and baculum (penis bone), reaching to between his front legs when erectJOURNAL, Köhncke, M., Leonhardt, K., Cryptoprocta ferox, Mammalian Species, 254, 1–5, 1986,weblink 19 May 2010, 10.2307/3503919, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100621003457weblink">weblink 21 June 2010, 3503919, withbackwards-pointing spines along most of its length.BOOK, Macdonald, D.W., David W. Macdonald, The Princeton Encyclopedia of Mammals, 2009, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-14069-8, harv, The male fossa has scent glands near the penis, with the penile glands emitting a strong odor.{{r|1986Köhncke}}The beech marten's penis is larger than the pine marten's, with the bacula of young beech martens often outsizing those of old pine martens.{{Harvnb|Heptner|Sludskii|2002|p=881}}Raccoons have penis bones which bend at a 90 degree angle at the tip.BOOK, Leon Fradley Whitney, The Raccoon,weblink 24 July 2013, 1952, Practical Science Publishing Company, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326181315weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, The extrusibility of a raccoon's penis can be used to distinguish mature males from immature males.BOOK, Samuel I. Zeveloff, Raccoons: A Natural History,weblink 25 July 2013, 2002, UBC Press, 978-0-7748-0964-1, 5–, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326174609weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, BOOK, Julie Feinstein, Field Guide to Urban Wildlife,weblink 22 July 2013, January 2011, Stackpole Books, 978-0-8117-0585-1, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326182553weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, Male walruses possess the largest penis bones of any land mammal, both in absolute size and relative to body size.JOURNAL, Fay, F.H., 1985,weblink Odobenus rosmarus, Mammalian Species, 238, 1–7, 10.2307/3503810, 238, 3503810, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130915093329weblink">weblink 2013-09-15, BOOK, Born, E. W., Gjertz, I., Reeves, R. R., 1995, Population assessment of Atlantic Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus L.), Meddelelser. Norsk Polarinstitut, Oslo, Norway, 100, The adult male American mink's penis is {{convert|5.6|cm|in|abbr=on|order=flip}} long, and is covered by a sheath. The baculum is well-developed, being triangular in cross section and curved at the tip.{{Harvnb|Feldhamer|Thompson|Chapman|2003|pp=663–664}}

Bats

Males of Racey's pipistrelle bat have a long, straight penis with a notch between the shaft and the narrow, egg-shaped glans penis. Near the top, the penis is haired, but the base is almost naked. In the baculum (penis bone), the shaft is long and narrow and slightly curved.Bates et al., 2006, p. 304 The length of the penis and baculum distinguish P. raceyi from all comparably sized African and Malagasy vespertilionids.Bates et al., 2006, pp. 306–307 In males, penis length is {{convert|9.6|to|11.8|mm|in|abbr=on}} and baculum length is {{convert|8.8|to|10.0|mm|in|abbr=on}}.Bates et al., 2006, table 1Copulation by male greater short-nosed fruit bats is dorsoventral and the females lick the shaft or the base of the male's penis, but not the glans which has already penetrated the vagina. While the females do this, the penis is not withdrawn and research has shown a positive relationship between length of the time that the penis is licked and the duration of copulation. Post copulation genital grooming has also been observed.JOURNAL, 10.1371/journal.pone.0007595, Tan, Min, Gareth Jones, Guangjian Zhu, Jianping Ye, Tiyu Hong, Shanyi Zhou, Shuyi Zhang, Libiao Zhang, October 28, 2009, Fellatio by Fruit Bats Prolongs Copulation Time, e7595, PLoS ONE, 4, 10, 19862320, 2762080, 2009PLoSO...4.7595T, Hosken, David,

Rodents

The glans penis of the marsh rice rat is long and robust,Hooper and Musser, 1964, p. 13 averaging {{convert|7.3|mm|in|abbr=on}} long and {{convert|4.6|mm|in|abbr=on}} broad, and the baculum (penis bone) is {{convert|6.6|mm|in|abbr=on}} long.Hooper and Musser, 1964, table 1 As is characteristic of Sigmodontinae, the marsh rice rat has a complex penis, with the distal (far) end of the baculum ending in three digits.Weksler, 2006, pp. 55–56 The central digit is notably larger than those at the sides. The outer surface of the penis is mostly covered by small spines, but there is a broad band of nonspinous tissue. The papilla (nipple-like projection) on the dorsal (upper) side of the penis is covered with small spines, a character the marsh rice rat shares only with Oligoryzomys and Oryzomys couesi among oryzomyines examined.Hooper and Musser, 1964, p. 13; Weksler, 2006, p. 57 On the urethral process, located in the crater at the end of the penis,Hooper and Musser, 1964, p. 7 a fleshy process (the subapical lobule) is present; it is absent in all other oryzomyines with studied penes except O. couesi and Holochilus brasiliensis.Weksler, 2006, p. 57 The baculum is deeper than it is wide.In Transandinomys talamancae, the outer surface of the penis is mostly covered by small spines, but there is a broad band of nonspinous tissue.Weksler, 2006, pp. 56–57Some features of the accessory glands in the male genital region vary among oryzomyines. In Transandinomys talamancae,Described by Voss and Linzey (1981). Noted in Weksler, 2006, p. 58, footnote 10 a single pair of preputial glands is present at the penis. As is usual for sigmodontines, there are two pairs of ventral prostate glands and a single pair of anterior and dorsal prostate glands. Part of the end of the vesicular gland is irregularly folded, not smooth as in most oryzomyines.Weksler, 2006, pp. 57–58; Voss and Linzey, 1981, p. 13In Pseudorhyzomys, the baculum (penis bone) displays large protuberances at the sides. In the cartilaginous part of the baculum, the central digit is smaller than those at the sides.Weksler, 2006, pp. 55–56In Drymoreomys, there are three digits at the tip of the penis, of which the central one is the largest.{{Sfn|Percequillo|Weksler|Costa|2011|p=367}}In Thomasomys ucucha the glans penis is rounded, short, and small and is superficially divided into left and right halves by a trough at the top and a ridge at the bottom.Voss, 2003, p. 11The glans penis of a male cape ground squirrel is large with a prominent baculum.JOURNAL, Skurski, D., Waterman, J., 2005, Xerus inauris, Mammalian Species, 781, 1–4, 10.1644/781.1, Unlike other squirrel species, red squirrels have long, thin, and narrow penises, without a prominent baculum.BOOK, Kim Long, Squirrels: A Wildlife Handbook,weblink 23 July 2013, 1995, Big Earth Publishing, 978-1-55566-152-6, 127, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326182437weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, BOOK, Charles A. Long, The Wild Mammals of Wisconsin,weblink 23 July 2013, 2008, Pensoft Publishers, 978-954-642-313-9, 341, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326172856weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, Winkelmann's mouse can easily be distinguished from its close relatives by the shape of its penis, which has a partially corrugated glans.JOURNAL, Bradley, R.D., Schmidley, D.J., yes, 1987, The glans penes and bacula in Latin American taxa of the Peromyscus boylii group, Journal of Mammalogy, 68, 3, 595–615, 10.2307/1381595, 1381595, The foreskin of a capybara is attached to the anus in an unusual way, forming an anogenital invagination.BOOK, José Roberto Moreira, Katia Maria P.M.B. Ferraz, Emilio A. Herrera, Capybara: Biology, Use and Conservation of an Exceptional Neotropical Species,weblink 25 July 2013, 15 August 2012, Springer, 978-1-4614-4000-0, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326175202weblink">weblink 26 March 2014,

Primates

{{multiple image| align = right|width = 150| footer = External male genitalia of Papio hamadryas and Chlorocebus pygerythrus.| image1 = Papio_hamadryas-adult_penis-Lisbon_07.JPG| image2 = Chlorocebus-pygerythrus-private-parts.JPG}}It has been postulated that the shape of the human penis may have been selected by sperm competition. The shape could have favored displacement of seminal fluids implanted within the female reproductive tract by rival males: the thrusting action which occurs during sexual intercourse can mechanically remove seminal fluid out of the cervix area from a previous mating.JOURNAL, Shackelford, T. K., Goetz, A. T., 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00473.x, Adaptation to Sperm Competition in Humans, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 47–50, 2007, The penile morphology of some types of strepsirrhine primates has provided information about their taxonomy.BOOK, Alan F. Dixson, Primate Sexuality: Comparative Studies of the Prosimians, Monkeys, Apes, and Humans,weblink 6 September 2013, 26 January 2012, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-150342-9, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131231131810weblink">weblink 31 December 2013, Male galago species possess very distinctive penile morphology that can be used to classify species.JOURNAL, Anderson, MJ, Comparative Morphology and Speciation in Galagos, Folia Primatol, 1998, 69, 325–331, 10.1159/000052721, JOURNAL, Dixson, AF, Sexual Selection, Genital Morphology, and Copulatory Behavior in Male Galagos, International Journal of Primatology, 1989, 10, 1, 47–55, 10.1007/bf02735703, JOURNAL, Anderson, MJ, Penile Morphology and Classification of Bush Babies (Family Galagoninae), International Journal of Primatology, 2000, 21, 5, 5, 815–836, 10.1023/A:1005542609002, The northern greater galago penis is on average {{convert|18|mm|abbr=on}} in length, with doubled headed or even tridentate spines pointing towards the body. They are less densely packed than in Otolemur crassicaudatus. The penis of the ring-tailed lemur is nearly cylindrical in shape and is covered in small spines, as well as having two pairs of larger spines on both sides.JOURNAL, Wilson, D.E., Hanlon, E., Lemur catta (Primates: Lemuridae), Mammalian Species, 2010, 42, 854, 58–74, 10.1644/854.1,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130510122527weblink">weblink 2013-05-10, The adult male of each vervet monkey species has a pale blue scrotum and a red penis,BOOK, Fedigan L, Fedigan LM, 1988, Cercopithecus aethiops: a review of field studies., Cambridge (UK), Cambridge University Press, 389–411, BOOK, Peter Apps, Wild Ways: Field Guide to the Behaviour of Southern African Mammals,weblink 23 July 2013, 2000, Struik, 978-1-86872-443-7, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326181402weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, and male proboscis monkeys have a red penis with a black scrotum.BOOK, Friderun Ankel-Simons, Primate Anatomy: An Introduction,weblink 23 July 2013, 27 July 2010, Academic Press, 978-0-08-046911-9, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326182504weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, Male baboons and squirrel monkeys sometimes gesture with an erect penis as both a warning of impending danger and a threat to predators.NEWS, Daniel, Nasaw, When did the middle finger become offensive?, February 6, 2012, BBC,weblink BBC News Magazine, February 7, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120206231123weblink">weblink February 6, 2012, NEWS,weblink San Jose Mercury News, June 20, 1996, 16A, Davis' Infamous Finger Salute Has Had a Big Hand in History; Folklorists: Roots Go Back At Least 2,000 Years To Ancient Rome, Michael, Oricchio, July 9, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130511013250weblink">weblink May 11, 2013, {{subscription required|date=July 2012}} In male squirrel monkeys, this gesture is used for social communication.JOURNAL, 10.1159/000164879, Blitz J., Ploog D.W., Ploog F., 1963, Studies on the social and sexual behavior of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), Folia Primatologica, 1, 29–66,

Humans

{{commons category|Human penis}}(File:Penis with Labels.jpg|thumb|Penis of a human)The human penis is an external sex organ of male humans. It is a reproductive, intromittent organ that additionally serves as the urinal duct. The main parts are the root of the penis (radix): It is the attached part, consisting of the bulb of penis in the middle and the crus of penis, one on either side of the bulb; the body of the penis (corpus); and the epithelium of the penis consists of the shaft skin, the foreskin, and the preputial mucosa on the inside of the foreskin and covering the glans penis.The human penis is made up of three columns of tissue: two corpora cavernosa lie next to each other on the dorsal side and one corpus spongiosum lies between them on the ventral side. The urethra, which is the last part of the urinary tract, traverses the corpus spongiosum, and its opening, known as the meatus {{IPAc-en|m|iː|ˈ|eɪ|t|É™|s}}, lies on the tip of the glans penis. It is a passage both for urine and for the ejaculation of semen.In males, the expulsion of urine from the body is done through the penis. The urethra drains the bladder through the prostate gland where it is joined by the ejaculatory duct, and then onward to the penis.An erection is the stiffening and rising of the penis, which occurs during sexual arousal, though it can also happen in non-sexual situations. Ejaculation is the ejecting of semen from the penis, and is usually accompanied by orgasm. A series of muscular contractions delivers semen, containing male gametes known as sperm cells or spermatozoa, from the penis.The most common form of genital alteration is circumcision: removal of part or all of the foreskin for various cultural, religious, and more rarely medical reasons. There is controversy surrounding circumcision.{{As of|2015}}, a systematic review of 15,521 men, and the best research to date on the topic, as the subjects were measured by health professionals, rather than self-measured, has concluded that the average length of an erect human penis is 13.12 cm (5.17 inches) long, while the average circumference of an erect human penis is 11.66 cm (4.59 inches)weblink 10.1111/bju.13010, Am I normal? A systematic review and construction of nomograms for flaccid and erect penis length and circumference in up to 15 521 men, BJU International, 115, 6, 978–986, 2015, Veale, D., Miles, S., Bramley, S., Muir, G., Hodsoll, J.,

Marsupials

Most marsupials, except for the two largest species of kangaroos and marsupial molesOn the Habits and Affinities of the New Australian Mammal, Notoryctes typhlopsE. D. CopeThe American NaturalistVol. 26, No. 302 (Feb., 1892), pp. 121-128 (assuming the latter are true marsupials), have a bifurcated penis, separated into two columns, so that the penis has two ends corresponding to the females' two vaginas.BOOK, Renfree, Marilyn, Reproductive Physiology of Marsupials,weblink 5 May 2013, 1987-01-30, Cambridge University Press, 9780521337922, Hugh Tyndale-Biscoe, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140111213229weblink">weblink 11 January 2014,

Monotremes

Monotremes and marsupial moles are the only mammals in which the penis is located inside the cloaca.Gadow, H. On the systematic position of Notoryctes typhlops. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1892, 361–370 (1892).Riedelsheimer, B., Unterberger, P., Künzle, H. and U. Welsch. 2007. Histological study of the cloacal region and associated structures in the hedgehog tenrec Echinops telfairi. Mammalian Biology 72(6): 330-341.Male echidnas have a four-headed penis.BOOK, Michael L. Augee, Brett A. Gooden, Anne Musser, Echidna: Extraordinary Egg-laying Mammal,weblink 23 July 2013, January 2006, Csiro Publishing, 978-0-643-09204-4, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326182613weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, During mating, the heads on one side "shut down" and do not grow in size; the other two are used to release semen into the female's two-branched reproductive tract. The heads used are swapped each time the mammal copulates.NEWS,weblink Exhibitionist spiny anteater reveals bizarre penis, N., Shultz, New Scientist, 26 October 2007, 27 October 2006, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071222214027weblink">weblink 22 December 2007, When not in use, the penis is retracted inside a preputial sac in the cloaca. The male echidna's penis is {{convert|7|cm}} long when erect, and its shaft is covered with penile spines.BOOK, Larry Vogelnest, Rupert Woods, Medicine of Australian Mammals,weblink 23 July 2013, 18 August 2008, Csiro Publishing, 978-0-643-09928-9, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326182237weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, The penis is nearly a quarter of his body length when erect.BOOK, Mammalogy,weblink 5 May 2013, 21 April 2011, Jones & Bartlett Learning, 978-0-7637-6299-5, 389–, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140326182422weblink">weblink 26 March 2014, Each side of the bilaterally symmetrical, rosette-like, four-headed penis [similar to that of reptiles and {{convert|7|cm|in}} in length] is used alternately, with the other half being shut down between ejaculations.Augee, Gooden and Musser, p. 81.JOURNAL, Johnston, S.D., Smith, B., Pyne, M., Stenzel, D., Holt, W.V., 2007, One-Sided Ejaculation of Echidna Sperm Bundles (Tachyglossus aculeatus), Am. Nat., 170, 6, E162–4, 10.1086/522847, 18171162,

Other mammals

{{organize section|date=June 2013}}The penis of the bush hyrax is complex and distinct from that of the other hyrax genera. It has a short, thin appendage within a cup-like glans penis and measures greater than {{convert|6|cm}} when erect. Additionally, it has been observed that the bush hyrax also has a greater distance between the anus and preputial opening in comparison to other hyraxes.JOURNAL, Barry, R.E., Shoshani, J., 2000, Heterohyrax brucei, 10.1644/1545-1410(2000)6452.0.co;2, Mammalian Species, 645, 1–7, {{Commons category|Elephant penis}}{{anchor|Elephants}}An adult elephant has the largest penis of any land animal.BOOK, Giustina, Anthony, Sex World Records,weblink 3 October 2012, 31 December 2005, Lulu.com, 978-1-4116-6774-7, 152, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131011084322weblink">weblink 11 October 2013, An elephant's penis can reach a length of {{convert|100|cm|in|0|abbr=on}} and a diameter of {{convert|16|cm|in|0|abbr=on}} at the base.{{citation needed|date=December 2013}} It is S-shaped when fully erect and has a Y-shaped orifice.Shoshani, p. 80. During musth, a male elephant may urinate with his penis still in the sheath, which causes the urine to spray on the hind legs.BOOK,weblink Smithers' Mammals of Southern Africa: A Field Guide, 2013-06-22, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131011082833weblink">weblink 2013-10-11, 9781868725502, Smithers, Reay H. N., March 2008, Sukumar, pp. 100–08. An elephant's penis is very mobile, being able to move independently of the male's pelvis,BOOK, Murray E. Fowler, Susan K. Mikota, Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of Elephants,weblink 4 May 2013, 2 October 2006, John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-8138-0676-1, 353–, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130528123057weblink">weblink 28 May 2013, and the penis curves forward and upward prior to mounting another elephant.In giant anteaters, the (retracted) penis and testes are located internally between the rectum and urinary bladder.BOOK, Hutchins, M., Kleiman, D. G, Geist, V., McDade, M. С., Naugher, K. B., Anteaters (Myrmecophagidae), Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, 13, 2nd, Gale, 2004, 171–79, 978-0-7876-7750-3, When the male armadillo Chaetophractus villosus is sexually aroused, species determination is easier. Its penis can be as long as {{convert|35|mm|1}}, and usually remains completely withdrawn inside a skin receptacle."New data on armadillos (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) for Central Patagonia, Argentina." Agustin M. Abba, et al. Scientists conducting studies on the C. villosus penis muscles revealed this species' very long penis exhibits variability. During its waking hours, it remains hidden beneath a skin receptacle, until it becomes erect and it projects outside in a rostral direction.JOURNAL, Affanni, J. M., Cervino, C. O., Marcos, H. J. A., 10.1046/j.1365-2869.2001.00259.x, Absence of penile erections during paradoxical sleep. Peculiar penile events during wakefulness and slow wave sleep in the armadillo, Journal of Sleep Research, 10, 3, 219–228, 2001, 11696075,

Other vertebrates

{{see also|Intromittent organ#Vertebrata}}Male turtles and crocodiles have a penis, while male specimens of the reptile order Squamata have two paired organs called hemipenes. Tuataras must use their cloacae for reproduction.Lutz, Dick (2005), Tuatara: A Living Fossil, Salem, Oregon: DIMI PRESS, {{ISBN|0-931625-43-2}} Due to evolutionary convergence, turtle and mammal penises have a similar structure.Kelly, D. A. "Turtle and mammal penis designs are anatomically convergent {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180320145848weblink |date=2018-03-20 }}." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 271.Suppl 5 (2004): S293-S295.In some fishes, the gonopodium, andropodium, and claspers are intromittent organs (to introduce sperm into the female) developed from modified fins.

Invertebrates

{{Further|Intromittent organ#Invertebrates}}

Arthropods

File:Callosobruchus analis penis.jpg|thumb|The spine-covered penis of Callosobruchus analis, a bean weevilbean weevilThe record for the largest penis size to body size ratio is held by the barnacle. The barnacle's penis can grow to up to forty times its own body length. This enables them to reach the nearest female for fertilization.A number of invertebrate species have independently evolved the mating technique of traumatic insemination where the penis penetrates the female's abdomen, thereby creating a womb into which it deposits sperm. This has been most fully studied in bed bugs.Some millipedes have penises. In these species, the penis is simply one or two projections on underneath the third body segment that produce a spermatophore or sperm packet. The act of insemination however occurs through specialized legs called gonopods which collect the spermatophore and insert it into the female.

Insects

{{see also|Intromittent organ#Insects}}In male insects, the structure analogous to a penis is known as aedeagus. The male copulatory organ of various lower invertebrate animals is often called the cirrus.{{citation needed|date=June 2013}}The lesser water boatman's mating call, generated by rubbing the penis against the abdomen, is the loudest sound, relative to body size, in the animal kingdom.JOURNAL, So Small, So Loud: Extremely High Sound Pressure Level from a Pygmy Aquatic Insect (Corixidae, Micronectinae), PLOS ONE, 6, 6, e21089, 10.1371/journal.pone.0021089, 21698252, 3115974, 2011, Sueur, Jérôme, MacKie, David, Windmill, James F. C., In 2010, entomologist Charles Linehard described Neotrogla, a new genus of barkflies. Species of this genus have sex-reversed genitalia. Females have penis-like organs called gynosomes that are inserted into vagina-like openings of males during mating.JOURNAL, Charles, Lienhard, Thais, Oliveira do Carmo, Rodrigo, Lopes Ferreira, 2010,weblink A new genus of Sensitibillini from Brazilian caves (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Prionoglarididae), Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 117, 4, 611–635, 0035-418X, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141103042552weblink">weblink 2014-11-03, 10.5962/bhl.part.117600, In 2014, a detailed study of the insects reproductive habits led by Kazunori Yoshizawae confirmed that the organ functions similar to a penis – for example, it swells during sexual intercourse – and is used to extract sperm from the male.JOURNAL, Kazunori Yoshizawae, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Yoshitaka Kamimura, Charles Lienhard, Female Penis, Male Vagina, and Their Correlated Evolution in a Cave Insect, Current Biology, 17 April 2014,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20140417173448weblink">weblink yes, 17 April 2014, 27 April 2014, 10.1016/j.cub.2014.03.022, 24, 9, 1006–1010, 24746797, NEWS, In sex-reversed cave insects, females have the penises.,weblink 27 April 2014, Science Daily, 17 April 2014, Cell Press, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140426233436weblink">weblink 26 April 2014,

Mollusks

The penis in most male Coleoid cephalopods is a long and muscular end of the gonoduct used to transfer spermatophores to a modified arm called a hectocotylus. That, in turn, is used to transfer the spermatophores to the female. In species where the hectocotylus is missing, the penis is long and able to extend beyond the mantle cavity and transfers the spermatophores directly to the female. Deep water squid have the greatest known penis length relative to body size of all mobile animals, second in the entire animal kingdom only to certain sessile barnacles Penis elongation in Onykia ingens may result in a penis that is as long as the mantle, head and arms combined.Walker, M. 2010. Super squid sex organ discovered {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100707185137weblink |date=2010-07-07 }}. BBC Earth News, July 7, 2010. Giant squid of the genus Architeuthis are unusual in that they possess both a large penis and modified arm tips, although it is uncertain whether the latter are used for spermatophore transfer.Arkhipkin, A.I. & V.V. Laptikhovsky 2010. Observation of penis elongation in Onykia ingens: implications for spermatophore transfer in deep-water squid. Journal of Molluscan Studies, published online on June 30, 2010. {{DOI|10.1093/mollus/eyq019}}

Etymology

The word "penis" is taken from the Latin word for "tail." Some derive that from Indo-European *pesnis, and the Greek word πέος = "penis" from Indo-European *pesos. Prior to the adoption of the Latin word in English the penis was referred to as a "yard". The Oxford English Dictionary cites an example of the word yard used in this sense from 1379,BOOK, Basu, S. C., Male Reproductive Dysfunction, 2011, JP Medical Ltd, 9789350252208, 101,weblink en, and notes that in his Physical Dictionary of 1684, Steven Blankaart defined the word penis as "the Yard, made up of two nervous Bodies, the Channel, Nut, Skin, and Fore-skin, etc."BOOK, Oxford English Dictionary, penis, n.,weblink Oxford University Press, Simpson, John, John Simpson (lexicographer), 978-0-19-861186-8, 1989, second, Oxford English Dictionary, {{Dead link|date=June 2013}}As with nearly any aspect of the body involved in sexual or excretory functions, the penis is the subject of many slang words and euphemisms for it, a particularly common and enduring one being "cock". See (Wiktionary:WikiSaurus:penis|WikiSaurus:penis) for a list of alternative words for penis.The Latin word "phallus" (from Greek φαλλος) is sometimes used to describe the penis, although "phallus" originally was used to describe representations, pictorial or carved, of the penis.WEB,weblink Online Etymology Dictionary, Etymonline.com, 2011-05-28, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110606085622weblink">weblink 2011-06-06, Pizzle, an archaic English word for penis, of Low German or Dutch origin, is now used to denote the penis of a non-human animal.{{Citation needed|date=March 2013}}The adjectival form of the word penis is penile. This adjective is commonly used in describing various accessory structures of male copulatory organs found in many kinds of invertebrate animals.{{Citation needed|date=March 2013}}

Human use of animal penises

Pizzles are represented in heraldry, where the adjective pizzled (or vilenéJOURNAL, Rietstap, J. B., Armorial général; précédé d'un Dictionnaire des termes du blason, 1884, XXXI, G. B. van Goor zonen, Vilené: se dit un animal qui a la marque du sexe d'un autre émail que le corps,weblink {{inconsistent citations, }}) indicates that part of an animate charge's anatomy, especially if coloured differently.

See also

{{Commons category|Male genitalia in heraldry}}

References

{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}

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External links

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