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{{See also|List of paradoxes}}Common themes in paradoxes include self-reference, infinite regress, circular definitions, and confusion between different levels of abstraction.Patrick Hughes outlines three laws of the paradox:BOOK, Hughes, Patrick, George, Brecht, Patrick Hughes (artist), George Brecht, Vicious Circles and Infinity - A Panoply of Paradoxes, 1975, Doubleday, Garden City, New York, 0-385-09917-7, 74-17611, 1â€“8,
Self-reference: An example is "This statement is false", a form of the liar paradox. The statement is referring to itself. Another example of self-reference is the question of whether the barber shaves himself in the barber paradox. One more example would be "Is the answer to this question 'No'?"
Contradiction: "This statement is false"; the statement cannot be false and true at the same time. Another example of contradiction is if a man talking to a genie wishes that wishes couldn't come true. This contradicts itself because if the genie grants his wish, he did not grant his wish, and if he refuses to grant his wish, then he did indeed grant his wish, therefore making it impossible either to grant or not grant his wish because his wish contradicts itself.
Vicious circularity, or infinite regress: "This statement is false"; if the statement is true, then the statement is false, thereby making the statement true. Another example of vicious circularity is the following group of statements:
"The following sentence is true." "The previous sentence is false."

## Quine's classification

{{see also|Veridicality}}W. V. Quine (1962) distinguished between three classes of paradoxes:BOOK, The Ways of Paradox, and other essays, Quine, W.V., W.V. Quine, 1966, Random House, New York, The ways of paradox,weblink
• A veridical paradox produces a result that appears absurd but is demonstrated to be true nonetheless. Thus the paradox of Frederic's birthday in The Pirates of Penzance establishes the surprising fact that a twenty-one-year-old would have had only five birthdays if he had been born on a leap day. Likewise, Arrow's impossibility theorem demonstrates difficulties in mapping voting results to the will of the people. The Monty Hall paradox demonstrates that a decision which has an intuitive 50â€“50 chance is in fact heavily biased towards making a decision which, given the intuitive conclusion, the player would be unlikely to make. In 20th-century science, Hilbert's paradox of the Grand Hotel and SchrÃ¶dinger's cat are famously vivid examples of a theory being taken to a logical but paradoxical end.
• A falsidical paradox establishes a result that not only appears false but actually is false, due to a fallacy in the demonstration. The various invalid mathematical proofs (e.g., that 1 = 2) are classic examples, generally relying on a hidden division by zero. Another example is the inductive form of the horse paradox, which falsely generalises from true specific statements. Zeno's paradoxes are 'falsidical', concluding, for example, that a flying arrow never reaches its target or that a speedy runner cannot catch up to a tortoise with a small head-start.
• A paradox that is in neither class may be an antinomy, which reaches a self-contradictory result by properly applying accepted ways of reasoning. For example, the Grellingâ€“Nelson paradox points out genuine problems in our understanding of the ideas of truth and description.
A fourth kind has sometimes been described since Quine's work.
• A paradox that is both true and false at the same time and in the same sense is called a dialetheia. In Western logics it is often assumed, following Aristotle, that no dialetheia exist, but they are sometimes accepted in Eastern traditions (e.g. in the Mohists,The Logicians (Warring States period),"Miscellaneous paradoxes" Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy the Gongsun Longzi,Graham, Angus Charles. (1990). {{google books|TD43k809CT8C|Studies in Chinese Philosophy and Philosophical Literature, p. 334.|page=334}} and in ZenChung-ying Cheng (1973) "On Zen (Châ€™an) Language and Zen Paradoxes" Journal of Chinese Philosophy, V. 1 (1973) pp. 77-102) and in paraconsistent logics. It would be mere equivocation or a matter of degree, for example, to both affirm and deny that "John is here" when John is halfway through the door but it is self-contradictory simultaneously to affirm and deny the event.

## In philosophy

A taste for paradox is central to the philosophies of Laozi, Zeno of Elea, Zhuangzi, Heraclitus, Bhartrhari, Meister Eckhart, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and G.K. Chesterton, among many others. SÃ¸ren Kierkegaard, for example, writes in the Philosophical Fragments thatBut one must not think ill of the paradox, for the paradox is the passion of thought, and the thinker without the paradox is like the lover without passion: a mediocre fellow. But the ultimate potentiation of every passion is always to will its own downfall, and so it is also the ultimate passion of the understanding to will the collision, although in one way or another the collision must become its downfall. This, then, is the ultimate paradox of thought: to want to discover something that thought itself cannot think.BOOK, Kierkegaard, SÃ¸ren, Howard V., Hong, Edna H., Hong, Philosophical Fragments, 1844, 37,weblink Princeton University Press, 1985, 9780691020365,

## In medicine

A paradoxical reaction to a drug is the opposite of what one would expect, such as becoming agitated by a sedative or sedated by a stimulant. Some are common and are used regularly in medicine, such as the use of stimulants such as Adderall and Ritalin in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (also known as ADHD) while others are rare and can be dangerous as they are not expected, such as severe agitation from a benzodiazepine.JOURNAL, Wilson MP, Pepper D, Currier GW, Holloman GH, Feifel D, The Psychopharmacology of Agitation: Consensus Statement of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Project BETA Psychopharmacology Workgroup, Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 13, 1, 26â€“34, February 2012, 10.5811/westjem.2011.9.6866, free, 3298219,

## References

Notes
{{Reflist}}
Bibliography
• Mark Sainsbury, 1988, Paradoxes, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
• William Poundstone, 1989, Labyrinths of Reason: Paradox, Puzzles, and the Frailty of Knowledge, Anchor
• Roy Sorensen, 2005, A Brief History of the Paradox: Philosophy and the Labyrinths of the Mind, Oxford University Press
• Patrick Hughes, 2011, Paradoxymoron: Foolish Wisdom in Words and Pictures, Reverspective

• ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Paradoxes and Contemporary Logic, Andrea, Cantini, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Winter 2012, Edward N., Zalta,
• ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Insolubles, Paul Vincent, Spade, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Fall 2013, Edward N., Zalta,
• {{MathPages|id=rr/s3-07/3-07|title=Zeno and the Paradox of Motion}}
• IEP, par-log, "Logical Paradoxes",
• BOOK, Smith, Wendy K., Lewis, Marianne W., Jarzabkowski, Paula, Langley, Ann, 2017, The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Paradox,weblink

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