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pack animal
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{{distinguish|pack hunter}}{{redirect|Beast of burden|other uses|Beast of Burden (disambiguation)}}{{redirect|Beasts of burden|the comic book series|Beasts of Burden}}File:Pack Horse 2.jpg|thumb|upright=1.3|Horse packing with traditional Australian pack saddlepack saddleA pack animal, also known as a sumpter animal or beast of burden, is an individual or type of working animal used by humans as means of transporting materials by attaching them so their weight bears on the animal's back, in contrast to draft animals which pull loads but do not carry them.Traditional pack animals are diverse including camels, goats, yaks, reindeer, water buffaloes, and llamas as well as the more familiar pack animals like horses, donkeys, and mules.

Pack versus draft

The term pack animal is traditionally used in contrast to draft animal, which is a working animal that typically pulls a load behind itself (such as a plow, a cart, a sled or a heavy log) rather than carrying cargo directly on its back.WEB, Our Right to be Outside: Three Mules,weblink No Tech Magazine, 24 September 2013, For instance, sled dogs pull loads but do not normally carry them, while working elephants have been used for centuries to haul logs out of forests.WEB, Elephants in Logging Operations in Sri Lanka,weblink Food and Agriculture Organization, 31 January 2016,weblink 7 August 2013,

Diversity

Traditional pack animals include ungulates such as camels,WEB, The Best Invention Since The Wheel,weblink No Tech Magazine, 4 January 2012, the domestic yak, reindeer, goats,WEB, Pack Goats,weblink No Tech Magazine, 13 December 2011, water buffaloes and llama,WEB, Llamas as Pack Animals,weblink Buckhorn Llama Co, 26 January 2016, 1997, and domesticated members of the horse family including horses, donkeys, and mules.WEB, Pack-animal welfare checks introduced for the expeditions industry,weblink The Donkey Sanctuary, 26 January 2016, 26 February 2015, Occasionally, dogs can be used to carry small loads.WEB,weblink Gear for Your Dog: Backpacks, Saddle Bags, Harnesses, and More, WebMD, 31 January 2016, WEB,weblink The Modern Bark - Dog Training Tips: Find Your Ideal Dog Backpack - 5 Best Dog Backpacks Reviewed, Barbara Fitzgerald, 31 January 2016, File:Eylcamel.jpg|A nomad's pack camel in Eyl, SomaliaFile:Reindeer and pack, with Lapp driver.jpg|Pack reindeer with Sami driver from The land of the midnight sun, c. 1881File:Fleischextrakt 0002773 m.jpg|1900 advertisement showing pack yaks in TibetFile:Lloyd the Llama.jpg|Pack llama, Rocky Mountain National Park, ColoradoFile:COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Bimanees met lastkarbouwen Res. Timor Soembawa TMnr 10013888.jpg|Pack water buffalo, Sumbawa, Indonesia, early 20th centuryFile:Pack donkeys, Bucks Mills, Devon.jpg|Pack donkeys, Devon, England, c. 1906

Uses

File:Hortus Deliciarum 40-3m.jpg|thumb|upright|Medieval pack horse and donkey in Hortus Deliciarum, Europe, 12th century, when packing was a major means of transport of goods]]File:Marines train resupply techniques with pack animals 140831-M-ED261-010.jpg|thumb| US Marines training in resupply with pack mules. Bridgeport, CaliforniaBridgeport, CaliforniaHauling of goods in wagons with horses and oxen gradually displaced the use of packhorses, which had been important until the Middle Ages, by the sixteenth century.BOOK, Aston, T. H., Landlords, Peasants and Politics in Medieval England,weblink 2 November 2006, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-03127-1, 54–55, Pack animals may be fitted with pack saddles and may also carry saddlebags.WEB, How Much Weight Can My Horse Carry?,weblink Outfitters Supply, 26 January 2016, While traditional usage of pack animals by nomadic tribespeople is declining, a new market is growing in the tourist expeditions industry in regions such as the High Atlas mountains of Morocco, allowing visitors the comfort of backpacking with animals. The use of pack animals "is considered a valid means of viewing and experiencing" some National Parks in America, subject to guidelines and closed areas.WEB, Horse & Pack Animal Use,weblink National Park Service, 26 January 2016, In the 21st century, special forces have received guidance on the use of horses, mules, llamas, camels, dogs, and elephants as pack animals.WEB, FM 3-05.213 (FM 31-27) Special Forces Use of Pack Animals,weblink Headquarters, Department of the Army, 26 January 2016, June 2004,

Load carrying capacity

The maximum load for a camel is roughly 300 kg.BOOK, CSIRO, Model Code of Practice for the Welfare of Animals The Camel (Camelus dromedarius), 2006, CSIRO Publishing, 8, 2nd,weblink Yaks are loaded differently according to region. In Sichuan, 75 kg is carried for 30 km in 6 hours. In Qinghai, at 4100 m altitude, packs of up to 300 kg are routinely carried, while up to 390 kg is carried by the heaviest steers for short periods.WEB, Draught performance,weblink Food and Agriculture Organization, 31 January 2016, Llamas can carry roughly 1/4 of their body weight, so an adult male of 200 kg can carry some 50 kg.WEB, Frequently Asked Questions about Llamas and Alpacas,weblink Touch the Heart Ranch, 31 January 2016, Loads for equids are disputed. The US Army specifies a maximum of 20 percent of body weight for mules walking up to 20 miles a day in mountains, giving a load of up to about 150 kg. However an 1867 text mentioned a load of up to 800 pounds (about 360 kg). In India, the prevention of cruelty rules (1965) limit mules to 200 kg and ponies to 70 kg.WEB, Bonner, Laurie, How Much Weight Can Your Horse Safely Carry?,weblink Equus Magazine, 31 January 2016, Reindeer can carry up to 40 kg for a prolonged period in mountains.BOOK, Nickul, Karl, The Lappish Nation,weblink 1997, Psychology Press, 978-0-7007-0922-9, 29,

Pack animals by region

See also

References

{{reflist|28em}}

External links

{{Commons category}} {{Living things in culture}}{{Working animals}}

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