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open source
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{{short description|a broad concept article for open-source}}{{other uses}}{{distinguish|Free and open-source}}Open source is a term denoting that a product includes permission to use its source code, design documents, or content. It most commonly refers to the open-source model, in which open-source software or other products are released under an open-source license as part of the open-source-software movement. Use of the term originated with software, but has expanded beyond the software sector to cover other open content and forms of open collaboration.

Origins

The simple English phrase "open source" has sporadically occurred in books dating back hundreds of years. For example, in 1685, Thomas Willis wrote in the The London Practice of Physick, Or The Whole Practical Part of Physick that fluid from a wound "flow'd forth in a plentifull Stream as from an open Source, till it was drawn from the whole Legg..."Thomas Willis, The London Practice of Physick, Or The Whole Practical Part of Physick (1685), p. 173. However, the modern meaning of the term "open source" was first proposed by a group of people in the free software movement who were critical of the political agenda and moral philosophy implied in the term "free software" and sought to reframe the discourse to reflect a more commercially minded position.JOURNAL, Stanford University, O'Mahony, Siobhan Clare, The emergence of a new commercial actor: Community managed software projects, Stanford, CA, 2002, 34–42, In addition, the ambiguity of the term "free software" was seen as discouraging business adoption.WEB,weblink Goodbye, "free software"; hello, "open source", The problem with it is twofold. First, ... the term "free" is very ambiguous ... Second, the term makes a lot of corporate types nervous., Eric S. Raymond, WEB,weblink InfoWorld, 1983-06-23, Free software - Free software is a junkyard of software spare parts, "In contrast to commercial software is a large and growing body of free software that exists in the public domain. Public-domain software is written by microcomputer hobbyists (also known as "hackers") many of whom are professional programmers in their work life. [...] Since everybody has access to source code, many routines have not only been used but dramatically improved by other programmers.", Tom, Shea, 2016-02-10, The group included Christine Peterson, Todd Anderson, Larry Augustin, Jon Hall, Sam Ockman, Michael Tiemann and Eric S. Raymond. Peterson suggested "open source" at a meetingWEB,weblink History of the OSI, 19 September 2006, Michael, Tiemann, Michael Tiemann, Open Source Initiative, 23 August 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20021001164015weblink">weblink 1 October 2002, held at Palo Alto, California, in reaction to Netscape's announcement in January 1998 of a source code release for Navigator. Linus Torvalds gave his support the following day, and Phil Hughes backed the term in Linux Journal. Richard Stallman, the founder of the free software movement, initially seemed to adopt the term, but later changed his mind.WEB,weblink Why Open Source misses the point of Free Software, fsf.org, 2012-05-18, 2012-11-14, Netscape released its source code under the Netscape Public License and later under the Mozilla Public License.BOOK, Open Source: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Moreno, Muffatto, Imperial College Press, 2006, 978-1-86094-665-3, Raymond was especially active in the effort to popularize the new term. He made the first public call to the free software community to adopt it in February 1998.WEB,weblink Goodbye, "free software"; hello, "open source", Catb.org, 2012-10-25, Shortly after, he founded The Open Source Initiative in collaboration with Bruce Perens.The term gained further visibility through an event organized in April 1998 by technology publisher Tim O'Reilly. Originally titled the "Freeware Summit" and later known as the "Open Source Summit",WEB,weblink Open Source Summit, Linux Gazette, 1998-04-10, 2015-02-07, Guido, van Rossum, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131229053622weblink">weblink 29 December 2013, the event was attended by the leaders of many of the most important free and open-source projects, including Linus Torvalds, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Eric Allman, Guido van Rossum, Michael Tiemann, Paul Vixie, Jamie Zawinski, and Eric Raymond. At that meeting, alternatives to the term "free software" were discussed. Tiemann argued for "sourceware" as a new term, while Raymond argued for "open source". The assembled developers took a vote, and the winner was announced at a press conference the same evening.Many large formal institutions have sprung up to support the development of the open-source software movement, including the Apache Software Foundation, which supports community projects such as the open-source framework Apache Hadoop and the open-source HTTP server Apache HTTP.

The open-source model and open collaboration

The open-source model is a decentralized software development model that encourages open collaboration,Levine, Sheen S., & Prietula, M. J. (2013). Open Collaboration for Innovation: Principles and Performance. Organization Science, {{doi|10.1287/orsc.2013.0872}}BOOK,weblink The cathedral and the bazaar: musings on Linux and Open Source by an accidental revolutionary, Raymond, Eric S., OReilly, 2001, 978-0-596-00108-7, Eric S. Raymond, {{page needed|date=November 2012}} meaning "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and noncontributors alike." A main principle of open-source software development is peer production, with products such as source code, blueprints, and documentation freely available to the public. The open-source movement in software began as a response to the limitations of proprietary code. The model is used for projects such as in open-source appropriate technology,JOURNAL, The Case for Open Source Appropriate Technology, Environment, Development and Sustainability, 14, 3, 425–431, 2012, 10.1007/s10668-012-9337-9,weblink Pearce, Joshua M, and open-source drug discovery."Science 2.0 is here as CSIR resorts to open-source drug research for TB" Business Standard, 1 March 2009(OpenWetWare:OSDDMalaria:GSK Arylpyrrole Series:Story so far|"Open Source Drug Discovery for Malaria Consortium)The open source model for software development inspired the use of the term to refer to other forms of open collaboration, such as in Internet forums,Lakhani, Karim R., & von Hippel, Eric (2003). How Open Source Software Works: Free User to User Assistance. Research Policy, 32, 923–943 {{doi|10.2139/ssrn.290305}} mailing listsJarvenpaa, S. L., & Majchrzak, Ann (2008). Knowledge Collaboration Among Professionals Protecting National Security: Role of Transactive Memories in Ego-Centered Knowledge Networks. Organization Science, 19(2), 260-276 {{doi|10.1287/orsc.1070.0315}} and online communities.Faraj, S., Jarvenpaa, S. L., & Majchrzak, Ann (2011). Knowledge Collaboration in Online Communities. Organization Science, 22(5), 1224-1239, {{doi|10.1287/orsc.1100.0614}} Open collaboration is also thought to be the operating principle underlining a gamut of diverse ventures, including bitcoin, TEDx, and Pseudopedia.WEB,weblink Open collaboration leading to novel organizations - KurzweilAI, Open collaboration is the principle underlying peer production, mass collaboration, and wikinomics. It was observed initially in open source software, but can also be found in many other instances, such as in Internet forums, mailing lists, Internet communities, and many instances of open content, such as creative commons. It also explains some instances of crowdsourcing, collaborative consumption, and open innovation.JOURNAL, 10.1287/orsc.2013.0872, 1047-7039, 131230050407004, Levine, Sheen S., Michael J. Prietula, Open Collaboration for Innovation: Principles and Performance, Organization Science, 2014-08-31, 2013-12-30,weblink 1406.7541, Riehle et al. define open collaboration as collaboration based on three principles of egalitarianism, meritocracy, and self-organization.JOURNAL, 10.1109/MS.2009.44, 0740-7459, 26, 2, 52–58, Riehle, D., Ellenberger, J., Menahem, T., Mikhailovski, B., Natchetoi, Y., Naveh, B., Odenwald, T., Open Collaboration within Corporations Using Software Forges, IEEE Software, March 2009,weblink Levine and Prietula define open collaboration as "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and noncontributors alike." This definition captures multiple instances, all joined by similar principles. For example, all of the elements — goods of economic value, open access to contribute and consume, interaction and exchange, purposeful yet loosely coordinated work — are present in an open source software project, in Wikipedia, or in a user forum or community. They can also be present in a commercial website that is based on user-generated content. In all of these instances of open collaboration, anyone can contribute and anyone can freely partake in the fruits of sharing, which are produced by interacting participants who are loosely coordinated.An annual conference dedicated to the research and practice of open collaboration is the International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration (OpenSym, formerly WikiSym).WEB,weblink About, The International Symposium on Open Collaboration, As per its website, the group defines open collaboration as "collaboration that is egalitarian (everyone can join, no principled or artificial barriers to participation exist), meritocratic (decisions and status are merit-based rather than imposed) and self-organizing (processes adapt to people rather than people adapt to pre-defined processes)."WEB, Definition of Open Collaboration, The Joint International Symposium on Open Collaboration, Dirk Riehle, "Open collaboration is collaboration that is egalitarian (everyone can join, no principled or artificial barriers to participation exist), meritocratic (decisions and status are merit-based rather than imposed) and self-organizing (processes adapt to people rather than people adapt to pre-defined processes).", 2013-03-26,weblink

Open-source license

Open source promotes universal access via an open-source or free license to a product's design or blueprint, and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint.JOURNAL, Lakhani, K.R., von Hippel, E., June 2003, How Open Source Software Works: Free User to User Assistance,weblink Research Policy, 32, 6, 923–943, 10.1016/S0048-7333(02)00095-1, 1721.1/70028, BOOK, Proceedings of the SAICSIT 2010 Conference — Fountains of Computing Research, Gerber, A., Molefo, O., Van der Merwe, A., ACM Press, 2010, 978-1-60558-950-3, Kotze, P., 75–85, Documenting open-source migration processes for re-use, 10.1145/1899503.1899512, 3,weblink A., Gerber, A., van der Merwe, N., Bidwell, 10.1.1.1033.7791, Before the phrase open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of other terms. Open source gained hold with the rise of the Internet.{{harvnb|Weber|2004}}{{page needed|date=February 2014}} The open-source software movement arose to clarify copyright, licensing, domain, and consumer issues.An open-source license is a type of license for computer software and other products that allows the source code, blueprint or design to be used, modified and/or shared under defined terms and conditions.WEB, Brief Definition of Open Source Licenses,weblink Open Source Initiative, April 25, 2013, BOOK, Dr. Karl Michael, Popp, Best Practices for commercial use of open source software, 2015, Books on Demand, Norderstedt, Germany, 978-3738619096, This allows end users and commercial companies to review and modify the source code, blueprint or design for their own customization, curiosity or troubleshooting needs. Open-source licensed software is mostly available free of charge, though this does not necessarily have to be the case. Licenses which only permit non-commercial redistribution or modification of the source code for personal use only are generally not considered as open-source licenses. However, open-source licenses may have some restrictions, particularly regarding the expression of respect to the origin of software, such as a requirement to preserve the name of the authors and a copyright statement within the code, or a requirement to redistribute the licensed software only under the same license (as in a copyleft license). One popular set of open-source software licenses are those approved by the Open Source Initiative (OSI) based on their Open Source Definition (OSD).

Open-source software code

Generally, open source refers to a computer program in which the source code is available to the general public for use or modification from its original design. Open-source code is meant to be a collaborative effort, where programmers improve upon the source code and share the changes within the community. Code is released under the terms of a software license. Depending on the license terms, others may then download, modify, and publish their version (fork) back to the community.

"Open"

The early instance of "open source software code" and its common usage parlance has truncated from "open source code" to "open source" and further down to "open" as a concept. Additional words after "open" help specify its usage (i.e. open door vs open source), and "open source" is outgrowing older less accurate narrow definitions.{{citation needed|date=November 2018}}Initially it referred to code but "open source" may now be interpreted as "open to the public", "open concept", or "open origins" with the same intent permitting duplicate or evolved versions, open or proprietary, with or without restrictions. Regardless whether "open" or "open source" is applied to virtual intellectual properties and theoretical licences or to physical processes and products the "open source" concept expands across new developments as the term adapts and evolves as with all language.{{citation needed|date=November 2018}}

"Open" versus "free" versus "free and open"

Free and open-source software, (FOSS) or (FLOSS), is openly shared source code that is licensed without any restrictions on usage, modification, or distribution.{{citation needed|date=November 2018}} Confusion persists about this completely unrestricted definition because the "Free", also known as "Libre", refers to the freedom or the product not the price, expense, cost, or charge For example, "being free to speak" is not the same as "free beer".{{citation needed|date=November 2018}} Also, "free and open" should not to be confused with public ownership (state ownership), deprivatization (nationalization), anti-privatization (anti-corporate activism), or transparent behavior.{{citation needed|date=November 2018}}

Software

Agriculture, economy, manufacturing and production

Science and medicine

Open science

{The following two paragraphs may require "softening" of some of the terms for these realities to satisfy Wikipedia censors.}Open science is the antithesis of the blind faith in Scientism, and has inherent healthy skepticism for a practical defense against establishment profit driven proprietary (closed) "science", medicine, and technology.{{citation needed|date=November 2018}}Open science uses the scientific method as a process of open discovery of shared verifiable knowledge, whereas proprietary science is privately developed by corporations and organizations yet their "scientific" processes and research are not publicly shared (or are obscured behind paywalls or published in expensive private journals), therefore unverifiable as legitimate forcing the public to have "faith" in their privatized science and "trust" that rigorous studies have been and are conducted, proper precautions taken, adequate warnings given, and that the results are beneficial to individuals, society, and the environment - as well as serving their private shareholders. Further, we are supposed to "believe" all of the profit driven marketing, media hype, and propaganda, not to mention the political lobbyists (a soft term for legalized bribery), and trust we are getting the best technology, drugs, medical care, and environmental stewardship while corporate monopolies safely and honestly earn their profits in a world where corporate corruption and status quo war profiteering are business as usual. This obscured or blind faith in corporate science is called Scientism.{{citation needed|date=November 2018}}Scientism is an ideology that promotes science as the purportedly objective means by which society should determine normative and epistemological values. The term scientism is generally used critically, pointing to the cosmetic application of science in unwarranted situations not amenable to application of the scientific method or similar scientific standards. {Copied from the Scientism article.}

Media

Organisations

Procedures

Society

References

See also

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