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oncology
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{{Distinguish|Ontology|Ontogeny|Odontology}}{{Hatnote|See cancer for the biology of the disease, as well as a list of malignant diseases.}}{{for|the journal|Oncology (journal)}}{{Redirect|Clinical oncology|the medical journal|Clinical Oncology}}{{prose|date=May 2017}}







factoids
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist.Maureen McCutcheon. Where Have My Eyebrows Gone?. Cengage Learning, 2001. {{ISBN|0766839346}}. Page 5. The name's etymological origin is the Greek word ὄγκος (ónkos), meaning "tumor", "volume" or "mass" and the word λόγος (logos), meaning "study".Types of Oncologists, American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO).Cancer survival has improved due to three main components including improved prevention efforts to reduce exposure to risk factors (e.g., tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption),JOURNAL, Modifiable risk factors for cancer, British Journal of Cancer, 2004-01-26, 0007-0920, 2410150, 14735167, 299–303, 90, 2, 10.1038/sj.bjc.6601509, C. J., Stein, G. A., Colditz, improved screening of several cancers (allowing for earlier diagnosis),JOURNAL, Effect of screening for cancer in the Nordic countries on deaths, cost and quality of life up to the year 2017, Acta Oncologica, 1997-01-01, 0284-186X, 9143316, 1–60, 36 Suppl 9, L., Hristova, M., Hakama, and improvements in treatment.JOURNAL, Multimodality treatment of cancer, The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery, 1982-08-01, 0004-8682, 6956307, 341–346, 52, 4, J. F., Forbes, 10.1111/j.1445-2197.1982.tb06005.x, JOURNAL, Impact of National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Centers on ovarian cancer treatment and survival, Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 2015-05-01, 1879-1190, 25840536, 940–950, 220, 5, 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2015.01.056, Robert E., Bristow, Jenny, Chang, Argyrios, Ziogas, Belinda, Campos, Leo R., Chavez, Hoda, Anton-Culver, 5145798, Cancers are often managed through discussion on multi-disciplinary cancer conferencesJOURNAL, Multidisciplinary management of cancer patients: chasing a shadow or real value? An overview of the literature, Current Oncology, 2012-08-01, 1198-0052, 3410834, 22876151, e232–e238, 19, 4, 10.3747/co.19.944, J.M., Croke, S., El-Sayed, where medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and organ specific oncologists meet to find the best possible management for an individual patient considering the physical, social, psychological, emotional, and financial status of the patient. It is very important for oncologists to keep updated with respect to the latest advancements in oncology, as changes in management of cancer are quite common.

Risk factors

Tobacco: The leading cause of cancer, and death from cancer. Smoking is associated with increased risk of cancers of the lung, larynx, mouth, oesophagus, throat, bladder, kidney, liver, stomach, pancreas, colon, rectum, cervix and acute myeloid leukemia. Smokeless tobacco (snuff or chewing tobacco) is associated with increased risks of cancers of the mouth, oesophagus, and pancreas.WEB, Tobacco,weblink National Cancer Institute, 2016-01-18, 2015-04-29,
Alcohol: Can increase risk of cancer of the mouth, throat, oesophagus, larynx, liver, and breast. The risk of cancer is much higher for those who drink alcohol and also use tobacco.WEB, Alcohol,weblink National Cancer Institute, 2016-01-18, 2015-04-29,
Obesity: Obese individuals have an increased risk of cancer of the breast, colon, rectum, endometrium, oesophagus, kidney, pancreas, and gallbladder.WEB, Obesity,weblink National Cancer Institute, 2016-01-18, 2015-04-29,
Age: Advanced age is a risk factor for many cancers. The median age of cancer diagnosis is 66 years.WEB, Age,weblink National Cancer Institute, 2016-01-18, 2015-04-29,

Screening

Screening is recommended for cancers of breast,JOURNAL, Screening for breast cancer with mammography, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2013-01-01, 1469-493X, 23737396, CD001877, 6, 6, 10.1002/14651858.CD001877.pub5, Peter C., Gøtzsche, Karsten Juhl, Jørgensen, cervix,JOURNAL, Cervical cancer: screening and prevention, Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 2006-12-01, 1513-7368, 17250453, 683–686, 7, 4, Nadereh, Behtash, Nili, Mehrdad, colon,JOURNAL, Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale-Update based on new evidence, Gastroenterology, 2003-02-01, 0016-5085, 12557158, 544–560, 124, 2, 10.1053/gast.2003.50044, Sidney, Winawer, Robert, Fletcher, Douglas, Rex, John, Bond, Randall, Burt, Joseph, Ferrucci, Theodore, Ganiats, Theodore, Levin, Steven, Woolf, and lung.JOURNAL, Screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography: a systematic review to update the US Preventive services task force recommendation, Annals of Internal Medicine, 2013-09-17, 1539-3704, 23897166, 411–420, 159, 6, 10.7326/0003-4819-159-6-201309170-00690, Linda L., Humphrey, Mark, Deffebach, Miranda, Pappas, Christina, Baumann, Kathryn, Artis, Jennifer Priest, Mitchell, Bernadette, Zakher, Rongwei, Fu, Christopher G., Slatore,

Signs and symptoms

Signs and symptoms usually depend on the site and type of cancer.
Breast cancer: Lump in breast and axilla associated with or without ulceration or bloody nipple discharge.WEB, Symptoms of Breast Cancer {{!, Breastcancer.org|url =weblink|website = Breastcancer.org|access-date = 2016-01-17}}
Endometrial cancer: Bleeding per vagina.WEB, Endometrial Cancer: Symptoms – National Library of Medicine,weblink PubMed Health, 2016-01-17, National Center for Biotechnology, Information, U. S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville, Pike, Bethesda, MD, 20894, Usa,
Cervix cancer: Bleeding after sexual intercourse.WEB, Cervical Cancer: Symptoms – National Library of Medicine,weblink PubMed Health, 2016-01-17, National Center for Biotechnology, Information, U. S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville, Pike, Bethesda, MD, 20894, Usa,
Ovarian cancer: Nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal distension, dyspepsia.JOURNAL, Symptoms of ovarian cancer, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2001-08-01, 0029-7844, 11506835, 212–217, 98, 2, S. H., Olson, L., Mignone, C., Nakraseive, T. A., Caputo, R. R., Barakat, S., Harlap, 10.1016/s0029-7844(01)01457-0,
Lung cancer: Persistent cough, breathlessness, blood in the sputum, hoarseness of voice.WEB, Lung Cancer: Symptoms - National Library of Medicine,weblink PubMed Health, 2016-01-17, National Center for Biotechnology, Information, U. S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville, Pike, Bethesda, MD, 20894, Usa,
Head and neck cancer: Non-healing ulcer or growth, lump in the neck.JOURNAL, Head and neck cancer—Part 1: Epidemiology, presentation, and prevention, BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 2010-01-01, 1756-1833, 20855405, c4684, 341, H., Mehanna, V., Paleri, C. M. L., West, C., Nutting, 10.1136/bmj.c4684,
Brain cancer: Persistent headache, vomiting, loss of consciousness, double vision.JOURNAL, Signs and symptoms of patients with brain tumors presenting to the emergency department, The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 1993-06-01, 0736-4679, 8340578, 253–258, 11, 3, H., Snyder, K., Robinson, D., Shah, R., Brennan, M., Handrigan, 10.1016/0736-4679(93)90042-6,
Thyroid cancer: Lump in the neck.WEB, Thyroid Cancer: Symptoms - National Library of Medicine,weblink PubMed Health, 2016-01-17, National Center for Biotechnology, Information, U. S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville, Pike, Bethesda, MD, 20894, Usa,
Oesophageal cancer: Painful swallowing predominantly with solid food, weight loss.WEB, Esophageal Cancer: Symptoms – National Library of Medicine,weblink PubMed Health, 2016-01-17, National Center for Biotechnology, Information, U. S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville, Pike, Bethesda, MD, 20894, Usa,
Stomach cancer: Vomiting, dyspepsia, weight loss.WEB, Stomach Cancer (Gastric Cancer): Symptoms – National Library of Medicine,weblink PubMed Health, 2016-01-17, National Center for Biotechnology, Information, U. S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville, Pike, Bethesda, MD, 20894, Usa,
Colon & rectal cancer: Bleeding per rectum, alteration of bowel habits.WEB, Colon Cancer: Symptoms – National Library of Medicine,weblink PubMed Health, 2016-01-17, National Center for Biotechnology, Information, U. S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville, Pike, Bethesda, MD, 20894, Usa,
Liver cancer: Jaundice, pain and mass in right upper abdomen.WEB, Adult Primary Liver Cancer: Symptoms – National Library of Medicine,weblink PubMed Health, 2016-01-17, National Center for Biotechnology, Information, U. S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville, Pike, Bethesda, MD, 20894, Usa,
Pancreatic cancer: Weight loss, jaundice.JOURNAL, Signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer: a population-based case-control study in the San Francisco Bay area, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2004-06-01, 1542-3565, 15181621, 510–517, 2, 6, Elizabeth A., Holly, Indranushi, Chaliha, Paige M., Bracci, Manjushree, Gautam, 10.1016/s1542-3565(04)00171-5,
Skin cancer: Non-healing ulcer or growth, mole with sudden increase in size or irregular border, induration, or pain.WEB, Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer: Symptoms - National Library of Medicine,weblink PubMed Health, 2016-01-17, National Center for Biotechnology, Information, U. S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville, Pike, Bethesda, MD, 20894, Usa,
Kidney cancer: Blood in urine, abdominal lump.WEB, Renal Cell Cancer: Symptoms – National Library of Medicine,weblink PubMed Health, 2016-01-17, National Center for Biotechnology, Information, U. S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville, Pike, Bethesda, MD, 20894, Usa,
Bladder cancer: Blood in urine.JOURNAL, Clinical features of bladder cancer in primary care, The British Journal of General Practice, 2012-09-01, 1478-5242, 3426598, 22947580, e598–604, 62, 602, 10.3399/bjgp12X654560, Elizabeth A., Shephard, Sally, Stapley, Richard D., Neal, Peter, Rose, Fiona M., Walter, William T., Hamilton,
Prostate cancer: Urgency, hesitancy and frequency while passing urine, bony pain.WEB, Prostate Cancer: Symptoms – National Library of Medicine,weblink PubMed Health, 2016-01-17, National Center for Biotechnology, Information, U. S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville, Pike, Bethesda, MD, 20894, Usa,
Testis cancer: Swelling of testis, back pain, dyspnoea.WEB, Testicular Cancer: Symptoms – National Library of Medicine,weblink PubMed Health, 2016-01-17, National Center for Biotechnology, Information, U. S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville, Pike, Bethesda, MD, 20894, Usa,
Bone cancer: Pain and swelling of bones.JOURNAL, Bone cancer pain, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 415, 2003-10-01, 0009-921X, 14600620, S279–288, 415 Suppl, 10.1097/01.blo.0000093059.96273.56, Denis R., Clohisy, Patrick W., Mantyh,
Lymphoma: Fever, weight loss more than 10% body weight in preceding 6 months and drenching night sweats which constitutes the B symptoms, lump in neck, axilla or groin.JOURNAL, Prognostic value of B-symptoms in low-grade non-hodgkin's lymphomas, Leukemia & Lymphoma, 1994-04-01, 1042-8194, 8049656, 357–358, 13, 3–4, 10.3109/10428199409056302, J., Vuckovic, T., Zemunik, G., Forenpoher, N., Knezevic, N., Stula, M., Dubravcic, V., Capkun,
Blood cancer: Bleeding manifestations including bleeding gums, bleeding from nose, blood in vomitus, blood in sputum, blood stained urine, black coloured stools, fever, lump in neck, axilla, or groin, lump in upper abdomen.

Diagnosis and staging

Diagnostic and staging investigations depend on the site and type of malignancy.

Blood cancer

Blood investigations including hemoglobin, total leukocyte count, platelet count, peripheral smear, red cell indices.Bone marrow studies including aspiration, flow cytometry,BOOK, Flow cytometry: an introduction, 2011-01-01, 21116976, 1–29, 699, 10.1007/978-1-61737-950-5_1, Alice L., Givan, Methods in Molecular Biology, 978-1-61737-949-9, cytogenetics,JOURNAL, Cytogenetics in acute leukemia, Blood Reviews, 2004-06-01, 0268-960X, 15010150, 115–136, 18, 2, 10.1016/S0268-960X(03)00040-7, Krzysztof, Mrózek, Nyla A., Heerema, Clara D., Bloomfield, fluorescent in situ hybridisation and molecular studies.JOURNAL, Molecular diagnostics in acute leukemias, Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 2009-01-01, 1437-4331, 19817644, 1333–1341, 47, 11, 10.1515/CCLM.2009.324, Ulrike, Bacher, Susanne, Schnittger, Claudia, Haferlach, Torsten, Haferlach,

Lymphoma

Excision biopsy of lymph node for histopathological examination,JOURNAL, Histopathology of Hodgkin's lymphoma, Cancer Journal (Sudbury, Mass.), 2009-04-01, 1528-9117, 19390308, 129–137, 15, 2, 10.1097/PPO.0b013e31819e31cf, Franziska C., Eberle, Haresh, Mani, Elaine S., Jaffe, immunohistochemistry,JOURNAL, Role of immunohistochemistry in lymphoma, Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology, 2010-01-01, 0971-5851, 3089924, 21584221, 145–147, 31, 4, 10.4103/0971-5851.76201, I. Satish, Rao, and molecular studies.JOURNAL, Molecular Diagnostic Approach to Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics : JMD, 2000-11-01, 1525-1578, 1906917, 11232108, 178–190, 2, 4, Daniel A., Arber, 10.1016/s1525-1578(10)60636-8, Blood investigations include lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum uric acid, and kidney function tests.JOURNAL, Acute tumor lysis syndrome in patients with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, The American Journal of Medicine, 1993-02-01, 0002-9343, 8430709, 133–139, 94, 2, K. R., Hande, G. C., Garrow, 10.1016/0002-9343(93)90174-n, Imaging tests such as computerised tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET CT).JOURNAL, FDG-PET/CT in lymphoma, The Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging, 2013-01-01, 0971-3026, 3932580, 24604942, 354–365, 23, 4, 10.4103/0971-3026.125626, Maria M, D'souza, Abhinav, Jaimini, Abhishek, Bansal, Madhavi, Tripathi, Rajnish, Sharma, Anupam, Mondal, Rajendra Prashad, Tripathi, Bone marrow biopsy.JOURNAL, Bone marrow biopsy in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a morphological study, Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology, 2009-09-01, 0974-5130, 19679954, 332–338, 52, 3, 10.4103/0377-4929.54987, Suneet, Kumar, Aarathi R., Rau, Ramadas, Naik, Hema, Kini, Alka M., Mathai, Muktha R., Pai, Urmila N., Khadilkar,

Solid tumors

Biopsy for histopathology and immunohistochemistry.JOURNAL, The immunohistochemistry of solid tumours: potential problems for new laboratories, The National Medical Journal of India, 1993-04-01, 0970-258X, 8477213, 71–75, 6, 2, R., Pillai, S., Kannan, G. J., Chandran, Imaging tests like X-ray, ultrasonography, computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and PET CT.JOURNAL, FDG-PET/CT in pediatric solid tumors, The Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 2010-08-01, 1824-4785, 20823808, 401–410, 54, 4, C., Franzius, Endoscopy including Naso-pharyngoscopy, Direct & Indirect Laryngoscopy, Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Colonoscopy, Cystoscopy.Tumor markers including alphafetoprotein (AFP),JOURNAL, AFP and HCG in germ cell tumors, The International Journal of Biological Markers, 1994-01-01, 0393-6155, 7519651, 29–32, 9, 1, M. A., Bassetto, T., Franceschi, M., Lenotti, G., Parise, F., Pancheri, R., Sabbioni, M., Zaninelli, G. L., Cetto, Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG), Carcinoembionic Antigen (CEA),JOURNAL, Advanced colon cancer: staging and prognosis by CEA test, Oncology, 1990-01-01, 0030-2414, 2314825, 128–132, 47, 2, C., Barone, A., Astone, A., Cassano, C., Garufi, P., Astone, A., Grieco, M. R., Noviello, E., Ricevuto, C., Albanese, 10.1159/000226804, CA 125,JOURNAL, CA125 in Ovarian Cancer, Biomarkers in Medicine, 2007-12-01, 1752-0363, 2872496, 20477371, 513–523, 1, 4, 10.2217/17520363.1.4.513, Nathalie, Scholler, Nicole, Urban, Prostate specific antigen (PSA).JOURNAL, Use and assessment of PSA in prostate cancer, The Medical Clinics of North America, 2011-01-01, 1557-9859, 21095422, 191–200, 95, 1, 10.1016/j.mcna.2010.08.024, Carl K., Gjertson, Peter C., Albertsen,

Treatment

Treatment depends on the site and type of cancer.

Solid tumors

Breast cancer: Treatment options include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and targeted therapy (Her 2 neu inhibitors).BOOK, Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version,weblink National Cancer Institute (US), 2002-01-01, Bethesda (MD), 26389406, PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board,
Cervix cancer: Treatment options include radiation, surgery and chemotherapy.BOOK, Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version,weblink National Cancer Institute (US), 2002-01-01, Bethesda (MD), 26389493, PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board,
Endometrial cancer: Treatment options include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.BOOK, Endometrial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version,weblink National Cancer Institute (US), 2002-01-01, Bethesda (MD), 26389334, PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board,
Ovary cancer: Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy (VEGF inhibitors).JOURNAL, Current management strategies for ovarian cancer, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 2007-06-01, 0025-6196, 17550756, 751–770, 82, 6, 10.4065/82.6.751, Giovanni D., Aletti, Mary M., Gallenberg, William A., Cliby, Aminah, Jatoi, Lynn C., Hartmann,
Lung cancer: Treatment options include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy (EGFR & ALK inhibitors).BOOK, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version,weblink National Cancer Institute (US), 2002-01-01, Bethesda (MD), 26389355, PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board,
Head & Neck Cancer: Treatment options include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy (EGFR inhibitors).JOURNAL, Head and neck cancer, Lancet, 2008-05-17, 1474-547X, 18486742, 1695–1709, 371, 9625, 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60728-X, Athanassios, Argiris, Michalis V., Karamouzis, David, Raben, Robert L., Ferris,
Brain cancer: Treatment options include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy (VEGF inhibitors).
Thyroid cancer: Treatment options include surgery and radioactive iodine.JOURNAL, Update on thyroid cancer treatment, Future Oncology (London, England), 2012-10-01, 1744-8301, 23130931, 1331–1348, 8, 10, 10.2217/fon.12.123, Concetto, Regalbuto, Francesco, Frasca, Gabriella, Pellegriti, Pasqualino, Malandrino, Ilenia, Marturano, Isidoro, Di Carlo, Vincenzo, Pezzino,
Oesophageal cancer: Treatment options include radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery.BOOK, Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version,weblink National Cancer Institute (US), 2002-01-01, Bethesda (MD), 26389338, PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board,
Stomach cancer: Treatment options include chemotherapy, surgery, radiation, and targeted therapy (Her 2 neu inhibitors).BOOK, Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version,weblink National Cancer Institute (US), 2002-01-01, Bethesda (MD), 26389328, PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, JOURNAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 8, CD004064, Wagner, Anna Dorothea, Syn, Nicholas LX, Moehler, Markus, Grothe, Wilfried, Yong, Wei Peng, Tai, Bee-Choo, Ho, Jingshan, Unverzagt, Susanne, 2017-08-29, 10.1002/14651858.cd004064.pub4, 28850174,weblink
Colon cancer: Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy (EGFR & VEGF inhibitors).BOOK, Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version,weblink National Cancer Institute (US), 2002-01-01, Bethesda (MD), 26389319, PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board,
Rectum cancer: Treatment options include chemotherapy, radiation, surgery.BOOK, Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version,weblink National Cancer Institute (US), 2002-01-01, Bethesda (MD), 26389402, PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board,
Liver cancer: Treatment options include surgery, Trans-arterial chemotherapy (TACE), Radio-frequency ablation (RFA), and multi-kinase (Sorafenib).BOOK, Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version,weblink National Cancer Institute (US), 2002-01-01, Bethesda (MD), 26389251, PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board,
Pancreas cancer: Treatment options include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.BOOK, Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version,weblink National Cancer Institute (US), 2002-01-01, Bethesda (MD), 26389396, PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board,
Skin cancer: Treatment options include surgery, radiation, targeted therapy (BRAF & MEK inhibitors), Immunotherapy (CTLA 4 & PD 1 inhibitors, and chemotherapy.BOOK, Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version,weblink National Cancer Institute (US), 2002-01-01, Bethesda (MD), 26389265, PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board,
Kidney cancer: Treatment options include surgery, multi-kinase inhibitors, and targeted therapy (mTOR & VEGF inhibitors).JOURNAL, Kidney cancer: current and novel treatment options, Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN, 2015-05-01, 1540-1413, 25995429, 679–681, 13, 5 Suppl, Eric, Jonasch,
Bladder cancer: Treatment options include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.BOOK, Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version,weblink National Cancer Institute (US), 2002-01-01, Bethesda (MD), 26389399, PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board,
Prostate cancer: Treatment options include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, anti-androgens, and immunotherapy.BOOK, Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version,weblink National Cancer Institute (US), 2002-01-01, Bethesda (MD), 26389353, PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board,
Testis cancer: Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.BOOK, Testicular Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version,weblink National Cancer Institute (US), 2002-01-01, Bethesda (MD), 26389220, PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board,
Bone cancer: Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.WEB, Osteosarcoma and MFH of Bone Treatment,weblink National Cancer Institute, 2016-01-17, January 1980,

Lymphoma

It includes Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL):
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL): Chemotherapy with ABVD or BEACOPP regimen and Involved field radiation therapy (IFRT).BOOK, Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version,weblink National Cancer Institute (US), 2002-01-01, Bethesda (MD), 26389473, PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board,
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): Chemo-immunotherapy (R-CHOP) for B cell lymphomas, and chemotherapy (CHOP) for T cell lymphomas.WEB, Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment,weblink National Cancer Institute, 2016-01-17, January 1980,

Blood cancer

Includes acute and chronic leukemias. Acute leukemias includes acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Chronic leukemias include chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL): Intensive chemotherapy phase for initial 6 months and maintenance chemotherapy for 2 years. Prophylactic cranial and stem cell transplantation for high-risk patients.WEB, Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment,weblink National Cancer Institute, 2016-01-17, January 1980,
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML): Induction with chemotherapy (Daunorubicin + Cytarabine), followed by consolidation chemotherapy (High dose cytarabine). Stem cell transplantation for high-risk patients.WEB, Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment,weblink National Cancer Institute, 2016-01-17, January 1980,
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): Chemo-immunotherapy (FCR or BR regimen) for symptomatic patients.WEB, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment,weblink National Cancer Institute, 2016-01-17, January 1980,
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML): Targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (Imatinib) as first-line treatment.WEB, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment,weblink National Cancer Institute, 2016-01-17, January 1980,

Specialties

  • The three main divisions:
    • Medical oncology: focuses on treatment of cancer with chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and hormonal therapy.JOURNAL, Medical oncology as a discipline, Oncology, 1997-12-01, 0030-2414, 9394841, 459–462, 54, 6, B. J., Kennedy, 10.1159/000227603,
    • Surgical oncology: focuses on treatment of cancer with surgery.
    • Radiation oncology: focuses on treatment of cancer with radiation.
  • Sub-specialties in Oncology:
    • Neuro-oncology: focuses on cancers of brain.
    • Ocular oncology: focuses on cancers of eye.JOURNAL, Ocular oncology – A multidisciplinary specialty, Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, 2015-02-01, 0301-4738, 4399140, 25827536, 91, 63, 2, 10.4103/0301-4738.154364, Sundaram, Natarajan,
    • Head & Neck oncology: focuses on cancers of oral cavity, nasal cavity, oropharynx, hypopharyx and larynx.JOURNAL, Sub-specialty training in head and neck surgical oncology in the European Union, European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 2009-07-01, 1434-4726, 19015865, 1005–1010, 266, 7, 10.1007/s00405-008-0832-4, Argyris, Manganaris, Myles, Black, Alistair, Balfour, Christopher, Hartley, Jean-Pierre, Jeannon, Ricard, Simo,
    • Thoracic oncology: focuses on cancers of lung, mediastinum, oesophagus and pleura.JOURNAL, Multidisciplinary teams in thoracic oncology-from tragic to strategic, Annals of Translational Medicine, 2015-05-01, 2305-5839, 4430737, 26015931, 3, 7, 89, 10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2015.01.31, Krishnamachar, Harish, Agrahara Sreenivasa, Kirthi Koushik,
    • Breast oncology: focuses on cancers of breast
    • Gastrointestinal oncology: focuses on cancers of stomach, colon, rectum, anal canal, liver, gallbladder, pancreas.JOURNAL, Digestive oncologist in the gastroenterology training curriculum, World Journal of Gastroenterology, 2011-03-07, 1007-9327, 3063902, 21556128, 1109–1115, 17, 9, 10.3748/wjg.v17.i9.1109, Chris Jacob Johan, Mulder, Marc, Peeters, Annemieke, Cats, Anna, Dahele, Jochim Terhaar sive, Droste,
    • Bone & Musculoskeletal oncology: focuses on cancers of bones and soft tissue.JOURNAL, What's new in musculoskeletal oncology, The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume, 2003-04-01, 0021-9355, 12672857, 761–767, 85-A, 4, Kristy L., Weber, Mark C., Gebhardt,
    • Dermatological oncology: focuses on the medical and surgical treatment of skin, hair, sweat gland, and nail cancers
    • Genitourinary oncology: focuses on cancers of genital and urinary system.JOURNAL, Genitourinary Oncology: Current Status and Future Challenges, Frontiers in Oncology, 2011-10-10, 2234-943X, 3355990, 22649760, 1, 32, 10.3389/fonc.2011.00032, Ronald M., Bukowski,
    • Gynecologic oncology: focuses on cancers of the female reproductive system.JOURNAL, Gynecologic oncology specialty, European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology, 2004-01-01, 0392-2936, 15053057, 25–26, 25, 1, P., Benedetti-Panici, R., Angioli,
    • Pediatric oncology: concerned with the treatment of cancer in children.JOURNAL, History of pediatric oncology, Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, 1991-06-01, 0888-0018, 1863546, 89–91, 8, 2, J. A., Wolff,
    • Adolescent and young adult (AYA) oncology.JOURNAL, Shaw, Peter H., Reed, Damon R., Yeager, Nicholas, Zebrack, Bradley, Castellino, Sharon M., Bleyer, Archie, April 2015, Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Oncology in the United States: A Specialty in Its Late Adolescence,weblink Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 37, 3, 161–169, 10.1097/MPH.0000000000000318, 1536-3678, 25757020,
    • Hemato oncology: focuses on cancers of blood and stem cell transplantation
    • Preventive oncology: focuses on epidemiology & prevention of cancer.JOURNAL, On a new strategy of preventive oncology, Neurochemical Research, 2010-06-01, 1573-6903, 20119639, 868–874, 35, 6, 10.1007/s11064-009-0110-x, L. N., Mkrtchyan,
    • Geriatric oncology: focuses on cancers in elderly population.JOURNAL, Geriatric oncology: The need for a separate subspecialty, Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology, 2012-01-01, 0971-5851, 3439792, 22988358, 134–136, 33, 2, D. K., Vijaykumar, R., Anupama, Tejal Kishor, Gorasia, T. R. Haleema, Beegum, P., Gangadharan,
    • Pain & Palliative oncology: focuses on treatment of end stage cancer to help alleviate pain and suffering.JOURNAL, Palliative oncology: identity, progress, and the path ahead, Annals of Oncology, 2012-04-01, 1569-8041, 3493143, 22628415, 43–48, 23 Suppl 3, 10.1093/annonc/mds087, A. S., Epstein, R. S., Morrison,
    • Molecular oncology: focuses on molecular diagnostic methods in oncology.JOURNAL, Principles of Molecular Oncology., American Journal of Human Genetics, 2001-04-01, 0002-9297, 1275628, 1068, 68, 4, Robert, Jenkins, 10.1086/319526,
    • Oncopathology: A specialty of Pathology that focuses on the histopathological diagnosis of cancer. As a significant portion of all general pathology practice is concerned with cancer, the practice of oncology is deeply tied to, and dependent upon, the work of both anatomical and clinical pathologists.WEB, Types of Oncologists,weblink Cancer.Net : American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), 25 May 2013, 2011-05-09,
    • Nuclear medicine oncology: focuses on diagnosis and treatment of cancer with radiopharmaceuticals.
    • Psycho-oncology: focuses on psychosocial issues on diagnosis and treatment of cancer patients.
    • Veterinary oncology: focuses on treatment of cancer in animals.JOURNAL, Update on genomics in veterinary oncology, Topics in Companion Animal Medicine, 2009-08-01, 1938-9736, 2754151, 19732729, 113–121, 24, 3, 10.1053/j.tcam.2009.03.002, Matthew, Breen,

Progress and future

  • Leukemia,JOURNAL, Chronic myelogenous leukemia. Curable with early diagnosis and treatment, Postgraduate Medicine, 1999-09-01, 0032-5481, 10494272, 149–152, 157–159, 106, 3, J. M., Hill, K. R., Meehan, 10.3810/pgm.1999.09.686, Lymphoma,JOURNAL, My Treatment Approach to Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 2012-02-01, 0025-6196, 3497705, 22305028, 161–171, 87, 2, 10.1016/j.mayocp.2011.11.007, James O., Armitage, Germ cell tumorsJOURNAL, Curing metastatic cancer: lessons from testicular germ-cell tumours, Nature Reviews. Cancer, 2003-07-01, 1474-175X, 12835671, 517–525, 3, 7, 10.1038/nrc1120, John R. W., Masters, Beate, Köberle, and early stage solid tumors which were once incurable have become curable malignancies now. Immunotherapies have already proven efficient in leukemia, bladder cancer and various skin cancer. For the future, research is promising in the field of physical oncology{{citation needed|date=June 2018}}.
  • Survival of cancer has significantly improved over the past years {{how many?|date=June 2018}} due to improved screening, diagnostic methods and treatment options with targeted therapy.
  • Large multi-centric Phase III randomised controlled clinical trials by the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast & Bowel Project (NSABP)WEB, National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP),weblink www.nsabp.pitt.edu, 2016-01-17, Medical Research Council (MRC),Home – Medical Research Council the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC),EORTC and National Cancer Institute (NCI) have contributed significantly to the improvement in survival.

See also

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References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

  • JOURNAL, Watson, Ian R., Takahashi, Koichi, Futreal, P. Andrew, Chin, Lynda, 2013, Emerging patterns of somatic mutations in cancer, Nat Rev Genet, 14, 10, 703–718, 10.1038/nrg3539, 4014352, 24022702,
  • JOURNAL, Meyerson, Matthew, Gabriel, Stacey, Getz, Gad, 2010, Advances in understanding cancer genomes through second-generation sequencing, Nat Rev Genet, 11, 10, 685–696, 10.1038/nrg2841, 20847746,
  • JOURNAL, Katsanis, Sara Huston, Katsanis, Nicholas, 2013, Molecular genetic testing and the future of clinical genomics, Nat Rev Genet, 14, 6, 415–426, 10.1038/nrg3493, 4461364, 23681062,
  • JOURNAL, Mardis, Elaine R., 2012, Applying next-generation sequencing to pancreatic cancer treatment, Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 9, 8, 477–486, 10.1038/nrgastro.2012.126, 22751458,
  • BOOK, Mukherjee, Siddhartha, Siddhartha Mukherjee, 2011, The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer, The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer, Fourth Estate, 978-0-00-725092-9,
  • JOURNAL, Vickers, Andrew, 1 March 2004, Alternative Cancer Cures: "Unproven" or "Disproven"?, CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 54, 2, 110–118, 10.3322/canjclin.54.2.110, 15061600, 10.1.1.521.2180,

External links

{{Commons category}}
  • WEB, Comprehensive Cancer Information,weblink National Cancer Institute, 2016-01-16, January 1980,
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  • WEB, NCCN - Evidence-Based Cancer Guidelines, Oncology Drug Compendium, Oncology Continuing Medical Education,weblink National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 2016-01-16,
  • WEB, European Society for Medical Oncology {{!, ESMO|url =weblink|website = www.esmo.org|access-date = 2016-01-16}}
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