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{{Other uses}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Rewrite|date=February 2018}}{{Mythology}}File:Figura 3.jpg|thumb|Heracles capturing CerberusCerberusMythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of peopleOxford English Dictionary, {{nowrap|3rd ed.}} "myth, n. Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2003. or to the study of such myths.{{sfn|Kirk|1973|p=8}}A folklore genre, myth is a feature of every culture. Many sources for myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of nature or personification of natural phenomena, to truthful or hyperbolic accounts of historical events to explanations of existing rituals. A culture's collective mythology helps convey belonging, shared and religious experiences, behavioral models, and moral and practical lessons.The study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus, Plato and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and later revived by Renaissance mythographers. The nineteenth-century comparative mythology reinterpreted myth as a primitive and failed counterpart of science (Tylor), a "disease of language" (Müller), or a misinterpretation of magical ritual (Frazer).Recent approaches often view myths as manifestations of psychological, cultural, or societal truths, rather than as inaccurate historical accounts.


(File:Francesco Hayez 028.jpg|thumb|Odysseus Overcome by Demodocus' Song, by Francesco Hayez, 1813–15)The Greek μυθολογία [mythología] ("story," "lore," "legends," "the telling of stories") combines the word μῦθος [mythos] ("story") and the suffix -λογία [-logia] ("study").Oxford English Dictionary, {{nowrap|1st ed.}} "-logy, comb. form". Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1903. Plato uses [] as a general term for "fiction" or "story-telling" of any kind. The Late Latin mythologia, which occurs in the title of Latin author Fulgentius' fifth-century Mythologiæ, denoted the explication of Greek and Roman stories about their gods, which we now call classical mythology. Although Fulgentius' conflation with the contemporary African Saint Fulgentius is now questioned,Hays, Gregory. "The date and identity of the mythographer Fulgentius" in Journal of Medieval Latin, {{nowrap|Vol. 13}}, {{nowrap|pp. 163 ff.}} 2003. the Mythologiæ explicitly treated its subject matter as allegories requiring interpretation and not as true events.BOOK, Fabius Planciades, Fulgentius, Fulgentius the Mythographer, {{google books, y, 73mJIuYfmzEC, |year=1971|publisher=Ohio State University Press|isbn=978-0-8142-0162-6}}Borrowed from the Middle French mythologie, the English word "mythology" first appeared in the fifteenth century.{{refn|{{nowrap|"...I [ Paris ] was ravisched in-to paradys.}}{{nowrap|"And Þus Þis god [sc. Mercury], diuers of liknes,}}"More wonderful Þan I can expresse,"Schewed hym silf in his appearance,"Liche as he is discriued in Fulgence,"In Þe book of his methologies..."Lydgate, John. Troyyes Book, {{nowrap|Vol. II}}, {{nowrap|ll. 2487}}. {{enm icon}} Reprinted in Henry Bergen's Lydgate's Troy Book, {{nowrap|Vol. I}}, {{nowrap|p. 216}}. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, & Co. (London), 1906. Accessed 20 Aug 2014.}} "mythology". Online Etymology Dictionary'Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. "mythology, n." 2003. Accessed 20 Aug 2014. From Lydgate until the seventeenth or eighteenth-century, mythology was used to mean a moral, fable, allegory or a parable, or collection of traditional stories,{{refn|All which [sc. John Mandevil's support of Ctesias's claims] may still be received in some acceptions of morality, and to a pregnant invention, may afford commendable mythologie'; but in a natural and proper exposition, it containeth impossibilities, and things inconsistent with truth.Browne, Thomas. Pseudodoxia Epidemica: or, Enquiries into Many Received Tenets and Commonly Presumed Truths'', {{nowrap|Vol. I}}, {{nowrap|Ch. VIII}}. Edward Dod (London), 1646. Reprinted 1672.}} understood to be false. It came eventually to be applied to similar bodies of traditional stories among other polytheistic cultures around the world.The word mythology entered the English language before the word "myth"; Johnson's Dictionary, for example, has an entry for mythology, but not for myth. {{refn|Johnson's Dictionary, for example, has entries for mythology,Johnson, Samuel. "Mythology" in A Dictionary of the English Language: in which the Words are Deduced from their Originals, and Illustrated in their Different Significations by Examples from the Best Writers to which are Prefixed a History of the Language and an English Grammar, {{nowrap|p. 1345}}. W. Strahan (London), 1755. mythologist, mythologize, mythological, and mythologically Johnson, Samuel. A Dictionary of the English Language, {{nowrap|p. 1345}}. W. Strahan (London), 1755. Accessed 20 Aug 2014.}} Indeed, the Greek loanword mythos{{refn|"That Mythology came in upon this Alteration of their {{nowrap|Egyptians'}} Theology, is obviouſly evident: for the mingling the Hiſtory of theſe Men when Mortals, with what came to be aſcribed to them when Gods, would naturally occaſion it. And of this Sort we generally find the Mythoi told of them..."Shuckford, Samuel. The Creation and Fall of Man. A Supplemental Discourse to the Preface of the First Volume of the Sacred and Profane History of the World Connected, {{nowrap|pp. xx–}}xxi. {{nowrap|J. &}} R. Tonson & S. Draper (London), 1753. Accessed 20 Aug 2014.}} (pl. mythoi) and Latinate mythus{{refn|"Long before the entire separation of metaphysics from poetry, that is, while yet poesy, in all its several species of verse, music, statuary, &c. continued mythic;—while yet poetry remained the union of the sensuous and the philosophic mind;—the efficient presence of the latter in the synthesis of the two, had manifested itself in the sublime mythus περὶ γενέσεως τοῦ νοῦ ἐν ἀνθρωποῖς concerning the genesis, or birth of the νοῦς or reason in man."Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. "On the Prometheus of Æschylus: An Essay, preparatory to a series of disquisitions respecting the Egyptian, in connection with the sacerdotal, theology, and in contrast with the mysteries of ancient Greece." Royal Society of Literature (London), 18 May 1825. Reprinted in BOOK, Henry Nelson, Coleridge, The Literary Remains of Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Shakespeare, with introductory matter on poetry, the drama, and the stage. Notes on Ben Jonson; Beaumont and Fletcher; On the Prometheus of Æschylus [and others, {{google books, y, IA8LAAAAYAAJ, 335, |year=1836|publisher=W. Pickering|pages=335–}}}} (pl. mythi) both appeared in English before the first example of myth in 1830.{{refn|"According to the rabbi Moses Ben Maimon, Enos, discoursing on the splendor of the heavenly bodies, insisted that, since God had thus exalted them above the other parts of creation, it was but reasonable that we should praise, extol, and honour them. The consequence of this exhortation, says the rabbi, was the building of temples to the stars, and the establishment of idolatry throughout the world. By the Arabian divines however, the imputation is laid upon the patriarch Abraham; who, they say, on coming out from the dark cave in which he had been brought up, was so astonished at the sight of the stars, that he worshipped Hesperus, the Moon, and the Sun successively as they rose.BOOK, Abrahamus Ecchellensis, Abraham of Hekel, Chronicon orientale, nunc primum Latinitate donatum ab Abrahamo Ecchellensi Syro Maronita e Libano, linguarum Syriacae, ... cui accessit eiusdem Supplementum historiae orientalis (The Oriental Chronicles, Historia Arabum(History of the Arabs), {{google books, y, APDxSjZkOS8C, 175, |year=1651|publisher=e Typographia regia|pages=175–}} {{la icon}} Translated in paraphrase in BOOK, Thomas, Blackwell, Letters Concerning Mythology, Letter Seventeenth, {{google books, y, QdNbAAAAQAAJ, 269, |year=1748|publisher=printed in the year|pages=269–}} These two stories are good illustrations of the origin of myths, by means of which, even the most natural sentiment is traced to its cause in the circumstances of fabulous history.Anonymous review of BOOK, Edward, Upham, The History and Doctrine of Budhism: Popularly Illustrated: with Notices of the Kappooism, Or Demon Worship, and of the Bali, Or Planetary Incantations, of Ceylon, {{google books, y, BoJEAAAAcAAJ, |year=1829|publisher=R. Ackermann}} In the Westminster Review, {{nowrap|No. XXIII,}} {{nowrap|Art. III}}, {{nowrap|p. 44}}. Rob't Heward (London), 1829. Accessed 20 Aug 2014.}}


{{See also|Legend|Folklore}}(File:Hotherus and wood maidens by Froelich.jpg|left|thumb|Ballads of bravery (1877) part of Arthurian mythology)In present use, mythology usually refers to the collected myths of a group of people, but may also mean the study of such myths.{{sfn|Kirk|1973|p=8}} For example, Greek mythology, Roman mythology and Hittite mythology all describe the body of myths retold among those cultures. Dundes defined myth as a sacred narrative that explains how the world and humanity evolved into their present form. Dundes classified a sacred narrative as "a story that serves to define the fundamental worldview of a culture by explaining aspects of the natural world and delineating the psychological and social practices and ideals of a society". Lincoln defined myth as "ideology in narrative form."JOURNAL, Lincoln, Bruce, 2006, An Early Moment in the Discourse of "Terrorism": Reflections on a Tale from Marco Polo, 3879351, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 48, 2, 242–259, More precisely, mythic discourse deals in master categories that have multiple referents: levels of the cosmos, terrestrial geographies, plant and animal species, logical categories, and the like. Their plots serve to organize the relations among these categories and to justify a hierarchy among them, establishing the rightness (or at least the necessity) of a world in which heaven is above earth, the lion the king of beasts, the cooked more pleasing than the raw., 10.1017/s0010417506000107, Scholars in other fields use the term myth in varied ways.{{sfn|Dundes|1984|p=147}}{{sfn|Doty|2004|pp= 11–12}}{{sfn|Segal|2015|p= 5}} In a broad sense, the word can refer to any traditional story,{{sfn|Kirk|1984|p=57}}{{sfn|Kirk|1973|p= 74}}{{sfn|Apollodorus|1976|p= 3}} popular misconception or imaginary entity.BOOK, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, myth, 770, 10th, Merriam-Webster, Inc, Springfield, Massachusetts, 1993, Due to this pejorative sense, some scholars opted for the term mythos.JOURNAL, Grassie, William, March 1998, Science as Epic? Can the modern evolutionary cosmology be a mythic story for our time?, Science & Spirit, 9, 1, The word 'myth' is popularly understood to mean idle fancy, fiction, or falsehood; but there is another meaning of the word in academic discourse .... Using the original Greek term mythos is perhaps a better way to distinguish this more positive and all-encompassing definition of the word., Its use was similarly pejorative and now more commonly refers to its Aristotelian sense as a "plot point" or to a collective mythology,Oxford English Dictionary, {{nowrap|3rd ed.}} "mythos, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2003. as in the world building of H.P. Lovecraft.The term is often distinguished from didactic literature such as fables, but its relationship with other traditional stories, such as legends and folktales, is more nebulous.{{sfn|Bascom|1965|p= 7}} Main characters in myths are usually gods, demigods or supernatural humans,{{sfn|Bascom|1965|p= 9}}"myths", A Dictionary of English FolkloreO'Flaherty, p. 78: "I think it can be well argued as a matter of principle that, just as 'biography is about chaps', so mythology is about gods." while legends generally feature humans as their main characters.{{sfn|Bascom|1965|p= 9}} However, many exceptions or combinations exist, as in the Iliad, Odyssey and Aeneid.{{sfn|Kirk|1973|pp=22, 32}}{{sfn|Kirk|1984|p= 55}} Myths are often endorsed by rulers and priests and are closely linked to religion or spirituality.{{sfn|Bascom|1965|p= 9}} In fact, many societies group their myths, legends and history together, considering myths to be true accounts of their remote past.{{sfn|Bascom|1965|p= 9}}{{sfn|Eliade|1998|p= 23}}{{sfn|Pettazzoni|1984|p= 102}} Creation myths particularly, take place in a primordial age when the world had not achieved its later form.{{sfn|Bascom|1965|p= 9}}{{sfn|Dundes|1984|p= 1}}{{sfn|Eliade|1998|p= 6}} Other myths explain how a society's customs, institutions and taboos were established and sanctified.{{sfn|Bascom|1965|p= 9}}{{sfn|Eliade|1998|p= 6}} A separate space is created for folktales,{{sfn|Bascom|1965|p= 17}}{{sfn|Eliade|1998|p= 10–11}}{{sfn|Pettazzoni|1984|pp= 99–101}} which are not considered true by anyone.{{sfn|Bascom|1965|p= 9}} As stories spread to other cultures or as faiths change, myths can come to be considered folktales.{{sfn|Doty|2004|p=114}}{{sfn|Bascom|1965|p= 13}} Its divine characters are recast as either as humans or demihumans such as giants, elves and faeries.


File:Palmyrenian relief Louvre AO2398.jpg|thumb|Palmyrenian relief LouvreLouvre


{{See also|Herodotus}}One theory claims that myths are distorted accounts of historical events.{{sfn|Bulfinch|2004|p= 194}}{{sfn|Honko|1984|p= 45}} According to this theory, storytellers repeatedly elaborate upon historical accounts until the figures in those accounts gain the status of gods.{{sfn|Bulfinch|2004|p= 194}}{{sfn|Honko|1984|p= 45}} For example, the myth of the wind-god Aeolus may have evolved from a historical account of a king who taught his people to use sails and interpret the winds.{{sfn|Bulfinch|2004|p= 194}} Herodotus (fifth-century BC) and Prodicus made claims of this kind.{{sfn|Honko|1984|p= 45}} This theory is named euhemerism after mythologist Euhemerus (c. 320 BC), who suggested that Greek gods developed from legends about human beings.{{sfn|Honko|1984|p= 45}}"Euhemerism", The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions


Some theories propose that myths began as allegories for natural phenomena: Apollo represents the sun, Poseidon represents water, and so on.{{sfn|Honko|1984|p= 45}} According to another theory, myths began as allegories for philosophical or spiritual concepts: Athena represents wise judgment, Aphrodite desire, and so on.{{sfn|Honko|1984|p= 45}} Müller supported an allegorical theory of myth. He believed myths began as allegorical descriptions of nature and gradually came to be interpreted literally. For example, a poetic description of the sea as "raging" was eventually taken literally and the sea was then thought of as a raging god.{{sfn|Segal|2015|p= 20}}


{{See also|Mythopoeic thought}}Some thinkers claimed that myths result from the personification of objects and forces. According to these thinkers, the ancients worshiped natural phenomena, such as fire and air, gradually deifying them.{{sfn|Bulfinch|2004|p= 195}} For example, according to this theory, ancients tended to view things as gods, not as mere objects.{{sfn|Frankfort|Frankfort|Wilson|Jacobsen|2013|p= 4}} Thus, they described natural events as acts of personal gods, giving rise to myths.{{sfn|Frankfort|Frankfort|Wilson|Jacobsen|2013|p= 15}}(File:Mythology.png|thumb|Most cultures across the globe have some form of mythology)

Myth-ritual theory

{{See also|Myth and ritual}}According to the myth-ritual theory, myth is tied to ritual.{{sfn|Segal|2015|p= 61}} In its most extreme form, this theory claims myths arose to explain rituals.{{sfn|Graf|1996|p= 40}} This claim was first put forward by Smith,{{sfn|Meletinsky|2014| pp=19–20}} who claimed that people begin performing rituals for reasons not related to myth. Forgetting the original reason for a ritual, they account for it by inventing a myth and claiming the ritual commemorates the events described in that myth.{{sfn|Segal|2015|p= 63}} Frazer claimed that humans started out with a belief in magical rituals; later, they began to lose faith in magic and invented myths about gods, reinterpreting their rituals as religious rituals intended to appease the gods.{{sfn|Frazer|1913|p= 711}}


File:Holy Grail digital art.jpg|thumb|left|Holy Grail digital art part of Christian mythologyChristian mythologyEliade argued that one of the foremost functions of myth is to establish models for behavior{{sfn|Eliade|1998|p= 8}}{{sfn|Honko|1984|p= 51}} and that myths may provide a religious experience. By telling or reenacting myths, members of traditional societies detach themselves from the present, returning to the mythical age, thereby coming closer to the divine.{{sfn|Eliade|1998|p= 23}}{{sfn|Honko|1984|p= 51}}{{sfn|Eliade|1998|p= 19}}Honko asserted that, in some cases, a society reenacts a myth in an attempt to reproduce the conditions of the mythical age. For example, it might reenact the healing performed by a god at the beginning of time in order to heal someone in the present.{{sfn|Honko|1984| p=49}} Similarly, Barthes argued that modern culture explores religious experience. Since it is not the job of science to define human morality, a religious experience is an attempt to connect with a perceived moral past, which is in contrast with the technological present.{{sfn|Barthes|1972}}Pattanaik defines mythology as "a subjective truth of people that is communicated through stories, symbols and rituals". He adds, "unlike fantasy that is nobody’s truth, and history that seeks to be everybody’s truth, mythology is somebody’s truth."WEB, Pattanaik, Devdutt, Why I Insist On Calling Myself A Mythologist, Swarajya, 14 September 2015,weblink 24 July 2016,

History of the academic discipline

Historically, the important approaches to the study of mythology have been those of Vico, Schelling, Schiller, Jung, Freud, Lévy-Bruhl, Lévi-Strauss, Frye, the Soviet school, and the Myth and Ritual School.Guy Lanoue, Foreword to Meletinsky, p. viii


File:Myths and legends of Babylonia and Assyria (1916) (14801987593).jpg|thumb|left|Myths and legends of Babylonia and AssyriaAssyriaThe critical interpretation of myth began with the Presocratics.{{sfn|Segal|2015|p= 1}} Euhemerus was one of the most important pre-modern mythologists. He interpreted myths as accounts of actual historical events - distorted over many retellings. SallustiusOn the Gods and the World, ch. 5, See Collected Writings on the Gods and the World, The Prometheus Trust, Frome, 1995 divided myths into five categories – theological, physical (or concerning natural laws), animistic (or concerning soul), material, and mixed. Mixed concerns myths that show the interaction between two or more of the previous categories and are particularly used in initiations.Plato famously condemned poetic myth when discussing education in the Republic. His critique was primarily on the grounds that the uneducated might take the stories of gods and heroes literally. Nevertheless, he constantly referred to myths throughout his writings. As Platonism developed in the phases commonly called Middle Platonism and neoplatonism, writers such as Plutarch, Porphyry, Proclus, Olympiodorus, and Damascius wrote explicitly about the symbolic interpretation of traditional and Orphic myths.Perhaps the most extended passage of philosophic interpretation of myth is to be found in the fifth and sixth essays of Proclus’ Commentary on the Republic (to be found in The Works of Plato I, trans. Thomas Taylor, The Prometheus Trust, Frome, 1996); Porphyry’s analysis of the Homeric Cave of the Nymphs is another important work in this area (Select Works of Porphyry, Thomas Taylor The Prometheus Trust, Frome, 1994). See the external links below for a full English translation.Interest in polytheistic mythology revived during the Renaissance, with early works on mythography appearing in the sixteenth-century, such as the Theologia Mythologica (1532). While myths are not the same as fables, legends, folktales, fairy tales, anecdotes, or fiction, the concepts may overlap. Notably, during the nineteenth century period of Romanticism, folktales and fairy tales were perceived as eroded fragments of earlier mythology (famously by the Brothers Grimm and Elias Lönnrot).Mythological themes were consciously employed in literature, beginning with Homer. The resulting work may expressly refer to a mythological background without itself becoming part of a body of myths (Cupid and Psyche). Medieval romance in particular plays with this process of turning myth into literature. Euhemerism, as stated earlier, refers to the rationalization of myths, putting themes formerly imbued with mythological qualities into pragmatic contexts. An example of this would be following a cultural or religious paradigm shift (notably the re-interpretation of pagan mythology following Christianization).Conversely, historical and literary material may acquire mythological qualities over time. For example, the Matter of Britain (the legendary history of Great Britain, especially those focused on King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table)NEWS,weblink romance {{!, literature and performance|work=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2017-11-06|language=en}} and the Matter of France, based on historical events of the fifth and eighth-centuries respectively, were first made into epic poetry and became partly mythological over the following centuries. "Conscious generation" of mythology was termed mythopoeia by Tolkien and was notoriously also suggested, separately, by Nazi ideologist Alfred Rosenberg.


The first scholarly theories of myth appeared during the second half of the nineteenth-century.{{sfn|Segal|2015|p= 1}} In general, these nineteenth-century theories framed myth as a failed or obsolete mode of thought, often by interpreting myth as the primitive counterpart of modern science.{{sfn|Segal|2015|pp= 3–4}}For example, Tylor interpreted myth as an attempt at a literal explanation for natural phenomena. Unable to conceive impersonal natural laws, early humans tried to explain natural phenomena by attributing souls to inanimate objects, giving rise to animism.{{sfn|Segal|2015|p= 4}} According to Tylor, human thought evolved through stages, starting with mythological ideas and gradually progressing to scientific ideas. Not all scholars, not even all nineteenth-century scholars, accepted this view. Lévy-Bruhl claimed "the primitive mentality is a condition of the human mind, and not a stage in its historical development."BOOK, Mâche, Music, Myth and Nature, or The Dolphins of Arion, 1992, 8, Müller called myth a "disease of language". He speculated that myths arose due to the lack of abstract nouns and neuter gender in ancient languages. Anthropomorphic figures of speech, necessary in such languages, were eventually taken literally, leading to the idea that natural phenomena were in actuality conscious beings or gods.{{sfn|Segal|2015|p= 20}}Frazer saw myths as a misinterpretation of magical rituals, which were themselves based on a mistaken idea of natural law.{{sfn|Segal|2015|pp= 67–68}} According to Frazer, humans begin with an unfounded belief in impersonal magical laws. When they realize applications of these laws do not work, they give up their belief in natural law in favor of a belief in personal gods controlling nature, thus giving rise to religious myths. Meanwhile, humans continue practicing formerly magical rituals through force of habit, reinterpreting them as reenactments of mythical events. Finally humans come to realize nature follows natural laws, and they discover their true nature through science. Here again, science makes myth obsolete as humans progress "from magic through religion to science."{{sfn|Frazer|1913|p= 711}}Segal asserted that by pitting mythical thought against modern scientific thought, such theories imply modern humans must abandon myth.{{sfn|Segal|2015|p= 3}}


File:Prometheus by Gustave Moreau.jpg|thumb|Prometheus (1868) by Gustave Moreau. In the mythos of Hesiodus and possibly Aeschylus (the Greek trilogy Prometheus Bound, Prometheus Unbound and Prometheus PyrphorosPrometheus PyrphorosMany twentieth-century theories rejected the nineteenth-century theories' opposition of myth and science. In general, "twentieth-century theories have tended to see myth as almost anything but an outdated counterpart to science […]. Consequently, modern individuals are not obliged to abandon myth for science."{{sfn|Segal|2015|p= 3}}Jung tried to understand the psychology behind world myths. Jung asserted that all humans share certain innate unconscious psychological forces, which he called archetypes. He believed similarities between the myths of different cultures reveals the existence of these universal archetypes.BoereeLévi-Strauss believed myths reflect patterns in the mind and interpreted those patterns more as fixed mental structures, specifically pairs of opposites (good/evil, compassionate/callous), rather than unconscious feelings or urges.{{sfn|Segal|2015|p= 113}}In his appendix to Myths, Dreams and Mysteries, and in The Myth of the Eternal Return, Eliade attributed modern humans’ anxieties to their rejection of myths and the sense of the sacred.{{Citation needed|date=August 2015}}In the 1950s, Barthes published a series of essays examining modern myths and the process of their creation in his book MythologiesWEB,weblink Mythologies, 1972, Hill and Wang, Barthes, Roland, Following the Structuralist Era (roughly the 1960s to 1980s), the predominant anthropological and sociological approaches to myth increasingly treated myth as a form of narrative that can be studied, interpreted and analyzed like ideology, history and culture. In other words, myth is a form of understanding and telling stories that is connected to power, political structures, and political and economic interests. These approaches contrast with approaches such as those of Campbell and Eliade that hold that myth has some type of essential connection to ultimate sacred meanings that transcend cultural specifics. In particular, myth was studied in relation to history from diverse social sciences. Most of these studies share the assumption that history and myth are not distinct in the sense that history is factual, real, accurate, and truth, while myth is the opposite.Christian theologian Conrad Hyers wrote that}}

Comparative mythology

Comparative mythology is the systematic comparison of myths from different cultures. It seeks to discover underlying themes that are common to the myths of multiple cultures. In some cases, comparative mythologists use the similarities between separate mythologies to argue that those mythologies have a common source. This source may inspire myths or provide a common "protomythology" that diverged into the mythologies of each culture.{{sfn|Littleton|1973|p=32}}Nineteenth-century interpretations of myth were often comparative, seeking a common origin for all myths.{{sfn|Leonard|2007}} Later scholars tend to avoid universal statements about mythology. One exception to this modern trend is Campbell's The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949), which claims that all hero myths follow the same underlying pattern. This theory of a monomyth later fell out of favor.{{sfn|Northup|2006|p=8}}

Modern mythology

File:10,000 Belgian francs of 1929 edited.jpg|thumb|left|1929 Belgian banknote, depicting Ceres, Neptune and caduceuscaduceusIn modern society, myth is often regarded as a collection of stories. Scholars in the field of cultural studies research how myth has worked itself into modern discourses. Mythological discourse can reach greater audiences than ever before via digital media. Various mythic elements appear in television, cinema and video games.WEB,weblink Exploring the Boundaries of Narrative: Video Games in the English Classroom, Ostenson, Jonathan, 2013,, Although myth was traditionally transmitted through the oral tradition on a small scale, the film industry has enabled filmmakers to transmit myths to large audiences via film.BOOK, Cinematic Mythmaking: Philosophy in Film, Singer, Irving, MIT Press, 2008, 3–6, In Jungian psychology myths are the expression of a culture or society’s goals, fears, ambitions and dreams.JOURNAL, Indick, William, November 18, 2004, Classical Heroes in Modern Movies: Mythological Patterns of the Superhero, Journal of Media Psychology, Film is an expression of the society in which it was produced and reflects the culture of its era and location.The basis of modern visual storytelling is rooted in the mythological tradition. Many contemporary films rely on ancient myths to construct narratives. Disney Corporation is well-known among cultural study scholars for "reinventing" traditional childhood myths.BOOK, Folklore Studies and Popular Film and Television: A Necessary Critical Survey, Koven, Michael, University of Illinois Press, 2003, 176–195, While many films are not as obvious as Disney fairy tales, the plots of many films are based on the rough structure of myths. Mythological archetypes, such as the cautionary tale regarding the abuse of technology, battles between gods and creation stories, are often the subject of major film productions. These films are often created under the guise of cyberpunk action films, fantasy, dramas and apocalyptic tales.{{sfn|Corner|1999|pp=47–59}}21st century films such as Clash of the Titans, Immortals and Thor continue the trend of mining traditional mythology to frame modern plots. Authors use mythology as a basis for their books, such as Rick Riordan, whose Percy Jackson and the Olympians series is situated in a modern-day world where the Greek deities are manifest,NEWS,weblink The Percy Jackson Problem, Mead, Rebecca, 2014-10-22, The New Yorker, 2017-11-06, 0028-792X, as well as his Kane Chronicles with the Egyptian pantheon and Magnus Chase with the Norse gods.{{fact|date=February 2018}}Modern myths such as urban legends shows that myth-making continues. Myth-making is not a collection of stories fixed to a remote time and place, but an ongoing social practice within every society.WEB,weblink 21 Modern Urban Legends That Will Keep You Up Tonight, Greenring, Tanner, BuzzFeed, 2017-11-06,

See also


Mythological archetypes

Myth and religion


Popular culture and media

  • Mythopoeia, artificially constructed mythology, mainly for the purpose of storytelling




  • BOOK, Apollodorus, Gods and Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus, {{google books, y, 3cmSa4H_C0oC, |year=1976|publisher= University of Massachusetts Press|isbn=0-87023-206-1|translator-last=Simpson |translator-first=Michael|chapter= Introduction|location= Amherst|ref=harv}}
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  • BOOK, Roland, Barthes, Roland Barthes, Mythologies, {{google books, y, jP-DBAAAQBAJ, |date=1 January 1972|publisher=Hill and Wang|isbn=978-0-8090-7193-7|ref=harv}}
  • BOOK, William Russell, Bascom, William Bascom, The Forms of Folklore: Prose Narratives, {{google books, y, AU0hNAAACAAJ, |year=1965|publisher=University of California|ref=harv}}
  • BOOK, John, Bowker, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, {{google books, y, mhF1QgAACAAJ, |year=2005|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-861053-3|chapter=Euhemerism|chapter-url=}}
  • BOOK, Thomas, Bulfinch, Thomas Bulfinch, Bulfinch's Mythology, {{google books, y, OskAy9XOnIsC, |date=June 2004|publisher=Kessinger Publishing|isbn=978-1-4191-1109-9|ref=harv}}
  • BOOK, John, Corner, Critical Ideas in Television Studies, {{google books, y, Ta9kAAAAMAAJ, |year=1999|publisher=Clarendon Press |isbn=978-0-19-874221-0 |ref=harv}}
  • BOOK, Wendy, Doniger, Hindu Myths: A Sourcebook Translated from the Sanskrit, {{google books, y, KzlCthJ4SLkC, |date=24 June 2004|publisher=Penguin Books Limited|isbn=978-0-14-190375-0}}
  • BOOK, William G., Doty, Myth: A Handbook, {{google books, y, qeI5UC1rmwwC, |year=2004|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|isbn=978-0-313-32696-7|ref=harv}}
  • BOOK, Christine, Downing, The Goddess: Mythological Images of the Feminine, {{google books, y, U7yNnQEACAAJ, |year=1996|publisher=Continuum}}
  • Dundes, Alan. "Binary Opposition in Myth: The Propp/Levi-Strauss Debate in Retrospect". Western Folklore 56 (Winter, 1997): 39–50.
  • BOOK, Alan, Dundes, Sacred Narrative: Readings in the Theory of Myth, {{google books, y, l5Om2ALAFbEC, |year=1984|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=978-0-520-05192-8|ref=harv}}
    • BOOK, Honko, Lauri, The Problem of Defining Myth, {{google books, y, l5Om2ALAFbEC, |year=1984|ref=harv}}
    • BOOK, Kirk, G.S, On Defining Myths, {{google books, y, l5Om2ALAFbEC, 53, |pp=53–61|year=1984|ref=harv}}
    • BOOK, Pettazzoni, Raffaele, The Truth of Myth, {{google books, y, l5Om2ALAFbEC, |year=1984|ref=harv}}
  • BOOK, Laurie L., Patton, Wendy, Doniger, Myth and Method, {{google books, y, OgsTmeRHpeUC, 147, |year=1996|publisher=University of Virginia Press|isbn=978-0-8139-1657-6|pages=147–|last=Dundes |first=Alan |chapter=Madness in Method Plus a Plea for Projective Inversion in Myth}}
  • BOOK, Mircea, Eliade, Mircea Eliade, Myth and Reality, {{google books, y, CaIUAAAAQBAJ, |date=22 June 1998|publisher=Waveland Press|isbn=978-1-4786-0861-5|ref=harv}}
  • BOOK, Mircea, Eliade, Myths, dreams, and mysteries: the encounter between contemporary faiths and archaic realities, {{google books, y, XWZSvgAACAAJ, |year=1960|publisher=Harvill Press|isbn=978-0-06-131320-2|translator-first=Philip |translator-last=Mairet|ref=harv}}
  • Fabiani, Paolo "The Philosophy of the Imagination in Vico and Malebranche". F.U.P. (Florence UP), English edition 2009. PDF
  • BOOK, Henri, Frankfort, Henri Frankfort, H. A., Frankfort, John A., Wilson, Thorkild, Jacobsen, William A., Irwin, The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man: An Essay of Speculative Thought in the Ancient Near East, {{google books, y, tSECAAAAQBAJ, |date=28 June 2013|publisher=University of Chicago Press|isbn=978-0-226-11256-5|ref=harv}}
  • BOOK, Sir James George, Frazer, James George Frazer, The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion, {{google books, y, z3sIAQAAIAAJ&pg=PR10, |year=1913|publisher=Macmillan and Company, limited|pages=10–|ref=harv}}
  • BOOK, Fritz, Graf, Greek Mythology: An Introduction, {{google books, y, L2yMRI5xML8C, |date=9 May 1996|publisher=Johns Hopkins University Press|isbn=978-0-8018-5395-1 |translator-first=Thomas |translator-last=Marier|ref=harv}}
  • BOOK, Humphrey, Sheryl, The Haunted Garden: Death and Transfiguration in the Folklore of Plants, New York, DCA Art Fund Grant from the Council on the Arts and Humanities for Staten Island and public funding from the New York City Department of Cultural Affairs, 978-1-300-55364-9, 2012,
  • BOOK, Hyers, Conradl, The Meaning of Creation: Genesis and Modern Science, Westminster John Knox Press, 978-0804201254, 1984, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Indick, William, Classical Heroes in Modern Movies: Mythological Patterns of the Superhero, Journal of Media Psychology, 9, 3, 2004, 93–95,
  • BOOK, Geoffrey Stephen, Kirk, Myth: Its Meaning and Functions in Ancient and Other Cultures, {{google books, y, MXtfRwFwGzMC, |year=1973|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=978-0-520-02389-5|ref=harv}}
  • JOURNAL, Koven, Mikel J., 2003-05-22, Folklore Studies and Popular Film and Television: A Necessary Critical Survey,weblink Journal of American Folklore, 116, 460, 176–195, 10.1353/jaf.2003.0027, 1535-1882, harv,
  • WEB, Leonard, Scott, The History of Mythology: Part I, August 2007,weblink Youngstown State University, 17 November 2009, harv,
  • BOOK, C. Scott, Littleton, The New Comparative Mythology: An Anthropological Assessment of the Theories of Georges Dumézil, {{google books, y, KuSy6xW99agC, 1, |date=1 January 1973|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=978-0-520-02404-5|pages=1–|ref=harv}}
  • JOURNAL, Matira, Lopamundra, Children's Oral Literature and Modern Mass Media, Indian Folklore Research Journal, 5, 8, 2008, 55–57,
  • BOOK, Eleazar M., Meletinsky, The Poetics of Myth, {{google books, y, kzmlAgAAQBAJ, |date=21 January 2014|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-1-135-59913-3|ref=harv}}
  • WEB, Olson, Eric L., Great Expectations: the Role of Myth in 1980s Films with Child Heroes, Virginia Polytechnic Scholarly Library, Virginia Polytechnic Institute And State University, May 3, 2011, October 24, 2011,weblink PDF,
  • "Myth". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 21 March 2009
  • "Myths". A Dictionary of English Folklore. Jacqueline Simpson and Steve Roud. Oxford University Press, 2000. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. UC – Berkeley Library. 20 March 2009
  • JOURNAL, 2006-01-01, Northup, Lesley, Myth-Placed Priorities: Religion and the Study of Myth,weblink Religious Studies Review, en, 32, 1, 5–10, 10.1111/j.1748-0922.2006.00018.x, 1748-0922, harv,
  • BOOK, Robert, Segal, Myth: A Very Short Introduction, {{google books, y, wJu9CQAAQBAJ, 19, |date=23 July 2015|publisher=OUP Oxford|isbn=978-0-19-103769-6|pages=19–|ref=harv}}
  • BOOK, Irving, Singer, Cinematic Mythmaking: Philosophy in Film, {{google books, y, DhrTiQW16-gC, 1, |date=24 September 2010|publisher=MIT Press|isbn=978-0-262-26484-6|pages=1–}}
  • BOOK, Slattery, Dennis Patrick, Bridge Work: Essays on Mythology, Literature and Psychology, Carpinteria, Mandorla Books, 2015,

Further reading

  • BOOK, Stefan, Arvidsson, Aryan Idols: Indo-European Mythology as Ideology and Science, {{google books, y, idTPDI6l0mkC, |date=15 September 2006|publisher=University of Chicago Press|isbn=978-0-226-02860-6}}
  • BOOK, Kees W., Bolle, The Freedom of Man in Myth, {{google books, y, BXRMAwAAQBAJ, 92, |date=1 August 2010|publisher=Wipf and Stock Publishers|isbn=978-1-60899-265-2|pages=92–}}
  • BOOK, Eric, Csapo, Theories of Mythology, {{google books, y, 83P3qenuH9EC, |date=24 January 2005|publisher=Wiley|isbn=978-0-631-23248-3}}
  • Eliade, Mircea
    • BOOK, Mircea, Eliade, The Myth of the Eternal Return: Cosmos and History, {{google books, y, zHjV4WICvSwC, |year=2005|publisher=Princeton University Press|isbn=0-691-12350-0|ref=harv}}
  • BOOK, Robert, Graves, Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, {{google books, y, ofyHvgAACAAJ, |year=1959 |chapter=Introduction |translator1-first=Richard |translator1-last=Aldington |translator2-first=Delano |translator2-last=Ames|pp=v–viii}}
  • Gray, Louis Herbert [ed.], The Mythology of All Races, in 13 vols., 1916–1932.
  • BOOK, Edith, Hamilton, Edith Hamilton, Mythology: Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes, {{google books, y, qDi4RwAACAAJ, |date=1 January 2011|publisher=Grand Central Publishing|isbn=978-0-446-57475-4}} WP article (1998)
  • Lévy-Bruhl, Lucien
    • Mental Functions in Primitive Societies (1910)
    • Primitive Mentality (1922)
    • The Soul of the Primitive (1928)
    • The Supernatural and the Nature of the Primitive Mind (1931)
    • Primitive Mythology (1935)
    • The Mystic Experience and Primitive Symbolism (1938)
  • BOOK, José Manuel, Losada, José Manuel Losada, Antonella, Lipscomb, Myths in Crisis. The Crisis of Myth, 2015, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 978-1-443-87814-2,
    • BOOK, The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion, {{google books, y, zBzzv977CLgC, |year=1959|publisher=Houghton Mifflin Harcourt|isbn=0-15-679201-X |translator-first=Willard R. |translator-last=Trask}}
  • BOOK, Maria, Petringa, Brazzà, A Life for Africa, {{google books, y, USwXz-prS3wC, |date=13 January 2006|publisher=AuthorHouse|isbn=978-1-4520-7605-8}}
  • BOOK, Barry B., Powell, Classical Myth, {{google books, y, dqOSAgAAQBAJ, |year=2012|publisher=Pearson|isbn=978-0-205-17607-6}}
  • BOOK, Giorgio De, Santillana, Hertha, von Dechend, Hamlet's Mill: An Essay on Myth and the Frame of Time, {{google books, y, ql7ATHGee50C, |date=January 1977|publisher=David R. Godine Publisher|isbn=978-0-87923-215-3}}
  • BOOK, Isabelle Loring, Wallace, Jennie, Hirsh, Contemporary Art and Classical Myth, {{google books, y, lmTBt5_9AJ0C, |year=2011|publisher=Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.|isbn=978-0-7546-6974-6}}
  • BOOK, Steven, Walker, Jung and the Jungians on Myth, {{google books, y, VNhQAwAAQBAJ, |date=8 April 2014|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-1-135-34767-3}}
  • BOOK, Vanda, Zajko, Miriam, Leonard, Laughing with Medusa: Classical Myth and Feminist Thought, {{google books, y, 1kFQNAAACAAJ, |date=10 January 2008|publisher=OUP Oxford|isbn=978-0-19-923794-4|ref=harv}}
  • Zong, In-Sob. Folk Tales from Korea. 3rd ed. Elizabeth: Hollym, 1989.

External links

{{Wiktionary|myth|mythology}}{{Wikiversity|School:Comparative Mythology}}{{Commons category}}

Journals about mythology

{{Folklore genres}}{{Authority control}}

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