musical theatre

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musical theatre
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{{About|traditional Western musical theatre|other musical forms and non-Western traditions|Musical (disambiguation){{!}}Musical}}{{short description|Stage work that combines songs, music, spoken dialogue, acting, and dance}}File:Crookfinale.jpg|thumb|upright=1.8|Morley|1987|p=15}}Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical â€“ humor, pathos, love, anger â€“ are communicated through words, music, movement and technical aspects of the entertainment as an integrated whole. Although musical theatre overlaps with other theatrical forms like opera and dance, it may be distinguished by the equal importance given to the music as compared with the dialogue, movement and other elements. Since the early 20th century, musical theatre stage works have generally been called, simply, musicals.Although music has been a part of dramatic presentations since ancient times, modern Western musical theatre emerged during the 19th century, with many structural elements established by the works of Gilbert and Sullivan in Britain and those of Harrigan and Hart in America. These were followed by the numerous Edwardian musical comedies and the musical theatre works of American creators like George M. Cohan at the turn of the 20th century. The Princess Theatre musicals (1915–1918) and other smart shows like Of Thee I Sing (1931) were artistic steps forward beyond revues and other frothy entertainments of the early 20th century and led to such groundbreaking works as Show Boat (1927) and Oklahoma! (1943). Some of the most famous musicals through the decades that followed includeWest Side Story (1957), The Fantasticks (1960), Hair (1967), A Chorus Line (1975), Les Misérables (1985), The Phantom of the Opera (1986), Rent (1996), The Producers (2001), Wicked (2003) and Hamilton (2015).Musicals are performed around the world. They may be presented in large venues, such as big-budget Broadway or West End productions in New York City or London. Alternatively, musicals may be staged in smaller venues, such as fringe theatre, Off-Broadway, Off-Off-Broadway, regional theatre, or community theatre productions, or on tour. Musicals are often presented by amateur and school groups in churches, schools and other performance spaces. In addition to the United States and Britain, there are vibrant musical theatre scenes in continental Europe, Asia, Australasia, Canada and Latin America.{{TOC limit|4}}

Definitions and scope

Book musicals

File:GaietyGirlDudleyHardy.jpg|thumb|A Gaiety GirlA Gaiety GirlSince the 20th century, the "book musical" has been defined as a musical play where songs and dances are fully integrated into a well-made story with serious dramatic goals that is able to evoke genuine emotions other than laughter.{{sfn|Everett|Laird|2002|p=137}}{{sfn|Rubin|Solórzano|2000|p=438}} The three main components of a book musical are its music, lyrics and book. The book or script of a musical refers to the story, character development and dramatic structure, including the spoken dialogue and stage directions, but it can also refer to the dialogue and lyrics together, which are sometimes referred to as the libretto (Italian for "little book"). The music and lyrics together form the score of a musical and include songs, incidental music and musical scenes, which are "theatrical sequence[s] set to music, often combining song with spoken dialogue."BOOK, Shepherd, John, Horn, David, 2012, Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume 8: Genres: North America,weblink A&C Black, 104, 1-4411-4874-4, The interpretation of a musical is the responsibility of its creative team, which includes a director, a musical director, usually a choreographer and sometimes an orchestrator. A musical's production is also creatively characterized by technical aspects, such as set design, costumes, stage properties (props), lighting and sound. The creative team, designs and interpretations generally change from the original production to succeeding productions. Some production elements, however, may be retained from the original production, for example, Bob Fosse's choreography in Chicago.There is no fixed length for a musical. While it can range from a short one-act entertainment to several acts and several hours in length (or even a multi-evening presentation), most musicals range from one and a half to three hours. Musicals are usually presented in two acts, with one short intermission, and the first act is frequently longer than the second. The first act generally introduces nearly all of the characters and most of the music and often ends with the introduction of a dramatic conflict or plot complication while the second act may introduce a few new songs but usually contains reprises of important musical themes and resolves the conflict or complication. A book musical is usually built around four to six main theme tunes that are reprised later in the show, although it sometimes consists of a series of songs not directly musically related. Spoken dialogue is generally interspersed between musical numbers, although "sung dialogue" or recitative may be used, especially in so-called "sung-through" musicals such as Jesus Christ Superstar, Falsettos, Les Misérables, Evita and Hamilton. Several shorter musicals on Broadway and in the West End have been presented in one act in recent decades.Moments of greatest dramatic intensity in a book musical are often performed in song. Proverbially, "when the emotion becomes too strong for speech, you sing; when it becomes too strong for song, you dance."Wattenberg, Ben. The American Musical, Part 2,, May 24, 2007, accessed February 7, 2017 In a book musical, a song is ideally crafted to suit the character (or characters) and their situation within the story; although there have been times in the history of the musical (e.g. from the 1890s to the 1920s) when this integration between music and story has been tenuous. As The New York Times critic Ben Brantley described the ideal of song in theatre when reviewing the 2008 revival of Gypsy: "There is no separation at all between song and character, which is what happens in those uncommon moments when musicals reach upward to achieve their ideal reasons to be."Brantley, Ben. "Curtain Up! It's Patti's Turn at Gypsy", The New York Times, March 28, 2008, accessed May 26, 2009 Typically, many fewer words are sung in a five-minute song than are spoken in a five-minute block of dialogue. Therefore, there is less time to develop drama in a musical than in a straight play of equivalent length, since a musical usually devotes more time to music than to dialogue. Within the compressed nature of a musical, the writers must develop the characters and the plot.The material presented in a musical may be original, or it may be adapted from novels (Wicked and Man of La Mancha), plays (Hello, Dolly! and Carousel), classic legends (Camelot), historical events (Evita) or films (The Producers and Billy Elliot). On the other hand, many successful musical theatre works have been adapted for musical films, such as West Side Story, My Fair Lady, The Sound of Music, Oliver! and Chicago.

Comparisons with opera

File:George Gershwin 1937.jpg|left|thumb|upright|George GershwinGeorge GershwinMusical theatre is closely related to the theatrical form of opera, but the two are usually distinguished by weighing a number of factors. First, musicals generally have a greater focus on spoken dialogue. Some musicals, however, are entirely accompanied and sung-through, while some operas, such as Die Zauberflöte, and most operettas, have some unaccompanied dialogue. Second, musicals also usually include more dancing as an essential part of the storytelling, particularly by the principal performers as well as the chorus. Third, musicals often use various genres of popular music or at least popular singing and musical styles.Tommasini, Anthony. "Opera? Musical? Please Respect the Difference", The New York Times, July 7, 2011, accessed December 13, 2017Finally, musicals usually avoid certain operatic conventions. In particular, a musical is almost always performed in the language of its audience. Musicals produced on Broadway or in the West End, for instance, are invariably sung in English, even if they were originally written in another language. While an opera singer is primarily a singer and only secondarily an actor (and rarely needs to dance), a musical theatre performer is often an actor first but must also be a singer and dancer. Someone who is equally accomplished at all three is referred to as a "triple threat". Composers of music for musicals often consider the vocal demands of roles with musical theatre performers in mind. Today, large theatres that stage musicals generally use microphones and amplification of the actors' singing voices in a way that would generally be disapproved of in an operatic context.Gamerman, Ellen. "Broadway Turns Up the Volume", The Wall Street Journal, Ellen, October 23, 2009, accessed December 13, 2017Some works (e.g. by George Gershwin, Leonard Bernstein and Stephen Sondheim) have been made into both "musical theatre" and "operatic" productions."Porgy and Bess: That old black magic" The Independent, October 27, 2006, accessed December 27, 2018Lister, David. "The Royal Opera opens a window on Sondheim", The Independent, April 5, 2003, accessed December 27, 2018 Similarly, some older operettas or light operas (such as The Pirates of Penzance by Gilbert and Sullivan) have been produced in modern adaptations that treat them as musicals. For some works, production styles are almost as important as the work's musical or dramatic content in defining into which art form the piece falls.Teachout, Terry. "Sweeney Todd" {{webarchive|url= |date=2008-04-18 }}, National Endowment for the Arts, accessed November 1, 2009 Sondheim said, "I really think that when something plays Broadway it's a musical, and when it plays in an opera house it's opera. That's it. It's the terrain, the countryside, the expectations of the audience that make it one thing or another."White, Michael. "Something for the weekend, sir?", The Independent, London, December 15, 2003, accessed May 26, 2009 There remains an overlap in form between lighter operatic forms and more musically complex or ambitious musicals. In practice, it is often difficult to distinguish among the various kinds of musical theatre, including "musical play", "musical comedy", "operetta" and "light opera".Kowalke, Kim H. "Theorizing the Golden Age Musical: Genre, Structure, Syntax" in A MusicTheoretical Matrix: Essays in Honor of Allen Forte (Part V), ed. David Carson Berry, Gamut 6/2 (2013), pp. 163–169Like opera, the singing in musical theatre is generally accompanied by an instrumental ensemble called a pit orchestra, located in a lowered area in front of the stage. While opera typically uses a conventional symphony orchestra, musicals are generally orchestrated for ensembles ranging from 27 players down to only a few players. Rock musicals usually employ a small group of mostly rock instruments,These may include electric guitar, electric bass synthesizer and drum kit. and some musicals may call for only a piano or two instruments.Show index with links to orchestration information {{webarchive|url= |date=2010-02-13 }},, accessed October 4, 2015 The music in musicals uses a range of "styles and influences including operetta, classical techniques, folk music, jazz [and] local or historical styles [that] are appropriate to the setting." Musicals may begin with an overture played by the orchestra that "weav[es] together excerpts of the score's famous melodies."NEWS, Elliot, Susan, Off the Stage, What's Behind the Music,weblink The New York Times, August 17, 2008, October 6, 2015,

Eastern traditions and other forms

(File:Sichuan Opera in Chengdu.jpg|thumb|Chinese opera performers)There are various Eastern traditions of theatre that include music, such as Chinese opera, Taiwanese opera, Japanese Noh and Indian musical theatre, including Sanskrit drama, Indian classical dance, Parsi theatre and Yakshagana.Gokulsing, 2004, p. 98. India has, since the 20th century, produced numerous musical films, referred to as "Bollywood" musicals, and in Japan a series of 2.5D musicals based on popular anime and manga comics has developed in recent decades.Shorter or simplified "junior" versions of many musicals are available for schools and youth groups, and very short works created or adapted for performance by children are sometimes called minimusicals."Mini Musicals",, Cenarth Fox, 2001, accessed 22 January 2010"Theatre Latte Da takes foray into mini-musical form", Star Tribune, March 30, 2002, accessed 15 January 2010 (registration required)


Early antecedents of musical theatre

The antecedents of musical theatre in Europe can be traced back to the theatre of ancient Greece, where music and dance were included in stage comedies and tragedies during the 5th century BCE.Thornton, Shay| last = Thornton. weblink" title="">"A Wonderful Life", Theatre Under the Stars, Houston, Texas, p. 2 (2007), accessed May 26, 2009 The music from the ancient forms is lost, however, and they had little influence on later development of musical theatre.Kenrick, John. "A Capsule History",, 2003, accessed October 12, 2015 In the 12th and 13th centuries, religious dramas taught the liturgy. Groups of actors would use outdoor Pageant wagons (stages on wheels) to tell each part of the story. Poetic forms sometimes alternated with the prose dialogues, and liturgical chants gave way to new melodies.{{sfn|Hoppin|1978|pp=180–181}}File:Opera backdrop..gif|thumb|upright=1.15|left|A view of Rhodes by John Webb, to be painted on a backshutter for the first performance of The Siege of Rhodes (1856)]]The European Renaissance saw older forms evolve into two antecedents of musical theatre: commedia dell'arte, where raucous clowns improvised familiar stories, and later, opera buffa. In England, Elizabethan and Jacobean plays frequently included music,{{sfn|Lord|2003|p=41}} and short musical plays began to be included in an evenings' dramatic entertainments.{{sfn|Lord|2003|p=42}} Court masques developed during the Tudor period that involved music, dancing, singing and acting, often with expensive costumes and a complex stage design.{{sfn|Buelow|2004|p=26}}Shakespeare 1998, p. 44 These developed into sung plays that are recognizable as English operas, the first usually being thought of as The Siege of Rhodes (1656).{{harvnb|Buelow|2004|p=328}} In France, meanwhile, Molière turned several of his farcical comedies into musical entertainments with songs (music provided by Jean-Baptiste Lully) and dance in the late 17th century. These influenced a brief period of English operaCarter and Butt 2005, p. 280 by composers such as John BlowParker 2001, p. 42 and Henry Purcell.From the 18th century, the most popular forms of musical theatre in Britain were ballad operas, like John Gay's The Beggar's Opera, that included lyrics written to the tunes of popular songs of the day (often spoofing opera), and later pantomime, which developed from commedia dell'arte, and comic opera with mostly romantic plot lines, like Michael Balfe's The Bohemian Girl (1845). Meanwhile, on the continent, singspiel, comédie en vaudeville, opéra comique, zarzuela and other forms of light musical entertainment were emerging. The Beggar's Opera was the first recorded long-running play of any kind, running for 62 successive performances in 1728. It would take almost a century afterwards before any play broke 100 performances, but the record soon reached 150 in the late 1820s.Gillan, Don. "Longest Running Plays in London and New York", Stage Beauty (2007), accessed May 26, 2009 Other musical theatre forms developed in England by the 19th century, such as music hall, melodrama and burletta, which were popularized partly because most London theatres were licensed only as music halls and not allowed to present plays without music.Colonial America did not have a significant theatre presence until 1752, when London entrepreneur William Hallam sent a company of actors to the colonies managed by his brother Lewis.Wilmeth and Miller, p. 182 In New York in the summer of 1753, they performed ballad-operas, such as The Beggar's Opera, and ballad-farces. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in lower Manhattan.Wilmeth and Miller, p. 56 Other early musical theatre in America consisted of British forms, such as burletta and pantomime, but what a piece was called did not necessarily define what it was. The 1852 Broadway extravaganza The Magic Deer advertised itself as "A Serio Comico Tragico Operatical Historical Extravaganzical Burletical Tale of Enchantment."Kenrick, John. "History of Stage Musicals",, 2003, accessed May 26, 2009 Theatre in New York moved from downtown gradually to midtown from around 1850, and did not arrive in the Times Square area until the 1920s and 1930s. New York runs lagged far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" Seven Sisters (1860) shattered previous New York musical theatre record, with a run of 253 performances.{{sfn|Allen|1991|p=106}}

1850s to 1880s

(File:Circa-1879-DOyly-Carte-HMS-Pinafore-from-Library-of-Congress2.jpg|thumb|upright|Poster, c. 1879)Around 1850, the French composer Hervé was experimenting with a form of comic musical theatre he called opérette.Lubbock, Mark. "The Music of 'Musicals'". The Musical Times, Vol. 98, No. 1375 (September 1957), pp. 483–85, Musical Times Publications Ltd., accessed 17 August 2010 The best known composers of operetta were Jacques Offenbach from the 1850s to the 1870s and Johann Strauss II in the 1870s and 1880s. Offenbach's fertile melodies, combined with his librettists' witty satire, formed a model for the musical theatre that followed. Adaptations of the French operettas (played in mostly bad, risqué translations), musical burlesques, music hall, pantomime and burletta dominated the London musical stage into the 1870s.Bond, Jessie. Introduction to The Life and Reminiscences of Jessie Bond {{Webarchive|url= |date=2012-04-21 }}, reprinted at The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive, accessed March 4, 2011In America, mid-19th century musical theatre entertainments included crude variety revue, which eventually developed into vaudeville, minstrel shows, which soon crossed the Atlantic to Britain, and Victorian burlesque, first popularized in the US by British troupes. A hugely successful musical that premiered in New York in 1866, The Black Crook, was an original musical theatre piece that conformed to many of the modern definitions of a musical, including dance and original music that helped to tell the story. The spectacular production, famous for its skimpy costumes, ran for a record-breaking 474 performances.Reside, Doug. "Musical of the Month: The Black Crook", New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, June 2, 2011, accessed June 21, 2018 The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy." Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 (The Mulligan Guard Picnic) and 1885. These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward towards a more legitimate theatrical form. They starred high quality singers (Lillian Russell, Vivienne Segal and Fay Templeton) instead of the ladies of questionable repute who had starred in earlier musical forms.As transportation improved, poverty in London and New York diminished, and street lighting made for safer travel at night, the number of patrons for the growing number of theatres increased enormously. Plays ran longer, leading to better profits and improved production values, and men began to bring their families to the theatre. The first musical theatre piece to exceed 500 consecutive performances was the French operetta The Chimes of Normandy in 1878. English comic opera adopted many of the successful ideas of European operetta, none more successfully than the series of more than a dozen long-running Gilbert and Sullivan comic operas, including H.M.S. Pinafore (1878) and The Mikado (1885). These were sensations on both sides of the Atlantic and in Australia and helped to raise the standard for what was considered a successful show.Kenrick, John. "G&S in the USA" at the musicals101 website The Cyber Encyclopedia of Musical Theatre, TV and Film (2008). Retrieved on 4 May 2012. These shows were designed for family audiences, a marked contrast from the risqué burlesques, bawdy music hall shows and French operettas that sometimes drew a crowd seeking less wholesome entertainment. Only a few 19th-century musical pieces exceeded the run of The Mikado, such as Dorothy, which opened in 1886 and set a new record with a run of 931 performances. Gilbert and Sullivan's influence on later musical theatre was profound, creating examples of how to "integrate" musicals so that the lyrics and dialogue advanced a coherent story.Jones, 2003, pp. 10–11Bargainnier, Earl F. "W. S. Gilbert and American Musical Theatre", pp. 120–33, American Popular Music: Readings from the Popular Press by Timothy E. Scheurer, Popular Press, 1989 {{ISBN|0-87972-466-8}} Their works were admired and copied by early authors and composers of musicals in BritainPG Wodehouse (1881–1975),, Retrieved on 21 May 2007"List of allusions to G&S in Wodehouse",, accessed May 27, 2009 and America.Meyerson, Harold and Ernest Harburg Who Put the Rainbow in the Wizard of Oz?: Yip Harburg, Lyricist, pp. 15–17 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1993); and {{harvp|Bradley|2005|p=9}}

1890s to the new century

{{further|Edwardian musical comedy}}File:Cover of the Vocal Score of Sidney Jones' The Geisha.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Cover of the Vocal Score of Sidney Jones' The Geisha]]A Trip to Chinatown (1891) was Broadway's long-run champion (until Irene in 1919), running for 657 performances, but New York runs continued to be relatively short, with a few exceptions, compared with London runs, until the 1920s. Gilbert and Sullivan were both pirated and imitated in New York by productions such as Reginald De Koven's Robin Hood (1891) and John Philip Sousa's El Capitan (1896). A Trip to Coontown (1898) was the first musical comedy entirely produced and performed by African Americans on Broadway (largely inspired by the routines of the minstrel shows), followed by ragtime-tinged shows. Hundreds of musical comedies were staged on Broadway in the 1890s and early 20th century, composed of songs written in New York's Tin Pan Alley, including those by George M. Cohan, who worked to create an American style distinct from the Gilbert and Sullivan works. The most successful New York shows were often followed by extensive national tours.Mark Evan Swartz's Oz Before the Rainbow describes the enormous train trips required of the cast of the 1903 smash hit, The Wizard of Oz, which tour ran for nine years, including on the road. "Oz Before the Rainbow: L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz on Stage and Screen to 1939". The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000 {{ISBN|0-8018-6477-1}}Meanwhile, musicals took over the London stage in the Gay Nineties, led by producer George Edwardes, who perceived that audiences wanted a new alternative to the Savoy-style comic operas and their intellectual, political, absurdist satire. He experimented with a modern-dress, family-friendly musical theatre style, with breezy, popular songs, snappy, romantic banter, and stylish spectacle at the Gaiety and his other theatres. These drew on the traditions of comic opera and used elements of burlesque and of the Harrigan and Hart pieces. He replaced the bawdy women of burlesque with his "respectable" corps of Gaiety Girls to complete the musical and visual fun. The success of the first of these, In Town (1892) and A Gaiety Girl (1893) set the style for the next three decades. The plots were generally light, romantic "poor maiden loves aristocrat and wins him against all odds" shows, with music by Ivan Caryll, Sidney Jones and Lionel Monckton. These shows were immediately widely copied in America, and Edwardian musical comedy swept away the earlier musical forms of comic opera and operetta. The Geisha (1896) was one of the most successful in the 1890s, running for more than two years and achieving great international success.The Belle of New York (1898) became the first American musical to run for over a year in London. The British musical comedy Florodora (1899) was a popular success on both sides of the Atlantic, as was A Chinese Honeymoon (1901), which ran for a record-setting 1,074 performances in London and 376 in New York. After the turn of the 20th century, Seymour Hicks joined forces with Edwardes and American producer Charles Frohman to create another decade of popular shows. Other enduring Edwardian musical comedy hits included The Arcadians (1909) and The Quaker Girl (1910).See, generally, Index to The Gaiety, a British musical theatre publication about Victorian and Edwardian musical theatre.

Early 20th century

File:Victor herbert.jpg|thumb|upright|Victor HerbertVictor HerbertVirtually eliminated from the English-speaking stage by competition from the ubiquitous Edwardian musical comedies, operettas returned to London and Broadway in 1907 with The Merry Widow, and adaptations of continental operettas became direct competitors with musicals. Franz Lehár and Oscar Straus composed new operettas that were popular in English until World War I.Kenrick, John. Basil Hood, Who's Who in Musicals: Additional Bios XII,, 2004, accessed May 7, 2012 In America, Victor Herbert produced a string of enduring operettas including The Fortune Teller (1898), Babes in Toyland (1903), Mlle. Modiste (1905), The Red Mill (1906) and Naughty Marietta (1910).In the 1910s, the team of P. G. Wodehouse, Guy Bolton and Jerome Kern, following in the footsteps of Gilbert and Sullivan, created the "Princess Theatre shows" and paved the way for Kern's later work by showing that a musical could combine light, popular entertainment with continuity between its story and songs. Historian Gerald Bordman wrote:The theatre-going public needed escapist entertainment during the dark times of World War I, and they flocked to the theatre. The 1919 hit musical Irene ran for 670 performances, a Broadway record that held until 1938.Kenrick, John. Hellzapoppin – History of The Musical Stage 1930s: Part III – Revues,, accessed October 8, 2015 The British theatre public supported far longer runs like that of The Maid of the Mountains (1,352 performances) and especially Chu Chin Chow. Its run of 2,238 performances was more than twice as long as any previous musical, setting a record that stood for nearly forty years."Salad Days History, Story, Roles and Musical Numbers", accessed March 16, 2012 Revues like The Bing Boys Are Here in Britain, and those of Florenz Ziegfeld and his imitators in America, were also extraordinarily popular.File:Sallysm.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Sheet music from Sally, 1920]]The musicals of the Roaring Twenties, borrowing from vaudeville, music hall and other light entertainments, tended to emphasize big dance routines and popular songs at the expense of plot. Typical of the decade were lighthearted productions like Sally, Lady, Be Good, No, No, Nanette, Oh, Kay! and Funny Face. Despite forgettable stories, these musicals featured stars such as Marilyn Miller and Fred Astaire and produced dozens of enduring popular songs by Kern, George and Ira Gershwin, Irving Berlin, Cole Porter and Rodgers and Hart. Popular music was dominated by musical theatre standards, such as "Fascinating Rhythm", "Tea for Two" and "Someone to Watch Over Me". Many shows were revues, series of sketches and songs with little or no connection between them. The best-known of these were the annual Ziegfeld Follies, spectacular song-and-dance revues on Broadway featuring extravagant sets, elaborate costumes and beautiful chorus girls. These spectacles also raised production values, and mounting a musical generally became more expensive. Shuffle Along (1921), an all-African American show was a hit on Broadway.Krasner, David. A Beautiful Pageant: African American Theatre, Drama and Performance in the Harlem Renaissance, 1910–1927, Palgrave MacMillan, 2002, pp. 263–67 A new generation of composers of operettas also emerged in the 1920s, such as Rudolf Friml and Sigmund Romberg, to create a series of popular Broadway hits.Midgette, Anne. "Operetta Review: Much Silliness In a Gilt Frame", The New York Times, March 29, 2003, accessed December 1, 2012In London, writer-stars such as Ivor Novello and Noël Coward became popular, but the primacy of British musical theatre from the 19th century through 1920 was gradually replaced by American innovation, especially after World War I, as Kern and other Tin Pan Alley composers began to bring new musical styles such as ragtime and jazz to the theatres, and the Shubert Brothers took control of the Broadway theatres. Musical theatre writer Andrew Lamb notes, "The operatic and theatrical styles of nineteenth-century social structures were replaced by a musical style more aptly suited to twentieth-century society and its vernacular idiom. It was from America that the more direct style emerged, and in America that it was able to flourish in a developing society less hidebound by nineteenth-century tradition."JOURNAL, Lamb, Andrew, Andrew Lamb (writer), Spring 1986, From Pinafore to Porter: United States-United Kingdom Interactions in Musical Theater, 1879–1929, American Music (journal), American Music, 4, British-American Musical Interactions, 47, University of Illinois Press, Chicago, 0734-4392, 3052183, In France, comédie musicale was written between in the early decades of the century for such stars as Yvonne Printemps.Wagstaff, John and Andrew Lamb. "Messager, André". Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, accessed 15 March 2018 {{subscription}}

Show Boat and the Great Depression

Progressing far beyond the comparatively frivolous musicals and sentimental operettas of the decade, Broadway's Show Boat (1927), represented an even more complete integration of book and score than the Princess Theatre musicals, with dramatic themes told through the music, dialogue, setting and movement. This was accomplished by combining the lyricism of Kern's music with the skillful libretto of Oscar Hammerstein II. One historian wrote, "Here we come to a completely new genre – the musical play as distinguished from musical comedy. Now ... everything else was subservient to that play. Now ... came complete integration of song, humor and production numbers into a single and inextricable artistic entity."Lubbock (2002)File:Rodgers and Hart NYWTS.jpg|left|thumb|Rodgers and HartRodgers and HartAs the Great Depression set in during the post-Broadway national tour of Show Boat, the public turned back to mostly light, escapist song-and-dance entertainment. Audiences on both sides of the Atlantic had little money to spend on entertainment, and only a few stage shows anywhere exceeded a run of 500 performances during the decade. The revue The Band Wagon (1931) starred dancing partners Fred Astaire and his sister Adele, while Porter's Anything Goes (1934) confirmed Ethel Merman's position as the First Lady of musical theatre, a title she maintained for many years. Coward and Novello continued to deliver old fashioned, sentimental musicals, such as The Dancing Years, while Rodgers and Hart returned from Hollywood to create a series of successful Broadway shows, including On Your Toes (1936, with Ray Bolger, the first Broadway musical to make dramatic use of classical dance), Babes in Arms (1937) and The Boys from Syracuse (1938). Porter added DuBarry Was a Lady (1939). The longest-running piece of musical theatre of the 1930s was Hellzapoppin (1938), a revue with audience participation, which played for 1,404 performances, setting a new Broadway record.Still, a few creative teams began to build on Show Boat{{'}}s innovations. Of Thee I Sing (1931), a political satire by the Gershwins, was the first musical awarded the Pulitzer Prize.1944 Pulitzer awards,, accessed July 7, 2012 As Thousands Cheer (1933), a revue by Irving Berlin and Moss Hart in which each song or sketch was based on a newspaper headline, marked the first Broadway show in which an African-American, Ethel Waters, starred alongside white actors. Waters' numbers included "Supper Time", a woman's lament for her husband who has been lynched.Connema, Richard. "San Francisco: As Thousands Cheer and Dear World", (2000), accessed May 26, 2009 The Gershwins' Porgy and Bess (1935) featured an all African-American cast and blended operatic, folk and jazz idioms. The Cradle Will Rock (1937), directed by Orson Welles, was a highly political pro-union piece that, despite the controversy surrounding it, ran for 108 performances. Rodgers and Hart's I'd Rather Be Right (1937) was a political satire with George M. Cohan as President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Kurt Weill's Knickerbocker Holiday depicted New York City's early history while good-naturedly satirizing Roosevelt's good intentions.The motion picture mounted a challenge to the stage. Silent films had presented only limited competition, but by the end of the 1920s, films like The Jazz Singer could be presented with synchronized sound. "Talkie" films at low prices effectively killed off vaudeville by the early 1930s.Kenrick, John. "History of Musical Film, 1927–30: Part II",, 2004, accessed May 17, 2010 Despite the economic woes of the 1930s and the competition from film, the musical survived. In fact, it continued to evolve thematically beyond the gags and showgirls musicals of the Gay Nineties and Roaring Twenties and the sentimental romance of operetta, adding technical expertise and the fast-paced staging and naturalistic dialogue style led by director George Abbott.

The Golden Age (1940s to 1960s)

File:Rodgers and Hammerstein and Berlin and Tamiris NYWTS.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Rodgers and Hammerstein (left and right) and Irving BerlinIrving Berlin


The 1940s would begin with more hits from Porter, Irving Berlin, Rodgers and Hart, Weill and Gershwin, some with runs over 500 performances as the economy rebounded, but artistic change was in the air.Rodgers and Hammerstein's Oklahoma! (1943) completed the revolution begun by Show Boat, by tightly integrating all the aspects of musical theatre, with a cohesive plot, songs that furthered the action of the story, and featured dream ballets and other dances that advanced the plot and developed the characters, rather than using dance as an excuse to parade scantily clad women across the stage.{{sfn|Rubin|Solórzano|2000|p=438}} Rodgers and Hammerstein hired ballet choreographer Agnes de Mille, who used everyday motions to help the characters express their ideas. It defied musical conventions by raising its first act curtain not on a bevy of chorus girls, but rather on a woman churning butter, with an off-stage voice singing the opening lines of Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin' unaccompanied. It drew rave reviews, set off a box-office frenzy and received a Pulitzer Prize.Special Awards and Citations – 1944, The Pulitzer Prizes, accessed January 7, 2018 Brooks Atkinson wrote in The New York Times that the show's opening number changed the history of musical theater: "After a verse like that, sung to a buoyant melody, the banalities of the old musical stage became intolerable."Gordon, John Steele. Oklahoma'!' {{webarchive|url= |date=2010-08-04 }}. Retrieved June 13, 2010 It was the first "blockbuster" Broadway show, running a total of 2,212 performances, and was made into a hit film. It remains one of the most frequently produced of the team's projects. William A. Everett and Paul R. Laird wrote that this was a "show, that, like Show Boat, became a milestone, so that later historians writing about important moments in twentieth-century theatre would begin to identify eras according to their relationship to Oklahoma!''"{{sfn|Everett|Laird|2002|p=124}}"After Oklahoma!, Rodgers and Hammerstein were the most important contributors to the musical-play form... The examples they set in creating vital plays, often rich with social thought, provided the necessary encouragement for other gifted writers to create musical plays of their own". The two collaborators created an extraordinary collection of some of musical theatre's best loved and most enduring classics, including Carousel (1945), South Pacific (1949), The King and I (1951) and The Sound of Music (1959). Some of these musicals treat more serious subject matter than most earlier shows: the villain in Oklahoma! is a suspected murderer and psychopath with a fondness for lewd post cards; Carousel deals with spousal abuse, thievery, suicide and the afterlife; South Pacific explores miscegenation even more thoroughly than Show Boat; and the hero of The King and I dies onstage.The show's creativity stimulated Rodgers and Hammerstein's contemporaries and ushered in the "Golden Age" of American musical theatre. Americana was displayed on Broadway during the "Golden Age", as the wartime cycle of shows began to arrive. An example of this is On the Town (1944), written by Betty Comden and Adolph Green, composed by Leonard Bernstein and choreographed by Jerome Robbins. The story is set during wartime and concerns three sailors who are on a 24-hour shore leave in New York City, during which each falls in love. The show also gives the impression of a country with an uncertain future, as the sailors and their women also have. Irving Berlin used sharpshooter Annie Oakley's career as a basis for his Annie Get Your Gun (1946, 1,147 performances); Burton Lane, E. Y. Harburg and Fred Saidy combined political satire with Irish whimsy for their fantasy Finian's Rainbow (1947, 725 performances); and Cole Porter found inspiration in William Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew for Kiss Me, Kate (1948, 1,077 performances). The American musicals overwhelmed the old-fashioned British Coward/Novello-style shows, one of the last big successes of which was Novello's Perchance to Dream (1945, 1,021 performances). The formula for the Golden Age musicals reflected one or more of four widely held perceptions of the "American dream": That stability and worth derives from a love relationship sanctioned and restricted by Protestant ideals of marriage; that a married couple should make a moral home with children away from the city in a suburb or small town; that the woman's function was as homemaker and mother; and that Americans incorporate an independent and pioneering spirit or that their success is self-made.{{sfn|Rubin|Solórzano|2000|pp=439–440}}


{{Further|Musical film}}File:JulieAndrews face.jpg|thumb|upright|Julie AndrewsJulie AndrewsThe 1950s were crucial to the development of the American musical.Marks, Peter. "Opening Nights", The New York Times, September 27, 1998, accessed July 14, 2019 Damon Runyon's eclectic characters were at the core of Frank Loesser's and Abe Burrows' Guys and Dolls, (1950, 1,200 performances); and the Gold Rush was the setting for Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe's Paint Your Wagon (1951). The relatively brief seven-month run of that show didn't discourage Lerner and Loewe from collaborating again, this time on My Fair Lady (1956), an adaptation of George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion starring Rex Harrison and Julie Andrews, which at 2,717 performances held the long-run record for many years. Popular Hollywood films were made of all of these musicals. This surpassed the run of two hits by British creators: The Boy Friend (1954), which ran for 2,078 performances in London and marked Andrews' American debut, was very briefly the third longest-running musical in West End or Broadway history (after Chu Chin Chow and Oklahoma!), until Salad Days (1954) surpassed its run and became the new long-run record holder, with 2,283 performances.Another record was set by The Threepenny Opera, which ran for 2,707 performances, becoming the longest-running off-Broadway musical until The Fantasticks. The production also broke ground by showing that musicals could be profitable off-Broadway in a small-scale, small orchestra format. This was confirmed in 1959 when a revival of Jerome Kern and P. G. Wodehouse's Leave It to Jane ran for more than two years. The 1959–1960 Off-Broadway season included a dozen musicals and revues including Little Mary Sunshine, The Fantasticks and Ernest in Love, a musical adaptation of Oscar Wilde's 1895 hit The Importance of Being Earnest.Suskin, Steven. weblink" title="">"On the Record: Ernest In Love, Marco Polo, Puppets and Maury Yeston", Playbill, August 10, 2003, accessed May 26, 2009File:Leonard Bernstein 1971.jpg|left|thumb|upright|Leonard BernsteinLeonard BernsteinWest Side Story (1957) transported Romeo and Juliet to modern day New York City and converted the feuding Montague and Capulet families into opposing ethnic gangs, the Jets and the Sharks. The book was adapted by Arthur Laurents, with music by Leonard Bernstein and lyrics by newcomer Stephen Sondheim. It was embraced by the critics, but failed to be a popular choice for the "blue-haired matinee ladies", who preferred the small town River City, Iowa of Meredith Willson's The Music Man to the alleys of Manhattan's Upper West Side. Apparently Tony Award voters were of a similar mind, since they favored the former over the latter. West Side Story had a respectable run of 732 performances (1,040 in the West End), while The Music Man ran nearly twice as long, with 1,375 performances. However, the 1961 film of West Side Story was extremely successful.NEWS, Conversations with Sondheim, Frank, Rich,weblink New York Times Magazine, March 12, 2000, May 26, 2009, Laurents and Sondheim teamed up again for (Gypsy: A Musical Fable|Gypsy) (1959, 702 performances), with Jule Styne providing the music for a backstage story about the most driven stage mother of all-time, stripper Gypsy Rose Lee's mother Rose. The original production ran for 702 performances, and was given four subsequent revivals, with Angela Lansbury, Tyne Daly, Bernadette Peters and Patti LuPone later tackling the role made famous by Ethel Merman.Although directors and choreographers have had a major influence on musical theatre style since at least the 19th century,W. S. Gilbert and his choreographer John D'Auban helped transformed Victorian musical theatre production styles. See Vorder Bruegge, Andrew (Associate Professor, Department Chair, Department of Theatre and Dance, Winthrop University). "W. S. Gilbert: Antiquarian Authenticity and Artistic Autocracy" {{webarchive|url= |date=2011-05-10}}. Victorian Interdisciplinary Studies Association of the Western United States annual conference, October 2002. Retrieved 26 March 2008; and "Mr. D'Auban's 'Startrap' Jumps". The Times, 17 April 1922, p. 17 George Abbott and his collaborators and successors took a central role in integrating movement and dance fully into musical theatre productions in the Golden Age.Kenrick, John. "Dance in Stage Musicals – Part III",, 2003, accessed August 14, 2012 Abbott introduced ballet as a story-telling device in On Your Toes in 1936, which was followed by Agnes de Mille's ballet and choreography in Oklahoma!.Block, Geoffrey (ed.) The Richard Rodgers Reader. New York: Oxford University Press US, 2006. {{ISBN|978-0-19-531343-7}}, pp. 194–95 After Abbott collaborated with Jerome Robbins in On the Town and other shows, Robbins combined the roles of director and choreographer, emphasizing the story-telling power of dance in West Side Story, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1962) and Fiddler on the Roof (1964). Bob Fosse choreographed for Abbott in The Pajama Game (1956) and Damn Yankees (1957), injecting playful sexuality into those hits. He was later the director-choreographer for Sweet Charity (1968), Pippin (1972) and Chicago (1975). Other notable director-choreographers have included Gower Champion, Tommy Tune, Michael Bennett, Gillian Lynne and Susan Stroman. Prominent directors have included Hal Prince, who also got his start with Abbott, and Trevor Nunn.Dickson, Andrew. "A life in theatre: Trevor Nunn", The Guardian, 18 November 2011, accessed August 15, 2012During the Golden Age, automotive companies and other large corporations began to hire Broadway talent to write corporate musicals, private shows only seen by their employees or customers.{{NewMusicBox|id=john-kander-passing-through-curtains|title=Passing Through Curtains|composer-link = John Kander | composer = John Kander|author=Frank J. Oteri|conducted=April 7, 2010|published=May 1, 2010}}Ward, Jonathan. "Recruit, Train and Motivate: The History of the Industrial Musical" {{webarchive|url= |date=2004-08-03 }}, March 2002, Perfect Sound Forever The 1950s ended with Rodgers and Hammerstein's last hit, The Sound of Music, which also became another hit for Mary Martin. It ran for 1,443 performances and shared the Tony Award for Best Musical. Together with its extremely successful 1965 film version, it has become one of the most popular musicals in history.


In 1960, The Fantasticks was first produced off-Broadway. This intimate allegorical show would quietly run for over 40 years at the Sullivan Street Theatre in Greenwich Village, becoming by far the longest-running musical in history. Its authors produced other innovative works in the 1960s, such as Celebration and I Do! I Do!, the first two-character Broadway musical. The 1960s would see a number of blockbusters, like Fiddler on the Roof (1964; 3,242 performances), Hello, Dolly! (1964; 2,844 performances), Funny Girl (1964; 1,348 performances) and Man of La Mancha (1965; 2,328 performances), and some more risqué pieces like Cabaret, before ending with the emergence of the rock musical. Two men had considerable impact on musical theatre history beginning in this decade: Stephen Sondheim and Jerry Herman.File:Peters in 08.jpg|left|thumb|upright|Bernadette PetersBernadette PetersThe first project for which Sondheim wrote both music and lyrics was A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1962, 964 performances), with a book based on the works of Plautus by Burt Shevelove and Larry Gelbart, starring Zero Mostel. Sondheim moved the musical beyond its concentration on the romantic plots typical of earlier eras; his work tended to be darker, exploring the grittier sides of life both present and past. Other early Sondheim works include Anyone Can Whistle (1964, which ran only nine performances, despite having stars Lee Remick and Angela Lansbury), and the successful Company (1970), Follies (1971) and A Little Night Music (1973). Later, Sondheim found inspiration in unlikely sources: the opening of Japan to Western trade for Pacific Overtures (1976), a legendary murderous barber seeking revenge in the Industrial Age of London for Sweeney Todd (1979), the paintings of Georges Seurat for Sunday in the Park with George (1984), fairy tales for Into the Woods (1987), and a collection of presidential assassins in Assassins (1990).While some critics have argued that some of Sondheim's musicals lack commercial appeal, others have praised their lyrical sophistication and musical complexity, as well as the interplay of lyrics and music in his shows. Some of Sondheim's notable innovations include a show presented in reverse (Merrily We Roll Along) and the above-mentioned Anyone Can Whistle, in which the first act ends with the cast informing the audience that they are mad.Jerry Herman played a significant role in American musical theatre, beginning with his first Broadway production, Milk and Honey (1961, 563 performances), about the founding of the state of Israel, and continuing with the blockbuster hits Hello, Dolly! (1964, 2,844 performances), Mame (1966, 1,508 performances), and La Cage aux Folles (1983, 1,761 performances). Even his less successful shows like Dear World (1969) and Mack and Mabel (1974) have had memorable scores (Mack and Mabel was later reworked into a London hit). Writing both words and music, many of Herman's show tunes have become popular standards, including "Hello, Dolly!", "We Need a Little Christmas", "I Am What I Am", "Mame", "The Best of Times", "Before the Parade Passes By", "Put On Your Sunday Clothes", "It Only Takes a Moment", "Bosom Buddies" and "I Won't Send Roses", recorded by such artists as Louis Armstrong, Eydie Gormé, Barbra Streisand, Petula Clark and Bernadette Peters. Herman's songbook has been the subject of two popular musical revues, Jerry's Girls (Broadway, 1985) and Showtune (off-Broadway, 2003).{{listen|type=music|filename=Aquarius - Let the Sunshine In (song from Hair - sample).ogg|title="Aquarius"|description="Aquarius", chorus from the original Broadway cast of Hair}}The musical started to diverge from the relatively narrow confines of the 1950s. Rock music would be used in several Broadway musicals, beginning with Hair, which featured not only rock music but also nudity and controversial opinions about the Vietnam War, race relations and other social issues.Wollman, p. 12.

Social themes

After Show Boat and Porgy and Bess, and as the struggle in America and elsewhere for minorities' civil rights progressed, Hammerstein, Harold Arlen, Yip Harburg and others were emboldened to write more musicals and operas that aimed to normalize societal toleration of minorities and urged racial harmony. Early Golden Age works that focused on racial tolerance included Finian's Rainbow and South Pacific. Towards the end of the Golden Age, several shows tackled Jewish subjects and issues, such as Fiddler on the Roof, Milk and Honey, Blitz! and later Rags. The original concept that became West Side Story was set in the Lower East Side during Easter-Passover celebrations; the rival gangs were to be Jewish and Italian Catholic. The creative team later decided that the Polish (white) vs. Puerto Rican conflict was fresher.NEWS, The Growth of an Idea, Arthur, Laurents, Arthur Laurents,weblink New York Herald Tribune, Primate, LLC, August 4, 1957, May 26, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink December 12, 2007, Tolerance as an important theme in musicals has continued in recent decades. The final expression of West Side Story left a message of racial tolerance. By the end of the 1960s, musicals became racially integrated, with black and white cast members even covering each other's roles, as they did in Hair.Horn 1991, p. 134. Homosexuality has also been explored in musicals, starting with Hair, and even more overtly in La Cage aux Folles, Falsettos, Rent, Hedwig and the Angry Inch and other shows in recent decades. Parade is a sensitive exploration of both anti-Semitism and historical American racism, and Ragtime similarly explores the experience of immigrants and minorities in America.

1970s to present


File:The Rocky Horror Show Broadway.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Original Broadway poster for The Rocky Horror ShowThe Rocky Horror ShowAfter the success of Hair, rock musicals flourished in the 1970s, with Jesus Christ Superstar, Godspell, The Rocky Horror Show, Evita and Two Gentlemen of Verona. Some of those began with "concept albums" and then moved to film or stage, such as Tommy. Others had no dialogue or were otherwise reminiscent of opera, with dramatic, emotional themes; these sometimes started as concept albums and were referred to as rock operas. Shows like Raisin, Dreamgirls, Purlie and The Wiz brought a significant African-American influence to Broadway. More varied musical genres and styles were incorporated into musicals both on and especially off-Broadway. At the same time, Stephen Sondheim found success with some of his musicals, as mentioned above.In 1975, the dance musical A Chorus Line emerged from recorded group therapy-style sessions Michael Bennett conducted with "gypsies" â€“ those who sing and dance in support of the leading players â€“ from the Broadway community. From hundreds of hours of tapes, James Kirkwood Jr. and Nick Dante fashioned a book about an audition for a musical, incorporating many real-life stories from the sessions; some who attended the sessions eventually played variations of themselves or each other in the show. With music by Marvin Hamlisch and lyrics by Edward Kleban, A Chorus Line first opened at Joseph Papp's Public Theater in lower Manhattan. What initially had been planned as a limited engagement eventually moved to the Shubert Theatre on BroadwayBarnes, Clive. "Theater Review": A Chorus Line". The New York Times, May 22, 1975 for a run of 6,137 performances, becoming the longest-running production in Broadway history up to that time. The show swept the Tony Awards and won the Pulitzer Prize, and its hit song, What I Did for Love, became a standard."Song search: What I Did for Love", AllMusic, accessed October 11, 2016Broadway audiences welcomed musicals that varied from the golden age style and substance. John Kander and Fred Ebb explored the rise of Nazism in Germany in Cabaret, and murder and the media in Prohibition-era Chicago, which relied on old vaudeville techniques. Pippin, by Stephen Schwartz, was set in the days of Charlemagne. Federico Fellini's autobiographical film 8½ became Maury Yeston's Nine. At the end of the decade, Evita and Sweeney Todd were precursors of the darker, big budget musicals of the 1980s that depended on dramatic stories, sweeping scores and spectacular effects. At the same time, old-fashioned values were still embraced in such hits as Annie, 42nd Street, My One and Only, and popular revivals of No, No, Nanette and Irene. Although many film versions of musicals were made in the 1970s, few were critical or box office successes, with the notable exceptions of Fiddler on the Roof, Cabaret and Grease.Kenrick, John. "The 1970s: Big Names, Mixed Results", History of Musical Film,, accessed July 11, 2014


File:Sir Cameron Mackintosh.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Cameron MackintoshCameron MackintoshThe 1980s saw the influence of European "megamusicals" on Broadway, in the West End and elsewhere. These typically feature a pop-influenced score, large casts and spectacular sets and special effects – a falling chandelier (in The Phantom of the Opera); a helicopter landing on stage (in Miss Saigon) – and big budgets. Some were based on novels or other works of literature. The British team of composer Andrew Lloyd Webber and producer Cameron Mackintosh started the megamusical phenomenon with their 1981 musical Cats, based on the poems of T. S. Eliot, which overtook A Chorus Line to become the longest-running Broadway show. Lloyd Webber followed up with Starlight Express (1984), performed on roller skates; The Phantom of the Opera (1986; also with Mackintosh), derived from the novel of the same name; and Sunset Boulevard (1993), from the 1950 film of the same name. Phantom would surpass Cats to become the longest-running show in Broadway history, a record it still holds.{{sfn|Everett|Laird|2002|p=250–256}}{{sfn|Allain|Harvie|2014|p=206–207}} The French team of Claude-Michel Schönberg and Alain Boublil wrote Les Misérables, based on the novel of the same name, whose 1985 London production was produced by Mackintosh and became, and still is, the longest-running musical in West End and Broadway history. The team produced another hit with Miss Saigon (1989), which was inspired by the Puccini opera Madama Butterfly.{{sfn|Everett|Laird|2002|p=250–256}}{{sfn|Allain|Harvie|2014|p=206–207}}The megamusicals' huge budgets redefined expectations for financial success on Broadway and in the West End. In earlier years, it was possible for a show to be considered a hit after a run of several hundred performances, but with multimillion-dollar production costs, a show must run for years simply to turn a profit. Megamusicals were also reproduced in productions around the world, multiplying their profit potential while expanding the global audience for musical theatre.{{sfn|Allain|Harvie|2014|p=206–207}}


File:Audra McDonald (1).jpg|thumb|right|upright|Audra McDonaldAudra McDonaldIn the 1990s, a new generation of theatrical composers emerged, including Jason Robert Brown and Michael John LaChiusa, who began with productions Off-Broadway. The most conspicuous success of these artists was Jonathan Larson's show Rent (1996), a rock musical (based on the opera La bohème) about a struggling community of artists in Manhattan. While the cost of tickets to Broadway and West End musicals was escalating beyond the budget of many theatregoers, Rent was marketed to increase the popularity of musicals among a younger audience. It featured a young cast and a heavily rock-influenced score; the musical became a hit. Its young fans, many of them students, calling themselves RENTheads], camped out at the Nederlander Theatre in hopes of winning the lottery for $20 front row tickets, and some saw the show dozens of times. Other shows on Broadway followed Rent's lead by offering heavily discounted day-of-performance or standing-room tickets, although often the discounts are offered only to students.NEWS, Broadway Rush, Lottery and Standing Room Only Policies,weblink Matthew, Blank, PlayBill, March 1, 2011, March 1, 2011, The 1990s also saw the influence of large corporations on the production of musicals. The most important has been Disney Theatrical Productions, which began adapting some of Disney's animated film musicals for the stage, starting with Beauty and the Beast (1994), The Lion King (1997) and Aida (2000), the latter two with music by Elton John. The Lion King is the highest-grossing musical in Broadway history.WEB,weblink Cumulative Broadway Grosses by Show,, February 9, 2014, The Who's Tommy (1993), a theatrical adaptation of the rock opera Tommy, achieved a healthy run of 899 performances but was criticized for sanitizing the story and "musical theatre-izing" the rock music.NEWS, Critic's Notebook; Damping 60's Fire of 'Tommy' for 90's Broadway,weblink John, Pareles, The New York Times, April 27, 1993, June 28, 2012, Despite the growing number of large-scale musicals in the 1980s and 1990s, a number of lower-budget, smaller-scale musicals managed to find critical and financial success, such as Falsettoland and Little Shop of Horrors, (Bat Boy: The Musical) and Blood Brothers. The topics of these pieces vary widely, and the music ranges from rock to pop, but they often are produced off-Broadway, or for smaller London theatres, and some of these stagings have been regarded as imaginative and innovative.NEWS, A glorious musical romp – with bite!, Pete, Shaw,weblink Broadway Baby, 2006, May 26, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink September 28, 2007,



In the new century, familiarity has been embraced by producers and investors anxious to guarantee that they recoup their considerable investments. Some took (usually modest-budget) chances on new and creative material, such as Urinetown (2001), Avenue Q (2003), The Light in the Piazza (2005), Spring Awakening (2006), In the Heights (2007), Next to Normal (2009), American Idiot (2010) and The Book of Mormon (2011). Hamilton (2015), transformed "under-dramatized American history" into an unusual hip-hop inflected hit.Cote, David. "Theater Review. 'Hamilton'", August 6, 2015 In 2011, Sondheim argued that of all forms of "contemporary pop music", rap was "the closest to traditional musical theatre" and was "one pathway to the future."BOOK, Sondheim, Stephen, Look, I Made a Hat: Collected Lyrics (1981–2011) with Attendant Comments, Amplifications, Dogmas, Harangues, Digressions, Anecdotes and Miscellany, 2011, Alfred P. Knopf, New York, 978-0-307-59341-2, xxi,weblink However, most major-market 21st-century productions have taken a safe route, with revivals of familiar fare, such as Fiddler on the Roof, A Chorus Line, South Pacific, Gypsy, Hair, West Side Story and Grease, or with adaptations of other proven material, such as literature (The Scarlet Pimpernel, Wicked and Fun Home), hoping that the shows would have a built-in audience as a result. This trend is especially persistent with film adaptations, including (The Producers, Spamalot, Hairspray, Legally Blonde, The Color Purple, Xanadu, Billy Elliot, Shrek, Waitress and Groundhog Day).Berman, Eliza. "On Broadway, It's Déjà Vu All Over – and Not Just for Groundhog Day, Time magazine, May 15, 2017 issue, pp. 51–52 Some critics have argued that the reuse of film plots, especially those from Disney (such as Mary Poppins and The Little Mermaid), equate the Broadway and West End musical to a tourist attraction, rather than a creative outlet.File:Obama greets the cast and crew of Hamilton musical, 2015.jpg|right|thumb|upright=1.35|The cast of Hamilton meets President Obama in 2015]]Today, it is less likely that a sole producer, such as David Merrick or Cameron Mackintosh, backs a production. Corporate sponsors dominate Broadway, and often alliances are formed to stage musicals, which require an investment of $10 million or more. In 2002, the credits for Thoroughly Modern Millie listed ten producers, and among those names were entities composed of several individuals.Thoroughly Modern Millie at the IBDB database Typically, off-Broadway and regional theatres tend to produce smaller and therefore less expensive musicals, and development of new musicals has increasingly taken place outside of New York and London or in smaller venues. For example, Spring Awakening, Fun Home and Hamilton were developed Off-Broadway before being launched on Broadway.Several musicals returned to the spectacle format that was so successful in the 1980s, recalling extravaganzas that have been presented at times, throughout theatre history, since the ancient Romans staged mock sea battles. Examples include the musical adaptations of Lord of the Rings (2007), Gone with the Wind (2008) and (Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark) (2011). These musicals involved songwriters with little theatrical experience, and the expensive productions generally lost money. Conversely, The Drowsy Chaperone, Avenue Q, The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee, Xanadu and Fun Home, among others, have been presented in smaller-scale productions, mostly uninterrupted by an intermission, with short running times, and enjoyed financial success. In 2013, Time magazine reported that a trend Off-Broadway has been "immersive" theatre, citing shows such as Natasha, Pierre & The Great Comet of 1812 (2012) and Here Lies Love (2013) in which the staging takes place around and within the audience.Zoglin, Richard. "Natasha, Imelda and the Great Immersion of 2013", Time magazine, May 20, 2013, accessed April 6, 2014 The shows set a joint record, each receiving 11 nominations for Lucille Lortel Awards,Cox, Gordon. "Here Lies Love, Great Comet Shatter Records in Lortel Nominations, Variety, April 1, 2014, accessed April 7, 2014 and feature contemporary scores.Clarke, David. "Natasha, Pierre and the Great Comet of 1812 (Original Cast Recording) is Astonishingly Complex", Broadway World, December 22, 2013, accessed April 7, 2014Brantley, Ben. "A Rise to Power, Disco Round Included", The New York Times, April 23, 2013, accessed April 7, 2014In 2013, Cyndi Lauper was the "first female composer to win the [Tony for] Best Score without a male collaborator" for writing the music and lyrics for Kinky Boots. In 2015, for the first time, an all-female writing team, Lisa Kron and Jeanine Tesori, won the Tony Award for Best Original Score (and Best Book for Kron) for Fun Home,Gioia, Michael. "It's Revving Up" – The Next Generation of Female Songwriters Share Their Hopes for the Future", Playbill, 2 August 2015 although work by male songwriters continues to be produced more often.Purcell, Carey. "Fun Home Duo Make History as First All-Female Writing Team to Win the Tony", Playbill, June 7, 2015, accessed November 7, 2015

Jukebox musicals

Another trend has been to create a minimal plot to fit a collection of songs that have already been hits. Following the earlier success of Buddy – The Buddy Holly Story, these have included Movin' Out (2002, based on the tunes of Billy Joel), Jersey Boys (2006, The Four Seasons), Rock of Ages (2009, featuring classic rock of the 1980s) and many others. This style is often referred to as the "jukebox musical".Kaye, Kimberly. " at 10: The 10 Biggest Broadway Trends of the Decade",, May 10, 2010, accessed August 14, 2012 Similar but more plot-driven musicals have been built around the canon of a particular pop group including Mamma Mia! (1999, based on the songs of ABBA), Our House (2002, based on the songs of Madness) and We Will Rock You (2002, based on the songs of Queen).

Film and TV musicals

{{Further|Musical film}}Live-action film musicals were nearly dead in the 1980s and early 1990s, with exceptions of Victor/Victoria, Little Shop of Horrors and the 1996 film of Evita.Kenrick, John. "The 1980s", History of Musical Film,, accessed July 11, 2014; and Kenrick, John. "The 1990s: Disney & Beyond", History of Musical Film,, accessed July 11, 2014 In the new century, Baz Luhrmann began a revival of the film musical with Moulin Rouge! (2001). This was followed by Chicago (2002); Phantom of the Opera (2004); Rent (2005); Dreamgirls (2006); Hairspray, Enchanted and (Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (2007 film)|Sweeney Todd) (all in 2007); Mamma Mia! (2008); Nine (2009); Les Misérables and Pitch Perfect (both in 2012), Into The Woods and The Last Five Years (2014) and La La Land (2016), among others. Dr. Seuss's How the Grinch Stole Christmas! (2000) and The Cat in the Hat (2003), turned children's books into live-action film musicals. After the immense success of Disney and other houses with animated film musicals beginning with The Little Mermaid in 1989 and running throughout the 1990s (including some more adult-themed films, like (South Park: Bigger, Longer & Uncut) (1999)), fewer animated film musicals were released in the first decade of the 21st century. The genre made a comeback beginning in 2010 with Tangled (2010), Rio (2011) and Frozen (2013). In Asia, India continues to produce numerous "Bollywood" film musicals, and Japan produces "Anime" and "Manga" film musicals.Made for TV musical films were popular in the 1990s, such as Gypsy (1993), Cinderella (1997) and Annie (1999). Several made for TV musicals in the first decade of the 21st century were adaptations of the stage version, such as South Pacific (2001), The Music Man (2003) and Once Upon a Mattress (2005), and a televised version of the stage musical Legally Blonde in 2007. Additionally, several musicals were filmed on stage and broadcast on Public Television, for example Contact in 2002 and Kiss Me, Kate and Oklahoma! in 2003. The made-for-TV musical High School Musical (2006), and its several sequels, enjoyed particular success and were adapted for stage musicals and other media.In 2013, NBC began a series of live television broadcasts of musicals with The Sound of Music Live!NEWS,weblink 'Sound of Music' was a little off, Robert Bianco, USA TODAY, December 6, 2013, Although the production received mixed reviews, it was a ratings success.NEWS,weblink NBC Says It Will Put On a Show, Again, Bill Carter, December 9, 2013, The New York Times, Further broadcasts have included Peter Pan Live! (NBC 2014), The Wiz Live! (NBC 2015),NEWS, The Wiz Live Ratings Strong: NBC Musical Draws 11.5 Million Viewers,weblink 4 December 2015, Variety, a UK broadcast, The Sound of Music Live (ITV 2015)NEWS,weblink As ITV prepares for The Sound of Music Live, are we watching TV's future?, Jane Martinson, 15 December 2015, The Guardian, (Grease: Live) (Fox 2016),WEB,weblink Grease: Live Makes the Best Case Yet for the TV Musical, Sophie Gilbert, February 1, 2016, The Atlantic, WEB,weblink TV Ratings: 'Grease Live' Surges on Fox, Nabs 12.2 Million Viewers, Michael O'Connell, February 1, 2016, The Hollywood Reporter, A Christmas Story Live! (Fox, 2017),WEB,weblink Watch This First Glimpse of Fox's A Christmas Story Live!, Fierberg, Ruthie, November 1, 2017, Playbill, November 1, 2017, and (Rent: Live) (Fox 2019).NEWS, Turchiano, Danielle, Tinashe, Kiersey Clemons Among Cast for Fox’s Live Version of ‘Rent’,weblink Variety, 29 October 2018, Some television shows have set episodes as a musical. Examples include episodes of Ally McBeal, (Xena: Warrior Princess) ("The Bitter Suite" and "Lyre, Lyre, Heart's On Fire"), Psych ("(Psych: The Musical)"), Buffy the Vampire Slayer ("Once More, with Feeling"), That's So Raven, Daria, Dexter's Laboratory, The Powerpuff Girls, The Flash, Once Upon a Time, Oz, Scrubs (one episode was written by the creators of Avenue Q), (Batman: The Brave and the Bold) ((List of Batman: The Brave and the Bold episodes|"Mayhem of the Music Meister")) and That '70s Show (the 100th episode, "That '70s Musical"). Others have included scenes where characters suddenly begin singing and dancing in a musical-theatre style during an episode, such as in several episodes of The Simpsons, 30 Rock, Hannah Montana, South Park, Bob's Burgers and Family Guy. The television series Cop Rock extensively used the musical format, as do the series Flight of the Conchords, Glee, Smash and Crazy Ex-Girlfriend.There have also been musicals made for the internet, including Dr. Horrible's Sing-Along Blog, about a low-rent super-villain played by Neil Patrick Harris. It was written during the WGA writer's strike.NEWS, Exclusive: First Look at Joss Whedon's "Dr. Horrible", Matt, Roush,weblink, June 30, 2008, May 26, 2009, Since 2006, reality TV shows have been used to help market musical revivals by holding a talent competition to cast (usually female) leads. Examples of these are How Do You Solve a Problem like Maria?, (Grease: You're the One That I Want!), Any Dream Will Do, (Legally Blonde: The Musical – The Search for Elle Woods), I'd Do Anything and Over the Rainbow.

International musicals

File:Paris Sette-Takarazuka1930.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.15|Japan's all-female Takarazuka RevueTakarazuka RevueThe U.S. and Britain were the most active sources of book musicals from the 19th century through much of the 20th century (although Europe produced various forms of popular light opera and operetta, for example Spanish Zarzuela, during that period and even earlier). However, the light musical stage in other countries has become more active in recent decades.Musicals from other English-speaking countries (notably Australia and Canada) often do well locally and occasionally even reach Broadway or the West End (e.g., The Boy from Oz and The Drowsy Chaperone). South Africa has an active musical theatre scene, with revues like African Footprint and Umoja and book musicals, such as Kat and the Kings and Sarafina! touring internationally. Locally, musicals like Vere, Love and Green Onions, Over the Rainbow: the all-new all-gay... extravaganza and Bangbroek Mountain and In Briefs – a queer little Musical have been produced successfully.Successful musicals from continental Europe include shows from (among other countries) Germany (Elixier and Ludwig II), Austria (Tanz der Vampire, Elisabeth, Mozart! and Rebecca), Czech Republic (Dracula), France (Notre-Dame de Paris, Les Misérables, Roméo et Juliette and Mozart, l'opéra rock) and Spain (Hoy no me puedo levantar and The Musical Sancho Panza).Japan has recently seen the growth of an indigenous form of musical theatre, both animated and live action, mostly based on Anime and Manga, such as Kiki's Delivery Service and Tenimyu. The popular Sailor Moon metaseries has had twenty-nine Sailor Moon musicals, spanning thirteen years. Beginning in 1914, a series of popular revues have been performed by the all-female Takarazuka Revue, which currently fields five performing troupes. Elsewhere in Asia, the Indian Bollywood musical, mostly in the form of motion pictures, is tremendously successful.Jha, p. 1970Beginning with a 2002 tour of Les Misérables, various Western musicals have been imported to mainland China and staged in English.Zhou, Xiaoyan. Taking the Stage, Beijing Review, 2011, p. 42 Attempts at localizing Western productions in China began in 2008 when Fame was produced in Mandarin with a full Chinese cast at the Central Academy of Drama in Beijing.Milestones: 2005–2009, Town Square Productions, accessed September 30, 2013 Since then, other western productions have been staged in China in Mandarin with a Chinese cast. The first Chinese production in the style of Western musical theatre was The Gold Sand in 2005. In addition, Li Dun, a well-known Chinese producer, produced Butterflies, based on a classic Chinese love tragedy, in 2007 as well as Love U Teresa in 2011.

Amateur and school productions

File:TNPKidzAct Speedtest2009.jpg|thumb|Naples PlayersNaples PlayersMusicals are often presented by amateur and school groups in churches, schools and other performance spaces.Major organizations representing amateur theatre groups include National Operatic and Dramatic Association in the UK, American Association of Community Theatre in the US, and the International Amateur Theatre Association. School groups include the Educational Theater Association, which has 5,000 member school groups in the US. See Nadworny, Elissa. "The Most Popular High School Plays and Musicals",, November 13, 2015, accessed March 14, 2016Filichia, Peter. (2004) Let's Put on a Musical!: How to Choose the Right Show for Your School, Community or Professional Theater, Watson-Guptill Publications, {{ISBN|0823088170}} Although amateur theatre has existed for centuries, even in the New World,Lynch, Twink. "Community Theatre History", American Association of Community Theatre, accessed March 14, 2016 François Cellier and Cunningham Bridgeman wrote, in 1914, that prior to the late 19th century, amateur actors were treated with contempt by professionals. After the formation of amateur Gilbert and Sullivan companies licensed to perform the Savoy operas, professionals recognized that the amateur societies "support the culture of music and the drama. They are now accepted as useful training schools for the legitimate stage, and from the volunteer ranks have sprung many present-day favourites."BOOK, Cellier, François, François Cellier, Cunningham, Bridgeman, 1914, Gilbert and Sullivan and Their Operas, London, Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, 393–394, The National Operatic and Dramatic Association was founded in the UK in 1899. It reported, in 1914, that nearly 200 amateur dramatic societies were producing Gilbert and Sullivan works in Britain that year. Similarly, more than 100 community theatres were founded in the US in the early 20th century. This number has grown to an estimated 18,000 in the US. The Educational Theater Association in the US has nearly 5,000 member schools.Nadworny, Elissa. "The Most Popular High School Plays and Musicals",, November 13, 2015, accessed March 14, 2016


File:New York New Amsterdam Theatre 2003.jpg|thumb|right|upright|The Lion King on Broadway]]The Broadway League announced that in the 2007–08 season, 12.27 million tickets were purchased for Broadway shows for a gross sale amount of almost a billion dollars.PRESS RELEASE, The Broadway League Announces 2007–2008 Broadway Theatre Season Results, Broadway League, May 28, 2008,weblink May 26, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 22, 2010, The League further reported that during the 2006–07 season, approximately 65% of Broadway tickets were purchased by tourists, and that foreign tourists were 16% of attendees.PRESS RELEASE, League Releases Annual "Demographics of the Broadway Audience Report" for 06-07, Broadway League, November 5, 2007,weblink May 26, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 22, 2010, The Society of London Theatre reported that 2007 set a record for attendance in London. Total attendees in the major commercial and grant-aided theatres in Central London were 13.6 million, and total ticket revenues were £469.7 million.PRESS RELEASE, Record Attendances as Theatreland celebrates 100 Years, Society of London Theatre, January 18, 2008, PDF,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, October 29, 2008, May 26, 2009, Also, the international musicals scene has been particularly active in recent years. Stephen Sondheim commented in the year 2000:{{blockquote|You have two kinds of shows on Broadway â€“ revivals and the same kind of musicals over and over again, all spectacles. You get your tickets for The Lion King a year in advance, and essentially a family ... pass on to their children the idea that that's what the theater is â€“ a spectacular musical you see once a year, a stage version of a movie. It has nothing to do with theater at all. It has to do with seeing what is familiar. ... I don't think the theatre will die per se, but it's never going to be what it was.... It's a tourist attraction."Rich, Frank. "Conversations with Sondheim". New York Times Magazine, March 12, 2000}}However, noting the success in recent decades of original material, and creative re-imaginings of film, plays and literature, theatre historian John Kenrick countered:Is the Musical dead? ... Absolutely not! Changing? Always! The musical has been changing ever since Offenbach did his first rewrite in the 1850s. And change is the clearest sign that the musical is still a living, growing genre. Will we ever return to the so-called 'golden age', with musicals at the center of popular culture? Probably not. Public taste has undergone fundamental changes, and the commercial arts can only flow where the paying public allows.

See also

Notes and references


Cited books

  • BOOK, Paul, Allain, Jen, Harvie, The Routledge Companion to Theatre and Performance, 2014, Routledge, 978-0-4156-3631-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Allen, Robert C., Horrible prettiness: burlesque and American culture,weblink c. 1991, University of North Carolina, 978-0-8078-1960-9, {{harvid, Allen, 1991, }}
  • BOOK, Bradley, Ian, Ian Bradley, Oh Joy! Oh Rapture! The Enduring Phenomenon of Gilbert and Sullivan, Oxford University Press, 2005, 0-19-516700-7,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Buelow, George J., A History of Baroque Music, Indiana University Press, 2004, Bloomington, Indiana, 978-0-253-34365-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Carter, Tim, Butt, John, The Cambridge history of seventeenth-century music,weblink The Cambridge History of Music, 1, 2005, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-79273-8, 591,
  • BOOK, Everett, William A., Laird, Paul R., The Cambridge companion to the musical, Cambridge companions to music, 2002, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-79189-2, harv,
  • BOOK, K. Moti, Gokulsing, Wimal, Dissanayake, Indian popular cinema : a narrative of cultural change, Revised and updated, 1998, 2004, Trentham, Stoke-on-Trent, 978-1-85856-329-9, 161,
  • BOOK, Hoppin, Richard H., Richard Hoppin, Anthology of Medieval Music, Norton introduction to music history, 1978, Norton, New York, 978-0-393-09080-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Horn, Barbara Lee, The age of Hair: evolution and impact of Broadway's first rock musical, 1991
    location=New Yorkpage=166,
    • BOOK, Jha, Subhash K., The Essential Guide to Bollywood, 2005, Roli Books, 81-7436-378-5,weblink
    • BOOK, Jones, John B., Our Musicals, Ourselves,weblink 2003, University Press of New England, Hanover, 978-0-87451-904-4,
    • BOOK, Lord, Suzanne, Brinkman, David, Music from the Age of Shakespeare : A Cultural History,weblink 2003, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 978-0-313-31713-2, harv,
    • BOOK, Lubbock, Mark, Mark Lubbock, The Complete Book of Light Opera, 1st, 1962, 2002, Putnam, London, 753–56, American musical theatre: an introduction,weblink
    • BOOK, Morley, Sheridan, Sheridan Morley, Spread a little happiness: the first hundred years of the British musical, 1987
    • BOOK, Parker, Roger, The Oxford illustrated history of opera,weblink illustrated, Oxford illustrated histories, 2001, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-285445-2, 541,
    • BOOK, The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: The Americas, Don, Rubin, Carlos, Solórzano, Carlos Solórzano, 2000, Routledge, New York City, 0-415-05929-1, harv,
    • BOOK, Shakespeare, William, William Shakespeare, Orgel, Stephen, Stephen Orgel, The Tempest, The Oxford Shakespeare, 1998, First published 1623, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-283414-0, 248,
    • BOOK, Wilmeth, Don B., Miller, Tice L., Cambridge guide to American theatre, 2nd, 1996, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-56444-1,weblink
    • BOOK, Wollman, E. L., The Theater Will Rock: a History of the Rock Musical: From Hair to Hedwig, 2006
    location=Michigan, 0-472-11576-6,

    Further reading

    • Bauch, Marc. The American Musical. Marburg, Germany: Tectum Verlag, 2003. {{ISBN|3-8288-8458-X}}
    • BOOK, Broadway Musicals : The 101 Greatest Shows of All Time, Bloom, Ken, Ken Bloom, Frank Vlastnik, Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, New York, 1-57912-390-2, 2004-10-01,
    • Bordman, Gerald (1978). American Musical Theatre: a Chronicle. New York: Oxford University Press. viii, 749 p.{{ISBN|0-19-502356-0}}
    • BOOK, At This Theatre, Botto, Louis, Robert Viagas, Applause Books, 1-55783-566-7, 2002-09-01,weblink
    • BOOK, Bryant, Jye, 2018, Writing & Staging A New Musical: A Handbook, Kindle Direct Publishing, 9781730897412,
    • Citron, Stephen (1991). The Musical, from the Inside Out. Chicago, Illinois: I.R. Dee. 336 p. {{ISBN|0-929587-79-0}}
    • Ewen, David (1961). The Story of American Musical Theater. First ed. Philadelphia: Chilton. v, 208 p.
    • Gänzl, Kurt. The Encyclopedia of Musical Theatre (3 Volumes). New York: Schirmer Books, 2001.
    • BOOK, Broadway: the American musical, Kantor, Michael, Laurence Maslon, New York, Bulfinch Press, 2004, 0-8212-2905-2,weblink
    • BOOK, Mordden, Ethan, Ethan Mordden, 1999, Beautiful Mornin': The Broadway Musical in the 1940s, Oxford University Press, New York, 0-19-512851-6,weblink
    • Stempel, Larry. Showtime: A History of the Broadway Musical Theater (W. W. Norton, 2010) 826 pages; comprehensive history since the mid-19th century.
    • Traubner, Richard. Operetta: A Theatrical History. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1983

    External links

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