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mantle (geology)

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mantle (geology)
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{{short description|Part of the interior of the planet Earth}}{{Other uses|Mantle (disambiguation)}}{{pp-vandalism|small=yes}}A mantle is a layer inside a planetary body bounded below by a core and above by a crust. Mantles are made of rock or ices, and are generally the largest and most massive layer of the planetary body. Mantles are characteristic of planetary bodies that have undergone differentiation by density. All terrestrial planets (including Earth), a number of asteroids, and some planetary moons have mantles.

Earth's mantle

(File:Earth poster.svg|thumb|350px|The internal structure of Earth)The Earth's mantle is a layer of silicate rock between the crust and the outer core. Its mass of 4.01 Ã— 1024 kg is 67% the mass of the Earth.BOOK, The planetary scientist's companion, Katharina., Lodders, 1998, Oxford University Press, Fegley, Bruce., 978-1423759836, New York, 65171709, It has a thickness of {{convert|2900|km|mi}} making up about 84% of Earth's volume. It is predominantly solid but in geological time it behaves as a viscous fluid. Partial melting of the mantle at mid-ocean ridges produces oceanic crust, and partial melting of the mantle at subduction zones produces continental crust.NEWS,weblink What is the Earth's Mantle Made Of? – Universe Today, 2016-03-26, Universe Today, 2018-11-24, en-US,

Other planetary mantles

Mercury has a silicate mantle approximately 490 km thick, constituting 28% of its mass. Venus's silicate mantle is approximately 2800 km thick, constituting around 70% of its mass. Mars's silicate mantle is approximately 1600 km thick, constituting ~74–88% of its mass, and may be represented by chassignite meteorites.JOURNAL, Swindle, T. D., 2002-01-01, Martian Noble Gases,weblink Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, en, 47, 1, 171–190, 10.2138/rmg.2002.47.6, 1529-6466,

Moons with mantles

Jupiter's moons Io, Europa, and Ganymede have silicate mantles; Io's ~1100 km silicate mantle is overlain by a volcanic crust, Ganymede's ~1315 km thick silicate mantle is overlain by ~835 km of ice, and Europa's ~1165 km silicate mantle is overlain by ~85 km of ice and possibly liquid water.The silicate mantle of the Earth's moon is approximately 1300–1400 km thick, and is the source of mare basalts.JOURNAL, Wieczorek, M. A., 2006-01-01, The Constitution and Structure of the Lunar Interior,weblink Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, en, 60, 1, 221–364, 10.2138/rmg.2006.60.3, 1529-6466, The lunar mantle might possibly be exposed in the South Pole-Aitken basin and/or the Crisium basin. The lunar mantle contains a seismic discontinuity at ~500 km depth, most likely related to a change in composition.Titan and Triton each have a mantle made of ice or other solid volatile substances.WEB,weblink Layers of Titan, 23 February 2012, NASA, 7 October 2015, WEB,weblink Triton: In Depth, NASA, 16 October 2015,

Asteroids with mantles

{{See also|4_Vesta#Geology}}Some of the largest asteroids have mantles;WEB,weblink Griffith Observatory – Pieces of the Sky – Meteorite Histories, www.griffithobservatory.org, en-us, 2018-11-24, for example, Vesta has a silicate mantle similar in composition to diogenite meteorites.JOURNAL, 2011-03-01, First fragment of Asteroid 4 Vesta's mantle detected, Icarus, en, 212, 1, 175–179, 10.1016/j.icarus.2010.11.032, 0019-1035, Reddy, Vishnu, Nathues, Andreas, Gaffey, Michael J.,

See also

References

{{reflist|35em}}

Further reading



, Jeanloz, Raymond, Raymond Jeanloz, Haraldur Sigurdsson, Bruce Houghton, Hazel Rymer, John Stix, Steve McNutt, Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, Mantle of the Earth, 2000, Academic Press, San Diego, 41–54, 978-0-12-643140-7,

External links

{{Earthsinterior}}{{Authority control}}

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