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{{Distinguish|Madras|Madrassi}}{{About||the grape variety|Madrasa (grape)|the 2013 film|Madrasa (film)}}{{redirect2|Medrese|Madraza|the place in Afghanistan|Madraseh, Badakhshan|the village in Azerbaijan|Mədrəsə|the 2017 film|Madraza (film)}}{{Usul al-fiqh}}File:Kasımiye medrese, Mardin, Turkey.JPG|thumb|Portal of Kasımiye Medrese, Mardin, TurkeyTurkeyMadrasa ({{IPAc-en|m|ə|ˈ|d|r|æ|s|ə}},"madrasa" (US) and OXFORD DICTIONARIES, madrasa, 6 June 2019, also {{IPAc-en|US|-|r|ɑː|s|-}},AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY, madrasa, 6 June 2019, MERRIAM-WEBSTER, madrassa, 6 June 2019, {{IPAc-en|UK|ˈ|m|æ|d|r|ɑː|s|ə}};WEB,weblink Madrasah, Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins, 6 June 2019, {{IPA-ar|maˈdrasa||ar-مدرسة.ogg}}, pl. , {{transl|ar|ALA|madāris}}) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, secular or religious (of any religion), whether for elementary instruction or higher learning. The word is variously transliterated madrasah, medresa, madrassa, madraza, medrese, etc. In the West, the word usually refers to a specific type of religious school or college for the study of the Islamic religion, though this may not be the only subject studied.


{{Refimprove section|date=January 2010}}{{Islam|expanded=all}}The word {{transl|ar|ALA|madrasah}} derives from the triconsonantal Semitic root د-ر-س D-R-S 'to learn, study', through the wazn (form/stem) {{rtl-lang|ar|مفعل(ة)}}; {{transl|ar|ALA|mafʻal(ah)}}, meaning "a place where something is done". Therefore, {{transl|ar|ALA|madrasah}} literally means "a place where learning and studying take place". The word is also present as a loanword with the same innocuous meaning in many Arabic-influenced languages, such as: Urdu, Bengali, Pashto, Baluchi, Persian, Turkish, Azeri, Kurdish, Indonesian, Somali and Bosnian.WEB,weblink Madarasaa, WordAnywhere, 2007-06-23, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2007-09-27,
In the Arabic language, the word {{transl|ar|ALA|madrasah}} simply means the same as school does in the English language, whether that is private, public or parochial school, as well as for any primary or secondary school whether Muslim, non-Muslim, or secular.NEWS,weblink Alternate Spellings of Madrassa, ThoughtCo, 2017-05-30,
{{transl|ar|ALA|Madrasah ʻāmmah}} () translates as 'public school', {{transl|ar|ALA|madrasah khāṣṣah}} () translates as 'private school', {{transl|ar|ALA|madrasah dīnīyah}} () translates as 'religious school', {{transl|ar|ALA|madrasah Islāmīyah}} () translates as 'Islamic school', and {{transl|ar|ALA|madrasah jāmiʻah}} () translates as 'university'. Unlike the use of the word school in British English, the word {{transl|ar|ALA|madrasah}} more closely resembles the term school in American English, in that it can refer to a university-level or post-graduate school as well as to a primary or secondary school. For example, in the Ottoman Empire during the Early Modern Period, madaris had lower schools and specialised schools where the students became known as danişmends.İnalcık, Halil. 1973. "Learning, the Medrese, and the Ulema." In The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age 1300–1600. New York: Praeger, pp. 165–178.
The usual Arabic word for a university, however, is ({{transl|ar|ALA|jāmiʻah}}). The Hebrew cognate midrasha also connotes the meaning of a place of learning; the related term midrash literally refers to study or learning, but has acquired mystical and religious connotations.
However, in English, the term {{transl|ar|ALA|madrasah}} usually refers to the specifically Islamic institutions. A typical Islamic school usually offers two courses of study: a {{transl|ar|ALA|ḥifẓ}} course teaching memorization of the Qur'an (the person who commits the entire Qur'an to memory is called a {{transl|ar|ALA|ḥāfiẓ}}); and an {{transl|ar|ALA|ʻālim}} course leading the candidate to become an accepted scholar in the community. A regular curriculum includes courses in Arabic, tafsir (Qur'anic interpretation), {{transl|ar|ALA|sharīʻah}} (Islamic law), hadiths (recorded sayings and deeds of Muhammad), mantiq (logic), and Muslim history. In the Ottoman Empire, during the Early Modern Period, the study of hadiths was introduced by Süleyman I. Depending on the educational demands, some madaris also offer additional advanced courses in Arabic literature, English and other foreign languages, as well as science and world history. Ottoman madaris along with religious teachings also taught "styles of writing, grammar, syntax, poetry, composition, natural sciences, political sciences, and etiquette."People of all ages attend, and many often move on to becoming imams.WEB,weblink Islamic religious schools, Madrasas: Background, Blanchard, Christopher M., 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 2005-03-05, dead, {{Citation needed|date=June 2014}} The certificate of an ʻālim, for example, requires approximately twelve years of study.{{Citation needed|date=June 2014}} A good number of the ḥuffāẓ (plural of ḥāfiẓ) are the product of the madaris. The madaris also resemble colleges, where people take evening classes and reside in dormitories. An important function of the madaris is to admit orphans and poor children in order to provide them with education and training. Madaris may enroll female students; however, they study separately from the men.{{Citation needed|date=June 2014}}

Islamic education

The term "Islamic education" means education in the light of Islam itself, which is rooted in the teachings of the Qur'an - the holy book of the Muslims. Islamic education and Muslim education are not the same. Because Islamic education has epistemological integration which is founded on Tawhid - Oneness or monotheism.Baba, S., Salleh, M. J., Zayed, T. M., & Harris, R. (2015). A Qur’anic Methodology for Integrating Knowledge and Education: Implications for Malaysia’s Islamic Education Strategy. The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 32(2).Baba, S., & Zayed, T. M. (2015). Knowledge of Shariah and Knowledge to Manage “Self” and “System”: Integration of Islamic Epistemology with the Knowledge and Education. Journal of Islam, Law and Judiciary, 1(1), 45–62.

Early history

{{See also|Nizamiyya|List of oldest madrasahs in continuous operation}}The first institute of madrasa education was at the estate of Zaid bin Arkam near a hill called Safa, where Muhammad was the teacher and the students were some of his followers.{{Citation needed|date=June 2014}} After Hijrah (migration) the madrasa of "Suffa" was established in Madina on the east side of the Al-Masjid an-Nabawi mosque. Ubada ibn as-Samit was appointed there by Muhammad as teacher and among the students.{{Citation needed|date=June 2014}} In the curriculum of the madrasa, there were teachings of The Qur'an, The Hadith, fara'iz, tajweed, genealogy, treatises of first aid, etc. There were also trainings of horse-riding, art of war, handwriting and calligraphy, athletics and martial arts. The first part of madrasa based education is estimated from the first day of "nabuwwat" to the first portion of the Umayyad Caliphate.{{Citation needed|date=June 2014}}Established in 859, {{transl|ar|ALA|Jāmiʻat al-Qarawīyīn}} (located in {{transl|ar|ALA|al-Qarawīyīn}} Mosque) in the city of Fas, Morocco, is considered the oldest university in the world by some scholars,while other scholars have argued that this distinction belongs to the University of Al-Karaouine, also founded in 859.
  • BOOK, Esposito, John, John L. Esposito, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, 2003, Oxford University Press, 0-19-512559-2, 328,
  • Kettani, M. Ali. Engineering Education in the Arab World. Middle East Journal, 1974, 28(4):441. though the existence of universities in the medieval Muslim world is debated.{{citation needed|date=October 2016}} It was founded by {{transl|ar|ALA|Fāṭimah al-FihrÄ«}}, the daughter of a wealthy merchant named {{transl|ar|ALA|Muḥammad al-FihrÄ«}}. This was later followed by the establishment of al-Azhar in 959 in Cairo, Egypt.{{Citation needed|date=June 2014}}
During the late ʻAbbāsid period, the Seljuk vizier {{transl|ar|ALA|Niẓām al-Mulk}} created one of the first major official academic institutions known in history as the {{transl|ar|ALA|Madrasah Niẓāmīyah}}, based on the informal {{transl|ar|ALA|majālis}} (sessions of the shaykhs). {{transl|ar|ALA|Niẓām al-Mulk}}, who would later be murdered by the Assassins ({{transl|ar|ALA|Ḥashshāshīn}}), created a system of state madaris (in his time they were called the Niẓāmiyyahs, named after him) in various ʻAbbāsid cities at the end of the 11th century.{{Citation needed|date=June 2014}}File:Alauddin's Madrasa, Qutb complex.jpg|thumb|left|Alauddin Khalji's Madrasa, Qutb complex, built in the early-14th century in DelhiDelhiDuring the rule of the FatimidJonathan Berkey, The Transmission of Knowledge in Medieval Cairo (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), passim and MamlukIra Lapidus, Muslim Cities in the Later Middle Ages (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), passim dynasties and their successor states in the medieval Middle East, many of the ruling elite founded madaris through a religious endowment known as the waqf. Not only was the madrasa a potent symbol of status but it was an effective means of transmitting wealth and status to their descendants. Especially during the Mamluk period, when only former slaves could assume power, the sons of the ruling {{transl|ar|ALA|Mamlūk}} elite were unable to inherit. Guaranteed positions within the new madaris thus allowed them to maintain status. Madaris built in this period include the Mosque-{{transl|ar|ALA|Madrasah}} of Sultan {{transl|ar|ALA|Ḥasan}} in Cairo.Dimitri Gutas and the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy consider the period between the 11th and 14th centuries to be the "Golden Age" of Arabic and Islamic philosophy, initiated by al-Ghazali's successful integration of logic into the {{transl|ar|ALA|madrasah}} curriculum and the subsequent rise of Avicennism.WEB, Tony Street, Arabic and Islamic Philosophy of Language and Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, July 23, 2008,weblink 2008-12-05, At the beginning of the Caliphate or Islamic Empire, the reliance on courts initially confined sponsorship and scholarly activities to major centres.{{Citation needed|date=March 2018}} Within several centuries, the development of Muslim educational institutions such as the {{transl|ar|ALA|madrasah}} and masjid eventually introduced such activities to provincial towns and dispersed them across the Islamic legal schools and Sufi orders. In addition to religious subjects, they also taught the "rational sciences," as varied as mathematics, astronomy, astrology, geography, alchemy, philosophy, magic, and occultism, depending on the curriculum of the specific institution in question.{{citation|title=Between doubts and certainties: on the place of history of science in Islamic societies within the field of history of science|author=Sonja Brentjes|journal=NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin|publisher=Springer|issn=1420-9144|volume=11|issue=2|date=June 2003|doi=10.1007/BF02908588|pages=65–79 [69]}} The madaris, however, were not centres of advanced scientific study; scientific advances in Islam were usually carried out by scholars working under the patronage of royal courts.{{citation | last = Sabra | first = A. I. | author-link = A. I. Sabra | editor-last = Shank | editor-first = Michael H. | contribution = Situating Arabic Science: Locality versus Essence | title = The Scientific Enterprise in Antiquity and the Middle Ages | place = Chicago | publisher = University of Chicago Press | origyear = 1996 | year = 2000 | pages = 215–31 | isbn = 0-226-74951-7}}, pages 225-7 During the Islamic Golden Age, the Caliphate experienced a growth in literacy, having the highest literacy rate of the Middle Ages, comparable to classical Athens' literacy in antiquity but on a much larger scale.{{citation|title=Delivering Education|author=Andrew J. Coulson|page=117|publisher=Hoover Institution|url=|accessdate=2008-11-22}} The emergence of the maktab and madrasa institutions played a fundamental role in the relatively high literacy rates of the medieval Islamic world.{{citation|author=Edmund Burke|title=Islam at the Center: Technological Complexes and the Roots of Modernity|journal=Journal of World History|volume=20|issue=2|date=June 2009|publisher=University of Hawaii Press|doi=10.1353/jwh.0.0045|pages=165–186 [178–82]}}The following excerpt provides a brief synopsis of the historical origins and starting points for the teachings that took place in the Ottoman madaris in the Early Modern Period:'' and the other to medicine. He gave the highest ranking to these and thus established the hierarchy of the medreses which was to continue until the end of the empire.}}

Elementary education

File:Медресе Шир-Дор на площади Регистан в Самарканде.jpg|thumb|Registan, Sher-Dor Madrasa in SamarkandSamarkandIn the medieval Islamic world, an elementary school was known as a {{transl|ar|ALA|maktab}}, which dates back to at least the 10th century.{{Citation needed|date=March 2018}} Like madaris (which referred to higher education), a {{transl|ar|ALA|maktab}} was often attached to an endowed mosque. In the 11th century, the famous Persian Islamic philosopher and teacher {{transl|ar|ALA|Ibn Sīnā}} (known as Avicenna in the West), in one of his books, wrote a chapter about the {{transl|ar|ALA|maktab}} entitled "The Role of the Teacher in the Training and Upbringing of Children," as a guide to teachers working at {{transl|ar|ALA|maktab}} schools. He wrote that children can learn better if taught in classes instead of individual tuition from private tutors, and he gave a number of reasons for why this is the case, citing the value of competition and emulation among pupils, as well as the usefulness of group discussions and debates. {{transl|ar|ALA|Ibn Sīnā}} described the curriculum of a {{transl|ar|ALA|maktab}} school in some detail, describing the curricula for two stages of education in a {{transl|ar|ALA|maktab}} school.{{citation|title=The Age of Achievement: Vol 4|last=M. S. Asimov|first=Clifford Edmund Bosworth|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass|year=1999|isbn=81-208-1596-3|pages=33–4}}

Primary education

{{transl|ar|ALA|Ibn Sīnā}} wrote that children should be sent to a {{transl|ar|ALA|maktab}} school from the age of 6 and be taught primary education until they reach the age of 14. During which time, he wrote, they should be taught the Qur'an, Islamic metaphysics, Arabic, literature, Islamic ethics, and manual skills (which could refer to a variety of practical skills).

Secondary education

{{transl|ar|ALA|Ibn Sīnā}} refers to the secondary education stage of {{transl|ar|ALA|maktab}} schooling as a period of specialisation when pupils should begin to acquire manual skills, regardless of their social status. He writes that children after the age of 14 should be allowed to choose and specialise in subjects they have an interest in, whether it was reading, manual skills, literature, preaching, medicine, geometry, trade and commerce, craftsmanship, or any other subject or profession they would be interested in pursuing for a future career. He wrote that this was a transitional stage and that there needs to be flexibility regarding the age in which pupils graduate, as the student's emotional development and chosen subjects need to be taken into account.{{citation|title=The Age of Achievement: Vol 4|last=M. S. Asimov|first=Clifford Edmund Bosworth|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass|year=1999|isbn=81-208-1596-3|pages=34–5}}

Higher education

{{See also|Ijazah}}File:Ivan Bilibin 182.jpg|thumb|Courtyard of the Al-Azhar Mosque and University in CairoCairoDuring its formative period, the term {{transl|ar|ALA|madrasah}} referred to a higher education institution, whose curriculum initially included only the "religious sciences", whilst philosophy and the secular sciences were often excluded.Toby E. Huff (2003), The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West, Cambridge University Press, pp. 77–8 The curriculum slowly began to diversify, with many later madaris teaching both the religious and the "secular sciences",{{citation|title=The Age of Achievement: Vol 4|last=M. S. Asimov|first=Clifford Edmund Bosworth|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass|year=1999|isbn=81-208-1596-3|page=37}} such as logic, mathematics and philosophy. Some madaris further extended their curriculum to history, politics, ethics, music, metaphysics, medicine, astronomy and chemistry.{{citation|title=From Jami'ah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue|first=Syed Farid|last=Alatas|journal=Current Sociology|volume=54|issue=1|pages=112–132 [122]|doi=10.1177/0011392106058837|year=2006|quote=The main subjects taught were Quranic exegesis, theology, jurisprudence and the principles of jurisprudence, grammar and syntax, the Traditions of Muhammad(ḥadīth), logic and, sometimes, philosophy and mathematics. In addition to the above, other subjects such as literary studies, history, politics, ethics, music, metaphysics, medicine, astronomy and chemistry were also taught.|url=}} The curriculum of a {{transl|ar|ALA|madrasah}} was usually set by its founder, but most generally taught both the religious sciences and the physical sciences. Madaris were established throughout the Islamic world, examples being the 9th century University of al-Qarawiyyin, the 10th century al-Azhar University (the most famous), the 11th century {{transl|ar|ALA|Niẓāmīyah}}, as well as 75 madaris in Cairo, 51 in Damascus and up to 44 in Aleppo between 1155 and 1260. Many more were also established in the Andalusian cities of Córdoba, Seville, Toledo, Granada (Madrasah of Granada), Murcia, Almería, Valencia and Cádiz during the Caliphate of Córdoba.{{Citation|contribution=education|title=Encyclopædia Britannica|year=2008|contribution-url=|accessdate=2008-09-30|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.|title-link=Encyclopædia Britannica}}In the Ottoman Empire during the early modern period, "Madaris were divided into lower and specialised levels, which reveals that there was a sense of elevation in school. Students who studied in the specialised schools after completing courses in the lower levels became known as danişmends."While "{{transl|ar|ALA|madrasah}}" can now refer to any type of school, the term {{transl|ar|ALA|madrasah}} was originally used to refer more specifically to a medieval Islamic centre of learning, mainly teaching Islamic law and theology, usually affiliated with a mosque, and funded by an early charitable trust known as waqf.{{citation|title=From Jamiʻah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue|first=Syed Farid|last=Alatas|journal=Current Sociology|volume=54|issue=1|pages=112–132|doi=10.1177/0011392106058837|year=2006|url=}}

Law school

{{See also|Sharia|Fiqh}}Madaris were largely centred on the study of {{transl|ar|ALA|fiqh}} (Islamic jurisprudence). The {{transl|ar|ALA|ijāzat al-tadrīs wa-al-iftāʼ}} ("licence to teach and issue legal opinions") in the medieval Islamic legal education system had its origins in the 9th century after the formation of the {{transl|ar|ALA|madhāhib}} (schools of jurisprudence). George Makdisi considers the {{transl|ar|ALA|ijāzah}} to be the origin of the European doctorate.{{citation|last=Makdisi|first=George|title=Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West|journal=Journal of the American Oriental Society|volume=109|issue=2|date=April–June 1989|pages=175–182 [176]|doi=10.2307/604423|publisher=American Oriental Society|jstor=604423}} However, in an earlier article, he considered the {{transl|ar|ALA|ijāzah}} to be of "fundamental difference" to the medieval doctorate, since the former was awarded by an individual teacher-scholar not obliged to follow any formal criteria, whereas the latter was conferred on the student by the collective authority of the faculty.George Makdisi: "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", Studia Islamica, No. 32 (1970), pp. 255-264 (260) To obtain an {{transl|ar|ALA|ijāzah}}, a student "had to study in a guild school of law, usually four years for the basic undergraduate course" and ten or more years for a post-graduate course. The "doctorate was obtained after an oral examination to determine the originality of the candidate's theses", and to test the student's "ability to defend them against all objections, in disputations set up for the purpose." These were scholarly exercises practised throughout the student's "career as a graduate student of law." After students completed their post-graduate education, they were awarded ijazas giving them the status of {{transl|ar|ALA|faqīh}} 'scholar of jurisprudence', {{transl|ar|ALA|muftī}} 'scholar competent in issuing fatwās', and {{transl|ar|ALA|mudarris}} 'teacher'.File:Bruner-Dvorak, Rudolf - Bosna, medresa 2 (ca 1906).jpg|thumb|right|Bosnian Madrasa, c. 1906]]The Arabic term {{transl|ar|ALA|ijāzat al-tadrīs}} was awarded to Islamic scholars who were qualified to teach. According to Makdisi, the Latin title licentia docendi 'licence to teach' in the European university may have been a translation of the Arabic, but the underlying concept was very different. A significant difference between the {{transl|ar|ALA|ijāzat al-tadrīs}} and the licentia docendi was that the former was awarded by the individual scholar-teacher, while the latter was awarded by the chief official of the university, who represented the collective faculty, rather than the individual scholar-teacher.Toby Huff, Rise of Early Modern Science 2nd. ed. p. 78-79; 136, 155.Much of the study in the {{transl|ar|ALA|madrasah}} college centred on examining whether certain opinions of law were orthodox. This scholarly process of "determining orthodoxy began with a question which the Muslim layman, called in that capacity {{transl|ar|ALA|mustaftī}}, presented to a jurisconsult, called mufti, soliciting from him a response, called fatwa, a legal opinion (the religious law of Islam covers civil as well as religious matters). The mufti (professor of legal opinions) took this question, studied it, researched it intensively in the sacred scriptures, in order to find a solution to it. This process of scholarly research was called {{transl|ar|ALA|ijtihād}}, literally, the exertion of one's efforts to the utmost limit."

Medical school

{{See also|Bimaristan}}Though Islamic medicine was most often taught at the bimaristan teaching hospitals, there were also several medical madaris dedicated to the teaching of medicine. For example, of the 155 madrasa colleges in 15th century Damascus, three of them were medical schools.{{citation|last=Gibb|first=H. A. R.|contribution=The University in the Arab-Moslem World|editor-last=Bradby|editor-first=Edward|title=The University Outside Europe: Essays on the Development of University|pages=281–298 [281]|year=1970|publisher=Ayer Publishing|isbn=978-0-8369-1548-8}}Toby Huff argues that no medical degrees were granted to students, as there was no faculty that could issue them, and that, therefore, no system of examination and certification developed in the Islamic tradition like that of medieval Europe.Toby Huff, Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West, 2nd ed., Cambridge 2003, {{ISBN|0-521-52994-8}}, p. 191-193 However, the historians Andrew C. Miller, Nigel J. Shanks and Dawshe Al-Kalai point out that, during this era, physician licensure became mandatory in the Abbasid Caliphate.NEWS,weblink Andrew C, Miller, Jundi-Shapur, bimaristans, and the rise of academic medical centres, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 10.1258/jrsm.99.12.615, December 2006, 99, 12, 615–617, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-02-01, In 931 AD, Caliph Al-Muqtadir learned of the death of one of his subjects as a result of a physician's error.JOURNAL, Nigel J. Shanks, Dawshe Al-Kalai, Arabian medicine in the Middle Ages, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, January 1984, 77, 60–65, 1439563, 6366229, 1, He immediately ordered his muhtasib Sinan ibn Thabit to examine and prevent doctors from practicing until they passed an examination. From this time on, licensing exams were required and only qualified physicians were allowed to practice medicine.In the Early Modern Period in the Ottoman Empire, "Suleyman I added new curriculums ['sic'] to the Ottoman medreses of which one was medicine, which alongside studying of the {{transl|ar|ALA|ḥadīth}} was given highest rank."

Madrasa and university

Note: The word {{transl|ar|ALA|jāmiʻah}} () simply means 'university'. For more information, see Islamic university (disambiguation).
Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Seyyed Hossein Nasr have argued that, starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madaris indeed became universities.JOURNAL, Arnold H. Green, The History of Libraries in the Arab World: A Diffusionist Model, Libraries & the Cultural Record, 23, 4, 459, Arnold H. Green, BOOK, Hossein Nasr, Traditional Islam in the modern world, Taylor & Francis, 125, Hossein Nasr, However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman DanielToby Huff, Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West, 2nd ed., Cambridge 2003, {{ISBN|0-521-52994-8}}, p. 179-185JOURNAL, Review of "The Rise of Colleges. Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West by George Makdisi", Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1984, Norman, Daniel, 104, 3, 586–8, 601679, The first section, typology of institutions and the law of waqf, is crucial to the main thesis, since the college is defined in terms of the charitable trust, or endowment, as in Europe: it is admitted that the university, defined as a corporation, has no Islamic parallel., 10.2307/601679, argue that the European medieval university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world.George Makdisi: "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", Studia Islamica, No. 32 (1970), pp. 255-264 (264): Toby Huff, Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West, 2nd ed., Cambridge 2003, {{ISBN|0-521-52994-8}}, p. 133-139, 149-159, 179-189 Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda.{{Citation | last = Pryds | first = Darleen | editor-last = Courtenay | editor-first = William J. | editor2-last = Miethke | editor2-first = Jürgen | editor3-last = Priest | editor3-first = David B. | year = 2000 | title = Universities and Schooling in Medieval Society | chapter = Studia as Royal Offices: Mediterranean Universities of Medieval Europe | series = Education and Society in the Middle Ages and Renaissance | volume = 10 | publisher = Brill | location = Leiden | pages = 83–99 | isbn = 90-04-11351-7 | issn = 0926-6070}} A number of scholars regard the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.Rüegg, Walter: "Foreword. The University as a European Institution", in: A History of the University in Europe. Vol. 1: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, {{ISBN|0-521-36105-2}}, pp. XIX–XXBOOK, Nuria Sanz, Sjur Bergan, The heritage of European universities, Volume 548,weblink Council of Europe, 121, 9789287161215, 2006-01-01, de Ridder-Symoens, Hilde: A History of the University in Europe: Volume 1, Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, {{ISBN|0-521-36105-2}}, pp. 47-55{{Citation | last = Verger | first = J. | contribution = Doctor, doctoratus | title = Lexikon des Mittelalters | volume = 3 | at=cols. 1155–1156 | publisher = J.B. Metzler | place = Stuttgart | year = 1999| title-link = Lexikon des Mittelalters }}{{Citation | last = Verger | first = J. | contribution = Licentia | title = Lexikon des Mittelalters | volume = 5 | at=cols. 1957–1958 | publisher = J.B. Metzler | place = Stuttgart | year = 1999| title-link = Lexikon des Mittelalters }} According to Encyclopædia Britannica, however, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities.Encyclopædia Britannica: "University", 2012, retrieved 26 July 2012{{transl|ar|ALA|Al-Qarawīyīn}} University in Fez, Morocco is recognised by many historians as the oldest degree-granting university in the world, having been founded in 859 by Fatima al-Fihri.BOOK, Esposito, John, John L. Esposito, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, 2003, Oxford University Press, 0-19-512559-2, 328, Kettani, M. Ali. Engineering Education in the Arab World. Middle East Journal, 1974, 28(4):441.Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson, Publisher: Allen Lane 2011 - {{ISBN|978-1-84614-273-4}} While the madrasa college could also issue degrees at all levels, the jāmiʻahs (such as {{transl|ar|ALA|al-Qarawīyīn}} and al-Azhar University) differed in the sense that they were larger institutions, more universal in terms of their complete source of studies, had individual faculties for different subjects, and could house a number of mosques, madaris, and other institutions within them. Such an institution has thus been described as an "Islamic university".{{citation|author=Edmund Burke|title=Islam at the Center: Technological Complexes and the Roots of Modernity|journal=Journal of World History|volume=20|issue=2|date=June 2009|publisher=University of Hawaii Press|doi=10.1353/jwh.0.0045|pages=165–186 [180–3]}}Al-Azhar University, founded in Cairo, Egypt in 975 by the Ismaʻīlī Shīʻī Fatimid dynasty as a {{transl|ar|ALA|jāmiʻah}}, had individual faculties{{citation|title=A History of Christian-Muslim Relations|first=Hugh|last=Goddard|year=2000|publisher=Edinburgh University Press|isbn=0-7486-1009-X|page=99}} for a theological seminary, Islamic law and jurisprudence, Arabic grammar, Islamic astronomy, early Islamic philosophy and logic in Islamic philosophy.{{citation|title=From Jamiʻah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue|first=Syed Farid|last=Alatas|journal=Current Sociology|volume=54|issue=1|pages=112–132 [123]|doi=10.1177/0011392106058837|year=2006|quote=One such jamiʻ was that of al-Azhar in Cairo. This was established during the last quarter of the 10th century by the Fatimids to teach the principles of jurisprudence, grammar, philosophy, logic and astronomy. [...] It is here that we may find the origins of the modern universitas.|url=}} The postgraduate doctorate in law was only obtained after "an oral examination to determine the originality of the candidate's theses", and to test the student's "ability to defend them against all objections, in disputations set up for the purpose." ‘Abd al-Laṭīf al-Baghdādī also delivered lectures on Islamic medicine at al-Azhar, while Maimonides delivered lectures on medicine and astronomy there during the time of Saladin.{{citation|title=Muqarnas, Volume 13|first=Gulru|last=Necipogulu|publisher=Brill Publishers|year=1996|isbn=90-04-10633-2|page=56}} Another early {{transl|ar|ALA|jāmiʻah}} was the Niẓāmīyah of Baghdād (founded 1091), which has been called the "largest university of the Medieval world."WEB,weblink Metapress - Discover More, 24 June 2016, Mustansiriya University, established by the ʻAbbāsid caliph al-Mustanṣir in 1233, in addition to teaching the religious subjects, offered courses dealing with philosophy, mathematics and the natural sciences.However, the classification of madaris as "universities" is disputed on the question of understanding of each institution on its own terms. In madaris, the ijāzahs were only issued in one field, the Islamic religious law of {{transl|ar|ALA|sharīʻah}}, and in no other field of learning.{{citation|last=Makdisi|first=George|title=Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West|journal=Journal of the American Oriental Society|volume=109|issue=2|date=April–June 1989|pages=175–182 [176]|doi=10.2307/604423|publisher=American Oriental Society|jstor=604423}}: Other academic subjects, including the natural sciences, philosophy and literary studies, were only treated "ancillary" to the study of the Sharia.Pedersen, J.; Rahman, Munibur; Hillenbrand, R. "Madrasa." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2010, retrieved 20/03/2010: For example, a natural science like astronomy was only studied (if at all) to supply religious needs, like the time for prayer.{{Citation| last=Lessnoff| first=Michael| editor-last=Malešević| editor-first=Siniša| editor2-last=Haugaard| editor2-first=Mark| chapter=Islam, Modernity and Science |title=Ernest Gellner and contemporary social thought|year=2007 |publisher=Cambridge University Press|location=Cambridge |isbn= 978-0-521-70941-5 |page=196}} This is why Ptolemaic astronomy was considered adequate, and is still taught in some modern day madaris. The Islamic law undergraduate degree from al-Azhar, the most prestigious madrasa, was traditionally granted without final examinations, but on the basis of the students' attentive attendance to courses.Jomier, J. "al- Azhar (al-Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-Azhar)." Encyclopædia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2010 In contrast to the medieval doctorate which was granted by the collective authority of the faculty, the Islamic degree was not granted by the teacher to the pupil based on any formal criteria, but remained a "personal matter, the sole prerogative of the person bestowing it; no one could force him to give one".George Makdisi: "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", Studia Islamica, No. 32 (1970), pp. 255-264 (260): '', or authorization. In Europe, the license to teach was a license to teach a certain field of knowledge. It was conferred by the licensed masters acting as a corporation, with the consent of a Church authority, in Paris, by the Chancellor of the Cathedral Chapter... Certification in the Muslim East remained a personal matter between the master and the student. The master conferred it on an individual for a particular work, or works. Qualification, in the strict sense of the word, was supposed to be a criterion, but it was at the full discretion of the master, since, if he chose, he could give an ijaza to children hardly able to read, or even to unborn children. This was surely an abuse of the system... but no official system was involved. The ijaza was a personal matter, the sole prerogative of the person bestowing it; no one could force him to give one.}}Medievalist specialists who define the university as a legally autonomous corporation disagree with the term "university" for the Islamic madaris and jāmi‘ahs because the medieval university (from Latin universitas) was structurally different, being a legally autonomous corporation rather than a waqf institution like the madrasa and {{transl|ar|ALA|jāmiʻah}}.Toby Huff, Rise of early modern science 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 2003) p. 149. Despite the many similarities, medieval specialists have coined the term "Islamic college" for madrasa and {{transl|ar|ALA|jāmiʻah}} to differentiate them from the legally autonomous corporations that the medieval European universities were. In a sense, the madrasa resembles a university college in that it has most of the features of a university, but lacks the corporate element. Toby Huff summarises the difference as follows: As Muslim institutions of higher learning, the madrasa had the legal designation of waqf. In central and eastern Islamic lands, the view that the madrasa, as a charitable endowment, will remain under the control of the donor (and their descendant), resulted in a "spurt" of establishment of madaris in the 11th and 12th centuries. However, in Western Islamic lands, where the Maliki views prohibited donors from controlling their endowment, madaris were not as popular. Unlike the corporate designation of Western institutions of higher learning, the waqf designation seemed to have led to the exclusion of non-orthodox religious subjects such a philosophy and natural science from the curricula.C. E. Bosworth: Untitled review of "The Rise of Colleges. Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West by George Makdisi", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 2 (1983), pp. 304-305The madrasa of {{transl|ar|ALA|al-Qarawīyīn}}, one of the two surviving madaris that predate the founding of the earliest medieval universities and are thus claimed to be the "first universities" by some authors, has acquired official university status as late as 1947.Kevin Shillington: "Encyclopedia of African history", Vol. 1, New York: Taylor & Francis Group, 2005, {{ISBN|1-57958-245-1}}, p. 1025 The other, al-Azhar, did acquire this status in name and essence only in the course of numerous reforms during the 19th and 20th century, notably the one of 1961 which introduced non-religious subjects to its curriculum, such as economics, engineering, medicine, and agriculture.Skovgaard-Petersen, Jakob. "al-Azhar, modern period. 1. From madrasa to university" Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Edited by: Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas and Everett Rowson. Brill, 2010, retrieved 20/03/2010 It should also be noted that many medieval universities were run for centuries as Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools prior to their formal establishment as universitas scholarium; evidence of these immediate forerunners of the university dates back to the 6th century AD,Riché, Pierre (1978): "Education and Culture in the Barbarian West: From the Sixth through the Eighth Century", Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, {{ISBN|0-87249-376-8}}, pp. 126-7, 282-98 thus well preceding the earliest madaris. George Makdisi, who has published most extensively on the topicExtensive bibliography in: Pedersen, J.; Rahman, Munibur; Hillenbrand, R. "Madrasa." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2010, retrieved 20/03/2010 concludes in his comparison between the two institutions: Nevertheless, Makdisi has asserted that the European university borrowed many of its features from the Islamic madrasa, including the concepts of a degree and doctorate. Makdisi and Hugh Goddard have also highlighted other terms and concepts now used in modern universities which most likely have Islamic origins, including "the fact that we still talk of professors holding the 'chairman' of their subject" being based on the "traditional Islamic pattern of teaching where the professor sits on a chair and the students sit around him", the term 'academic circles' being derived from the way in which Islamic students "sat in a circle around their professor", and terms such as "having 'fellows', 'reading' a subject, and obtaining 'degrees', can all be traced back" to the Islamic concepts of {{transl|ar|ALA|aṣḥāb}} ('companions, as of Muhammad'), {{transl|ar|ALA|qirāʼah}} ('reading aloud the Qur'an') and {{transl|ar|ALA|ijāzah}} ('licence [to teach]') respectively. Makdisi has listed eighteen such parallels in terminology which can be traced back to their roots in Islamic education. Some of the practices now common in modern universities which Makdisi and Goddard trace back to an Islamic root include "practices such as delivering inaugural lectures, wearing academic robes, obtaining doctorates by defending a thesis, and even the idea of academic freedom are also modelled on Islamic custom."{{citation|title=A History of Christian-Muslim Relations|first=Hugh|last=Goddard|year=2000|publisher=Edinburgh University Press|isbn=0-7486-1009-X|page=100|oclc=237514956}} The Islamic scholarly system of {{transl|ar|ALA|fatwá}} and {{transl|ar|ALA|ijmāʻ}}, meaning opinion and consensus respectively, formed the basis of the "scholarly system the West has practised in university scholarship from the Middle Ages down to the present day."{{citation|last=Makdisi|first=George|title=Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West|journal=Journal of the American Oriental Society|volume=109|issue=2|date=April–June 1989|pages=175–182 [175–77]|doi=10.2307/604423|publisher=American Oriental Society|jstor=604423}} According to Makdisi and Goddard, "the idea of academic freedom" in universities was also "modelled on Islamic custom" as practised in the medieval Madrasa system from the 9th century. Islamic influence was "certainly discernible in the foundation of the first deliberately planned university" in Europe, the University of Naples Federico II founded by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor in 1224.However, all of these facets of medieval university life are considered by standard scholarship to be independent medieval European developments with no tracable Islamic influence.Cf. Lexikon des Mittelalters, J.B. Metzler, Stuttgart 1999, individual entries on: Baccalarius; Collegium; Disputatio; Grade, universitäre; Magister universitatis, Professor; Rector; Studia humanitatis; Universität Generally, some reviewers have pointed out the strong inclination of Makdisi of overstating his case by simply resting on "the accumulation of close parallels", but all the while failing to point to convincing channels of transmission between the Muslim and Christian world.Norman Daniel: Review of "The Rise of Colleges. Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West by George Makdisi", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 104, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1984), pp. 586-588 (586f.) Norman Daniel points out that the Arab equivalent of the Latin disputation, the taliqa, was reserved for the ruler's court, not the madrasa, and that the actual differences between Islamic fiqh and medieval European civil law were profound. The taliqa only reached Islamic Spain, the only likely point of transmission, after the establishment of the first medieval universities. In fact, there is no Latin translation of the taliqa and, most importantly, no evidence of Latin scholars ever showing awareness of Arab influence on the Latin method of disputation, something they would have certainly found noteworthy. Rather, it was the medieval reception of the Greek Organon which set the scholastic sic et non in motion. Daniel concludes that resemblances in method had more to with the two religions having "common problems: to reconcile the conflicting statements of their own authorities, and to safeguard the data of revelation from the impact of Greek philosophy"; thus Christian scholasticism and similar Arab concepts should be viewed in terms of a parallel occurrence, not of the transmission of ideas from one to the other,Norman Daniel: Review of "The Rise of Colleges. Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West by George Makdisi", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 104, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1984), pp. 586-588 (587) a view shared by Hugh Kennedy.Hugh Kennedy: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, Vol. 2, No. 2 (1992), pp. 272-273 (272): Toby Huff, in a discussion of Makdisi's hypothesis, argues:, p. 155}}George Saliba criticized Huff's views regarding the legal autonomy of European universities and limited curriculum of Madrasahs, demonstrating that there were many Madrasahs dedicated to the teaching of non-religious subjects and arguing that Madrasahs generally had greater legal autonomy than medieval European universities. According to Saliba, Madrasahs "were fully protected from interference in their curriculum by the very endowments that established them in the first place." Examples include the Dakhwariyya madrasah in Damascus, which was dedicated to medicine, a subject also taught at Islamic hospitals; the Madrasah established by Kamal al-Din Ibn Man`a (d. 1242) in Mosul which taught astronomy, music, and the Old the New Testaments; Ulugh Beg’s Madrasah in Samarqand which taught astronomy; and Shi`i madrasahs in Iran which taught astronomy along with religious studies. According to Saliba:{{citation|author=George Saliba|title=Flying Goats And Other Obsessions: A Response to Toby Huff's Reply|journal=Bulletin of the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies|volume=4|issue=2|year=2002|url=|accessdate=2010-04-02|author-link=George Saliba}}

Female education

{{See also|Women in Islam|Women's literary salons and societies in the Arab World|List of female Muslim scholars}}Prior to the 12th century, women accounted for less than one percent of the world’s Islamic scholars. However, al-Sakhawi and Mohammad Akram Nadwi have since found evidence of over 8,000 female scholars since the 15th century.BOOK, Nadwi, Mohammad Akram, al-Muhaddithat, 2013, Oxford: Interface Publications, al-Sakhawi devotes an entire volume of his 12-volume biographical dictionary {{transl|ar|ALA|al-Ḍawʾ al-lāmiʻ}} to female scholars, giving information on 1,075 of them.{{citation|title=Women in Iran from the Rise of Islam to 1800|last=Guity Nashat|first=Lois Beck|publisher=University of Illinois Press|year=2003|isbn=0-252-07121-2|page=69}} More recently, the scholar Mohammad Akram Nadwi, currently a researcher from the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, has written 40 volumes on the {{transl|ar|ALA|muḥaddithāt}} (the women scholars of hadith), and found at least 8,000 of them.WEB,weblink A Secret History, 25 February 2007, The New York Times, From around 750, during the Abbasid Caliphate, women "became renowned for their brains as well as their beauty".Doreen Insgrams (1983), The Awakened: Women in Iraq, p. 22, Third World Centre for Research and Publishing Ltd., Lebanon In particular, many well known women of the time were trained from childhood in music, dancing and poetry. Mahbuba was one of these. Another feminine figure to be remembered for her achievements was Tawaddud, "a slave girl who was said to have been bought at great cost by {{transl|ar|ALA|Hārūn al-Rashīd}} because she had passed her examinations by the most eminent scholars in astronomy, medicine, law, philosophy, music, history, Arabic grammar, literature, theology and chess".Doreen Insgrams (1983), The Awakened: Women in Iraq, p. 23, Third World Centre for Research and Publishing Ltd., Lebanon Moreover, among the most prominent feminine figures was Shuhda who was known as "the Scholar" or "the Pride of Women" during the 12th century in Baghdad. Despite the recognition of women's aptitudes during the Abbasid dynasty, all these came to an end in Iraq with the sack of Baghdad in 1258.Anthony Nutting, The Arabs. (Hollis and Carter, 1964), p. 196Women played an important role in the foundations of many Islamic educational institutions, such as Fatima al-Fihri's founding of the University of Al Karaouine in 859. This continued through to the Ayyubid dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries, when 160 mosques and madaris were established in Damascus, 26 of which were funded by women through the Waqf (charitable trust) system. Half of all the royal patrons for these institutions were also women.{{citation|title=Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World|first=James E.|last=Lindsay|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|year=2005|isbn=0-313-32270-8|page=197|url=}}According to the Sunni scholar {{transl|ar|ALA|Ibn ʻAsākir}} in the 12th century, there were opportunities for female education in the medieval Islamic world, writing that women could study, earn ijazahs (academic degrees), and qualify as scholars and teachers. This was especially the case for learned and scholarly families, who wanted to ensure the highest possible education for both their sons and daughters.{{citation|title=Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World|first=James E.|last=Lindsay|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|year=2005|isbn=0-313-32270-8|pages=196 & 198|url=}} Ibn ʻAsakir had himself studied under 80 different female teachers in his time. Female education in the Islamic world was inspired by Muhammad's wives, such as Khadijah, a successful businesswoman, and 'A'isha, a strong leader and interpreter of the Prophet's actions. According to a hadith attributed both to Muhammad and 'A'isha, the women of Medina were praiseworthy because of their desire for religious knowledge:{{citation|title=Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World|first=James E.|last=Lindsay|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|year=2005|isbn=0-313-32270-8|page=196|url=}}BOOK, ibn al-Hajjaj, Muslim, Sahih Muslim,weblink 11 November 2017, While it was not common for women to enroll as students in formal classes, it was common for women to attend informal lectures and study sessions at mosques, madaris and other public places. While there were no legal restrictions on female education, some men did not approve of this practice, such as Muhammad ibn al-Hajj (d. 1336) who was appalled at the behaviour of some women who informally audited lectures in his time:{{citation|title=Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World|first=James E.|last=Lindsay|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|year=2005|isbn=0-313-32270-8|page=198|url=}}The term {{transl|ar|ALA|ʻawrah}} is often translated as 'that which is indecent', which usually meant the exposure of anything other than a woman's face and hands, although scholarly interpretations of the {{transl|ar|ALA|ʻawrah}} and {{transl|ar|ALA|ḥijāb}} have always tended to vary, with some more or less strict than others.

Madaris by region

{{Expand section|date=December 2009}}File:Forty hadith nawawi taught by Sheikh Usama al Azhari in Sultan Hassan Mosque.JPG|thumb|Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan HassanMosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan

Madaris in the Ottoman Empire

"The first Ottoman Medrese was created in İznik in 1331 and most Ottoman medreses followed the traditions of Sunni Islam." "When an Ottoman sultan established a new medrese, he would invite scholars from the Islamic world—for example, Murad II brought scholars from Persia, such as ʻAlāʼ al-Dīn and Fakhr al-Dīn who helped enhance the reputation of the Ottoman medrese". This reveals that the Islamic world was interconnected in the early modern period as they travelled around to other Islamic states exchanging knowledge. This sense that the Ottoman Empire was becoming modernised through globalization is also recognised by Hamadeh who says: "Change in the eighteenth century as the beginning of a long and unilinear march toward westernisation reflects the two centuries of reformation in sovereign identity."JOURNAL, Hamadeh, Shirine, 2004, Ottoman Expressions of Early Modernity and the 'Inevitable' Question of Westernization, The Journal of Architectural Historians, 63, 1, 32–51, 10.2307/4127991, 4127991, İnalcık also mentions that while scholars from for example Persia travelled to the Ottomans in order to share their knowledge, Ottomans travelled as well to receive education from scholars of these Islamic lands, such as Egypt, Persia and Turkestan. Hence, this reveals that similar to today's modern world, individuals from the early modern society travelled abroad to receive education and share knowledge and that the world was more interconnected than it seems. Also, it reveals how the system of "schooling" was also similar to today's modern world where students travel abroad to different countries for studies. Examples of Ottoman madaris are the ones built by Mehmed the Conqueror. He built eight madaris that were built "on either side of the mosque where there were eight higher madaris for specialised studies and eight lower medreses, which prepared students for these." The fact that they were built around, or near mosques reveals the religious impulses behind madrasa building and it reveals the interconnectedness between institutions of learning and religion. The students who completed their education in the lower medreses became known as danismends. This reveals that similar to the education system today, the Ottomans' educational system involved different kinds of schools attached to different kinds of levels. For example, there were lower madaris and specialised ones, and for one to get into the specialised area meant that he had to complete the classes in the lower one in order to adequately prepare himself for higher learning.File:Yakutiye Madrasah in 1840.jpg|thumb|Yakutiye Medrese in ErzurumErzurumThis is the rank of madaris in the Ottoman Empire from the highest ranking to the lowest: (From İnalcık, 167).
  1. Semniye
  2. Darulhadis
  3. Madaris built by earlier sultans in Bursa.
  4. Madaris endowed by great men of state.
Although Ottoman madaris had a number of different branches of study, such as calligraphic sciences, oral sciences, and intellectual sciences, they primarily served the function of an Islamic centre for spiritual learning. "The goal of all knowledge and in particular, of the spiritual sciences is knowledge of God." Religion, for the most part, determines the significance and importance of each science. As İnalcık mentions: "Those which aid religion are good and sciences like astrology are bad."However, even though mathematics, or studies in logic were part of the madrasa's curriculum, they were all centred around religion. Even mathematics had a religious impulse behind its teachings. "The Ulema of the Ottoman medreses held the view that hostility to logic and mathematics was futile since these accustomed the mind to correct thinking and thus helped to reveal divine truths" – key word being "divine". İnalcık also mentions that even philosophy was only allowed to be studied so that it helped to confirm the doctrines of Islam." Hence, madaris – schools were basically religious centres for religious teachings and learning in the Ottoman world. Although scholars such as Goffman have argued that the Ottomans were highly tolerant and lived in a pluralistic society, it seems that schools that were the main centres for learning were in fact heftily religious and were not religiously pluralistic, but centred around Islam. Similarly, in Europe "Jewish children learned the Hebrew letters and texts of basic prayers at home, and then attended a school organised by the synagogue to study the Torah."Wiesner-Hanks, E. Merry. Early Modern Europe 1450–1789. New York: U of Cambridge P, 2006. Wiesner-Hanks also says that Protestants also wanted to teach "proper religious values." This shows that in the early modern period, Ottomans and Europeans were similar in their ideas about how schools should be managed and what they should be primarily focused on. Thus, Ottoman madaris were very similar to present day schools in the sense that they offered a wide range of studies; however, these studies, in their ultimate objective, aimed to further solidify and consolidate Islamic practices and theories.


As is previously mentioned, religion dominated much of the knowledge and teachings that were endowed upon students. "Religious learning as the only true science, whose sole aim was the understanding of God's word." Thus, it is important to keep this impulse in mind when going over the curriculum that was taught.The following is taken from İnalcık.
  • A) Calligraphic sciences—such as styles of writing.
  • B) Oral sciences—such as Arabic language, grammar and syntax.
  • C) Intellectual sciences—logic in Islamic philosophy.
  • D) Spiritual sciences—theoretical, such as Islamic theology and mathematics; and practical, such as Islamic ethics and politics.

Social life and the medrese

As with any other country during the Early Modern Period, such as Italy and Spain in Europe, the Ottoman social life was interconnected with the medrese. Medreses were built in as part of a Mosque complex where many programmes, such as aid to the poor through soup kitchens, were held under the infrastructure of a mosque, which reveals the interconnectedness of religion and social life during this period. "The mosques to which medreses were attached, dominated the social life in Ottoman cities."Goffman, Daniel. The Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe. United Kingdom: U of Cambridge P, 2002. Social life was not dominated by religion only in the Muslim world of the Ottoman Empire; it was also quite similar to the social life of Europe during this period. As Goffman says: "Just as mosques dominated social life for the Ottomans, churches and synagogues dominated life for the Christians and Jews as well." Hence, social life and the medrese were closely linked, since medreses taught many curricula, such as religion, which highly governed social life in terms of establishing orthodoxy. "They tried moving their developing state toward Islamic orthodoxy." Overall, the fact that mosques contained medreses comes to show the relevance of education to religion in the sense that education took place within the framework of religion and religion established social life by trying to create a common religious orthodoxy. Hence, medreses were simply part of the social life of society as students came to learn the fundamentals of their societal values and beliefs.

Madaris in South Asia

{{Refimprove section|date=January 2010}}


There are three different madrasa education systems in Bangladesh: the original darse nizami system, the redesigned nizami system, and the higher syllabus alia nisab. The first two categories are commonly called Qawmi or non-government madaris.BOOK, Siddiqi, ABM Saiful Islam, 2012, Madrasah,weblink Islam, Sirajul, Sirajul Islam, Jamal, Ahmed A., Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Second, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Amongst them the most notable are Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Moinul Islam in Hathazari, Al-Jamiah Al-Islamiah Patiya, in Patiya, and Jamia Tawakkulia Renga Madrasah in Sylhet.In 2006 there were 15,000 registered Qawmi madaris with the Befaqul Mudarressin of Bangladesh Qawmi Madrasah Education Board,NEWS, Qawmi madrasas under watch,weblink The Daily Star, 2009-03-31,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-10-23, though the figure could be well over double that number if unregistered madaris were counted.Ahmed, Samina. Testimony of Samina Ahmed to U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee {{webarchive|url= |date=2011-03-03 }}. 19 Apr 2005.


File:Quvvathul Islam Madrassa. , Taliparamba, Kerala, India. (4488376429).jpg|thumbnail|Quvvathul Islam Senior Madrassa, TaliparambaTaliparamba
missing image!
- Madrasah1.jpg -
This is a madarasa of the Jamia Masjid mosque in Srirangapatna, India. This mosque dates back to the 1700s and is where Tipu Sultan used to pray.
In India the majority of these schools follow the Hanafi school of thought. The religious establishment forms part of the mainly two large divisions within the country, namely the Deobandis, who dominate in numbers (of whom the Darul Uloom Deoband constitutes one of the biggest madaris) and the Barelvis, who also make up a sizeable portion (Sufi-oriented). Some notable establishments include: Aljamea-tus-Saifiyah (Isma'ilism), Al Jamiatul Ashrafia, Mubarakpur, Manzar Islam Bareilly, Jamia Nizamdina New Delhi, Jamia Nayeemia Muradabad which is one of the largest learning centres for the Barelvis. The HR{{Clarify|date=May 2010}} ministry of the government of India has recently{{When|date=June 2011}} declared that a Central Madrasa Board would be set up. This will enhance the education system of madaris in India. Though the madaris impart Quranic education mainly, efforts are on to include Mathematics, Computers and science in the curriculum.In July 2015, the state government of Maharashtra created a stir de-recognised madrasa education, receiving critisicm from several political parties with the NCP accusing the ruling BJP of creating Hindu-Muslim friction in the state, and Kamal Farooqui of the All India Muslim Personal Law Board saying it was "ill-designed"WEB,weblink Indian state de-recognises madrasa education, WEB,weblink In Maharashtra, students obtaining full-time religious education to be considered uneducated, Alok Deshpande, Omar, Rashid,
After the establishment of the British Raj and the emergence of Darul Ulum Manazar-e Islam Bareilly Sharif, Indian Muslim Scholars left India to establish madaris in other regions of the world. Some of the most notable of these madaris are Darul Ulum Holocombe, which produced scholars such as Shaikh Ibrahim Memon Madani, or Darul Uloom Al-Madania. These offshoot schools symbolise an emotional drive based upon both religion and patriotism that is not evident elsewhere.{{Citation needed|date=June 2011}}
Madaris and Arabic Colleges in Kerala
The Arabic and Islamic educational system has also become a channel for employment in the Middle East in modern times in Kerala.Yoginder Sikand. Bastions of Believers: Madrasas and Islamic Education in India. (Delhi: Penguin Books), 2005, pp. 122-125 Originating in 8th century madaris for primary children, Arabic and Islamic schooling in Kerala was patronised and funded by the British colonial government.Today, the system of Arabic and Islamic education has grown and further integrated with Kerala government administration. In 2005, an estimated 6,000 Muslim Arabic teachers taught in Kerala government schools, with over 500,000 Muslim students. State-appointed committees, not private mosques or religious scholars outside the government, determine the curriculum and accreditation of new schools and colleges. Primary education in Arabic and Islamic studies is available to Kerala Muslims almost entirely in after-school madrasa programs - sharply unlike the full-time madaris common in north India, which may replace formal schooling. Arabic colleges (over eleven of which exist within the state-run University of Calicut and the Kannur University) provide B.A. and Masters' level degrees. At all levels, instruction is co-educational, with many women instructors and professors.Yoginder Sikand. Bastions of Believers: Madrasas and Islamic Education in India. (Delhi: Penguin Books), 2005, p. 126-128 Islamic education boards are independently run by the following organizations, accredited by the Kerala state government: Samastha Kerala Islamic Education Board, Kerala Nadvathul Mujahideen, Jamaat-e-Islami Hind, and Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind.Yoginder Sikand. Bastions of Believers: Madrasas and Islamic Education in India. (Delhi: Penguin Books), 2005, p. 129With Malayalam rather than Urdu as the lingua franca of Kerala Muslims, these madaris and colleges are relatively unknown and unlinked from Urdu-based madaris in the rest of India, due to the linguistic barrier.


(File:Mosque_And_Education_Center_Run_By_Dawat-e-Islami.jpg|thumb|Madrasa e Faizan e Madina in Karachi, Pakistan.)The madaris rose as colleges of learning in the Islamic world in the 11th century, though there were institutions of learning earlier. They catered not only to the religious establishment, though that was the dominant influence over them, but also the secular one. To the latter they supplied physicians, administrative officials, judges and teachers. Today many Registered madaris are working effectively and coping up with modern education system such as Jamia-tul-Madina which is a chain of Islamic schools in Pakistan and in European and other countries established by Dawat-e-Islami. The Jamia-tul-Madina are also known as Faizan-e-Madina. Dawat-e-Islami has grown its network of Madaris from Pakistan to Europe.

Madaris in Southeast Asia

In Southeast Asia, Muslim students have a choice of attending a secular government or an Islamic school. Madaris or Islamic schools are known as Sekolah Agama () in Malaysia and Indonesia, โรงเรียนศาสนาอิสลาม () in Thailand and madaris in the Philippines. In countries where Islam is not the majority or state religion, Islamic schools are found in regions such as southern Thailand (near the Thai-Malaysian border) and the southern Philippines in Mindanao, where a significant Muslim population can be found.



File:Madrasah Aljunied Al-Islamiah Students In A Lecture.jpg|thumb|Students of Madrasah Aljunied Al-Islamiah in SingaporeSingaporeIn Singapore, madrasahs are private schools which are overseen by Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura (MUIS, Islamic Religious Council of Singapore). There are six Madrasahs in Singapore, catering to students from Primary 1 to Secondary 4 (and junior college equivalent, or "Pre-U", at several schools).NEWS, Contrasting views of madrasahs in multi-ethnic Singapore,weblink AsiaOne, 19 February 2009, Four Madrasahs are coeducational and two are for girls.WEB, Background of Madrasahs,weblink Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura,, 1994, Students take a range of Islamic Studies subjects in addition to mainstream MOE curriculum subjects and sit for the PSLE and GCE 'O' Levels like their peers. In 2009, MUIS introduced the "Joint Madrasah System" (JMS), a joint collaboration of Madrasah Al-Irsyad Al-Islamiah primary school and secondary schools Madrasah Aljunied Al-Islamiah (offering the ukhrawi, or religious stream) and Madrasah Al-Arabiah Al-Islamiah (offering the academic stream).WEB, About JMS,weblink Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura,, The JMS aims to introduce the International Baccalaureate (IB) programme into the Madrasah Al-Arabiah Al-Islamiah by 2019.WEB, JMS Timeline,weblink Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura,, Students attending a madrasah are required to wear the traditional Malay attire, including the songkok for boys and tudong for girls, in contrast to mainstream government schools which ban religious headgear as Singapore is officially a secular state. Students who wish to attend a mainstream school may opt to take classes on weekends at the madrasah instead of enrolling full-time.


In 2004, madaris were mainstreamed in 16 Regions nationwide, primarily in Muslim-majority areas in Mindanao under the auspices of the Department of Education (DepEd). The DepEd adopted Department Order No. 51, which instituted Arabic-language and Islamic Values instruction for Muslim children in state schools, and authorised implementation of the Standard Madrasa Curriculum (SMC) in private-run madaris. While there are state-recognised Islamic schools, such as Ibn Siena Integrated School in the Islamic City of Marawi, Sarang Bangun LC in Zamboanga and SMIE in Jolo, their Islamic studies programmes initially varied in application and content.Since 2005, the AusAID-funded DepEd project Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) has assisted a group of private madaris seeking a Permit To Operate from the government and implement the SMC. These private madaris are scattered throughout Regions XI, XII and the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.

Madaris in Western countries

File:Jerusalem MadrasaAlAshrafiya 8746a.jpg|thumb|Madrasa al-Ashrafiyya in JerusalemJerusalemFile:Yangzhou - Muslim kindergarten - P1130207.JPG|thumb|A Muslim kindergarten in YangzhouYangzhou

South Africa

In South Africa, the madaris also play a social and cultural role in giving after-school religious instruction to children of Muslims who attend government or private non-religious schools. However, increasing numbers of more affluent Muslims' children attend fully-fledged private Islamic schools, which combine secular and religious education. Among Muslims of Indian origin, madaris also used to provide instruction in Urdu, although this is far less common today than it used to be.


The first Madressa established in North America, Al-Rashid Islamic Institute, was established in Cornwall, Ontario in 1983 and has graduates who are Hafiz (Quran) and Ulama. The seminary was established by Mazhar Alam under the direction of his teacher the leading Indian Tablighi scholar Muhammad Zakariya Kandhlawi and focuses on the Hanafi school of thought . Due to its proximity to the US border city of Messina the school has historically had a high ratio of US students. Their most prominent graduate Shaykh Muhammad Alshareef completed his Hifz in the early 1990s then went on to form the AlMaghrib Institute.

United States

On May 26, 2012, Congressman André Carson of Indiana called for additional Madaris in the United States.NEWS,weblink Muslim Congressman: American Schools Should Be Modeled After Madrassas, 'Where The Foundation Is The Koran', Fox News Channel, July 5, 2012, There is a madrassa in Queens, NY called Shia Ithna-Asheri Jamaat of New York.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2012-11-08, dead,weblink 2013-03-01, Presently, the Darul Uloom in New York City, an affiliate of Darul Uloom Haqqania in Pakistan, also serves as a madrassa.

Common misconceptions

Western commentators post-9/11 often perceive madaris as places that continuously proselytize Wahhabism. In Arabic the word madrasa simply means "school" and does not imply a political or religious affiliation, Wahhabi or otherwise. Madaris oft have varied curricula, Some madaris in India, for example, have a secularised identity.NEWS,weblink BBC News, What role for madrassas that teach Hindus?, 2006-03-31, 2010-05-12, Sunita, Nahar,
Although early madaris were founded primarily to gain "knowledge of God" they also taught subjects such as mathematics and poetry. For example, in the Ottoman Empire, "Madrasahs had seven categories of sciences that were taught, such as: styles of writing, oral sciences like the Arabic language, grammar, rhetoric, and history and intellectual sciences, such as logic." This is similar to the Western world, in which universities began as institutions of the Catholic church.
The Yale Center for the Study of Globalization examined bias in United States newspaper coverage of Pakistan since the September 11, 2001 attacks, and found the term has come to contain a loaded political meaning:WEB
, Susan
, Moeller
, Jumping on the US Bandwagon for a "War on Terror"
, 2007-06-21
, YaleGlobal Online
, Yale Center for the Study of Globalization
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 2009-05-05
, When articles mentioned "madrassas," readers were led to infer that all schools so-named are anti-American, anti-Western, pro-terrorist centres having less to do with teaching basic literacy and more to do with political indoctrination.Various American public figures have, in recent times, used the word in a negative context, including Newt Gingrich,Donald Rumsfeld,NEWS, Donald, Rumsfeld, Rumsfeld's war-on-terror memo,weblink USA Today, Transcript, 2003-10-16, 2008-01-14, and Colin Powell.NEWS, Madrassas breeding grounds of terrorists: Powell,weblink
The Tribune (Chandigarh)>The Tribune, 2004-03-11, 2008-01-14, The New York Times published in January 2007 a correction for misusing the word "madrassa" in a way that assumed it meant a radical Islamic school. The correction stated:An article [...] about a pointed exchange [...] over a Web site report that said Senator Barack Obama had attended an Islamic school or madrassa in Indonesia as a child referred imprecisely to madrassas. While some [madrassas] teach a radical version of Islam, most historically have not.NEWS, Bill Carterorigyear=revised version,weblink Rivals CNN and Fox News Spar Over Obama Report, The New York Times, 2014-09-13,

See also






  • Esplanada, Jerry E. (2009-07-20). "Mainstreaming Madrasa. The Philippine Daily Inquirer." Retrieved 2010-11-25.

Further reading

External links

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