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locust
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{{Use dmy dates|date=November 2018}}{{Use British English|date=November 2018}}{{about|the insect}}{{Good article}}File:Locusta-migratoria-wanderheuschrecke.jpg|thumb|Locusts are grasshoppers, such as this migratory locustmigratory locustFile:Garden locust (Acanthacris ruficornis).jpg|thumb|Garden locust, Acanthacris ruficornis, in GhanaGhanaFile:CSIRO ScienceImage 7007 Plague locusts on the move.jpg|thumb|Millions of swarming Australian plague locustAustralian plague locustLocusts are a collection of certain species of short-horned grasshoppers in the family Acrididae that have a swarming phase. These insects are usually solitary, but under certain circumstances they become more abundant and change their behaviour and habits, becoming gregarious. No taxonomic distinction is made between locust and grasshopper species; the basis for the definition is whether a species forms swarms under intermittently suitable conditions. These grasshoppers are innocuous, their numbers are low, and they do not pose a major economic threat to agriculture. However, under suitable conditions of drought followed by rapid vegetation growth, serotonin in their brains triggers a dramatic set of changes: they start to breed abundantly, becoming (wikt:gregarious|gregarious) and nomadic (loosely described as migratory) when their populations become dense enough. They form bands of wingless nymphs which later become swarms of winged adults. Both the bands and the swarms move around and rapidly strip fields and cause damage to crops. The adults are powerful fliers; they can travel great distances, consuming most of the green vegetation wherever the swarm settles.JOURNAL, Antsey, Michael, Rogers, Stephen, Swidbert, R.O., Burrows, Malcolm, Simpson, S.J., Serotonin mediates behavioral gregarization underlying swarm formation in desert locusts, Science, 30 January 2009, 323, 5914, 627–630, 10.1126/science.1165939, 19179529, 2009Sci...323..627A, Locusts have formed plagues since prehistory. The ancient Egyptians carved them on their tombs and the insects are mentioned in the Iliad, the Bible and the Quran. Swarms have devastated crops and been a contributory cause of famines and human migrations. More recently, changes in agricultural practices and better surveillance of locations where swarms tend to originate, have meant that control measures can be used at an early stage. The traditional means of control are based on the use of insecticides from the ground or the air, but other methods using biological control are proving effective.Swarming behaviour decreased in the 20th century, but despite modern surveillance and control methods, the potential for swarms to form is still present, and when suitable climatic conditions occur and vigilance lapses, plagues can still occur. Locusts are large insects and convenient for use in research and the study of zoology in the classroom. They are also edible insects; they have been eaten throughout history and are considered a delicacy in many countries. The word "locust" is derived from the Vulgar Latin locusta, meaning grasshopper.{{OEtymD|locust}}

Swarming grasshoppers

File:SGR laying.jpg|thumb|A desert locustdesert locustLocusts are the swarming phase of certain species of short-horned grasshoppers in the family Acrididae. These insects are usually solitary, but under certain circumstances become more abundant and change their behaviour and habits, becoming gregarious.Simpson, Stephen J.; Sword, Gregory A. (2008). "Locusts". Current Biology 18:r364-366. {{doi|10.1016/j.cub.2008.02.029}}{{Open access}}WEB,weblink Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about locusts, Locust watch, FAO, 1 April 2015, WEB,weblink Grasshoppers, Animal Corner, 1 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150408004426weblink">weblink 8 April 2015, (File:Copulating desert locust pair.jpg|thumb|left|Desert locusts in copulation)No taxonomic distinction is made between locust and grasshopper species; the basis for the definition is whether a species forms swarms under intermittently suitable conditions. In English, the term "locust" is used for grasshopper species that change morphologically and behaviourally on crowding, forming swarms that develop from bands of immature stages called hoppers.These changes are examples of phase polymorphism; they were first analysed and described by Boris Uvarov, who was instrumental in setting up the Anti-Locust Research Centre.BOOK, Reed Business Information, New Scientist,weblink 20 April 1972, Reed Business Information, 156, 0262-4079, He made his discoveries during his studies of the Migratory locust in Caucasus, whose solitary and gregarious phases had previously been thought to be separate species (Locusta migratoria and L. danica L.). He designated the two phases as solitaria and gregaria.BOOK, Dingle, Hugh, Migration : The Biology of Life on the Move,weblink 1996, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-535827-8, 273–274, These are also referred to as statary and migratory morphs, though strictly speaking, their swarms are nomadic rather than migratory. Charles Valentine Riley and Norman Criddle were also involved in achieving the understanding and control of locusts.(Wikisource:The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Riley, Charles Valentine)WEB,weblink Norman Criddle: Pioneer Entomologist of the Prairies, Holliday, N.J., 1 February 2006, Manitoba History, Manitoba Historical Society, 16 April 2015, Swarming behaviour is a response to overcrowding. Increased tactile stimulation of the hind legs causes an increase in levels of serotonin.NEWS,weblink BBC News, James Morgan, Locust swarms 'high' on serotonin, 29 January 2009, 4 March 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131010043157weblink">weblink 10 October 2013, This causes the locust to change colour, eat much more, and breed much more easily. The transformation of the locust to the swarming form is induced by several contacts per minute over a four-hour period.JOURNAL, Stephen M. Rogers, Thomas Matheson, Emma Despland, Timothy Dodgson, Malcolm Burrows, Stephen J. Simpson, 2003, Mechanosensory-induced behavioral gregarization in the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria, Journal of Experimental Biology, 206, 22, 3991–4002, 10.1242/jeb.00648, 14555739,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120324054906weblink">weblink 24 March 2012, {{Open access}} A large swarm can consist of billions of locusts spread out over an area of thousands of square kilometres, with a population of up to 80 million per square kilometre (200 million per square mile). When desert locusts meet, their nervous systems release serotonin, which causes them to become mutually attracted, a prerequisite for swarming.JOURNAL, P. A. Stevenson, January 2009, The key to Pandora's box, Science (journal), Science, 323, 5914, 594–595, 19179520, 10.1126/science.1169280, NEWS,weblink Blocking 'happiness' chemical may prevent locust plagues, New scientist, 29 January 2009, 31 January 2009, Ewen Callaway, The initial bands of gregarious hoppers are known as "outbreaks", and when these join together into larger groups, the event is known as an "upsurge". Continuing agglomerations of upsurges on a regional level originating from a number of entirely separate breeding locations are known as "plagues".WEB,weblink The Desert Locust in Africa and Western Asia: Complexities of War, Politics, Perilous Terrain, and Development, Showler, Allan T., 4 March 2013, Radcliffe's IPM World Textbook, University of Minnesota, 3 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150408034918weblink">weblink 8 April 2015, During outbreaks and the early stages of upsurges, only part of the locust population becomes gregarious, with scattered bands of hoppers spread out over a large area. As time goes by, the insects become more cohesive and the bands become concentrated in a smaller area. In the desert locust plague in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia that lasted from 1966 to 1969, the number of locusts increased from two to 30 billion over two generations, but the area covered decreased from over {{convert|100000|km2}} to {{convert|5000|km2}}.

Solitary and gregarious phases

(File:DesertLocust.jpeg|thumb|Solitaria (grasshopper) and gregaria (swarming) phases of the desert locust)One of the greatest differences between the solitary and gregarious phases is behavioural. The gregaria nymphs are attracted to each other, this being seen as early as the second instar. They soon form bands of many thousands of individuals. These groups behave like cohesive units and move across the landscape, mostly downhill, but making their way around barriers and merging with other bands. The attraction between the insects seems to be largely visual, but also involves olfactory cues, and the band seem to navigate using the sun. They pause to feed at intervals before resuming their march, and may cover tens of kilometres over a few weeks.Also, differences in morphology and development are seen. In the desert locust and the migratory locust, for example, the gregaria nymphs become darker with strongly contrasting yellow and black markings, they grow larger, and have longer developmental periods. The adults are larger with different body proportions, less sexual dimorphism, and higher metabolic rates. They mature more rapidly and start reproducing earlier, but have lower levels of fecundity.The mutual attraction between individual insects continues into adulthood, and they continue to act as a cohesive group. Individuals that get detached from a swarm fly back into the mass. Others that get left behind after feeding, take off to rejoin the swarm when it passes overhead. When individuals at the front of the swarm settle to feed, others fly past overhead and settle in their turn, the whole swarm acting like a rolling unit with an ever-changing leading edge. The locusts spend much time on the ground feeding and resting, moving on when the vegetation is exhausted. They may then fly a considerable distance before settling in a location where transitory rainfall has caused a green flush of new growth.

Distribution and diversity

Several species of grasshoppers swarm as locusts in different parts of the world, on all continents except Antarctica and North America:MAGAZINE, Harmon, Katherine, When Grasshoppers Go Biblical: Serotonin Causes Locusts to Swarm,weblink Scientific American, 7 April 2015, 30 January 2009, JOURNAL, Alexandra M. Wagner, Grasshoppered: America's response to the 1874 Rocky Mountain locust invasion, Nebraska History, 89, 4, 154–167, Winter 2008, NEWS, Yoon, Carol Kaesuk, Looking Back at the Days of the Locust,weblink The New York Times, 1 April 2015, 23 April 2002, {{efn|The American locust (Schistocerca americana) does not swarm.Thomas, M. C. The American grasshopper, Schistocerca americana americana (Drury) (Orthoptera: Acrididae).{{dead link|date=January 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Entomology Circular No. 342. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. May 1991.}} For example, the Australian plague locust (Chortoicetes terminifera) swarms across Australia.The desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) is probably the best known species owing to its wide distribution (North Africa, Middle East, and Indian subcontinent) and its ability to migrate over long distances. A major infestation covered much of western Africa in 2003-4, after unusually heavy rain set up favourable ecological conditions for swarming. The first outbreaks occurred in Mauritania, Mali, Niger, and Sudan in 2003. The rain allowed swarms to develop and move north to Morocco and Algeria, threatening croplands.WEB, FAO issues Desert Locust alert: Mauritania, Niger, Sudan and other neighbouring countries at risk,weblink Food and Agriculture Organization, 3 July 2015, Rome, 20 October 2003, WEB, Desert Locusts Plague West Africa,weblink NPR, Morning Edition, 15 November 2004, Swarms crossed Africa, appearing in Egypt, Jordan and Israel, the first time in those countries for 50 years.WEB, Desert Locust Archives 2003,weblink Food and Agriculture Organization, 3 July 2015, WEB, Desert Locust Archives 2004,weblink Food and Agriculture Organization, 3 July 2015, The cost of handling the infestation was put at US$122 million, and the damage to crops at up to $2.5 billion.WEB, The Desert Locust Outbreak in West Africa,weblink OECD, 3 July 2015, 23 September 2004, The migratory locust (Locusta migratoria), sometimes classified into up to 10 subspecies, swarms in Africa, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand, but has become rare in Europe.JOURNAL, Chapuis, M-P., Lecoq, M., Michalakis, Y., Loiseau, A., Sword, G. A., Piry, S., Estoup, A., Do outbreaks affect genetic population structure? A worldwide survey in a pest plagued by microsatellite null alleles, Molecular Ecology, 1 August 2008, 17, 16, 3640–3653, 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03869.x, 18643881, In 2013, the Madagascan form of the migratory locust formed many swarms of over a billion insects, reaching "plague" status and covering about half the country by March 2013.NEWS, Plague of locusts infests impoverished Madagascar, Greg Botelho, 28 March 2013, CNN,weblink 29 March 2013, Species such as the Senegalese grasshopper (Oedaleus senegalensis)BOOK, Uvarov, B.P., 1966, Grasshoppers and Locusts (Vol. 1), Cambridge University Press, Phase polymorphism, and the African rice grasshopper (Hieroglyphus daganensis), both from the Sahel, often display locust-like behaviour and change morphologically on crowding.North America is currently the only continent besides Antarctica without a native locust species. The Rocky Mountain locust was formerly one of the most significant insect pests there, but it became extinct in 1902. In the 1930s, during the Dust Bowl, a second species of North American locust, the High Plains locust (Dissosteira longipennis) reached plague proportions in the American Midwest. Today, the High Plains locust is a rare species, leaving North America with no regularly swarming locusts.

Interaction with humans

Ancient times

File:Maler der Grabkammer des Horemhab 002.jpg|thumb|Locust detail from a hunt mural in the grave-chamber of Horemhab, Ancient EgyptAncient EgyptStudy of literature shows how pervasive plagues of locusts were over the course of history. The insects arrived unexpectedly, often after a change of wind direction or weather, and the consequences were devastating. The Ancient Egyptians carved locusts on tombs in the period 2470 to 2220 BC, and a devastating plague is mentioned in the Book of Exodus in the Bible, as taking place in Egypt around 1446 BC.BOOK, Krall, S., Peveling, R., Diallo,B.D., New Strategies in Locust Control,weblink 1997, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-3-7643-5442-8, 453–454, BOOK, Book of Exodus, 10: 13–15, And Moses stretched forth his rod over the land of Egypt, and the Lord brought an east wind upon the land all that day, and all that night; and when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts. 14 And the locust went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested in all the coasts of Egypt: very grievous were they; before them there were no such locusts as they, neither after them shall be such. 15 For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they did eat every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left: and there remained not any green thing in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, through all the land of Egypt., The Iliad mentions locusts taking to the wing to escape fire.WEB, Homer, Iliad 21.1, Perseus Tufts, 16 August 2017,weblink Plagues of locusts are also mentioned in the Quran.BOOK, John L. Capinera, 2008, Encyclopedia of Entomology, Springer Science+Business Media, Springer, 978-1-4020-6242-1, Desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forskål (Orthoptera: Acrididae) plagues, Showler, Allan T., 1181–1186,weblink In the ninth century BC, the Chinese authorities appointed anti-locust officers.Aristotle studied locusts and their breeding habits and Livy recorded a devastating plague in Capua in 203 BC. He mentioned human epidemics following locust plagues which he associated with the stench from the putrifying corpses; the linking of human disease outbreaks to locust plagues was widespread. A pestilence in the northwestern provinces of China in 311 AD that killed 98% of the population locally was blamed on locusts, and may have been caused by an increase in numbers of rats (and their fleas) that devoured the locust carcases.BOOK, Plagues and Peoples, H. McNeill, William, Springer Science & Business Media, 2012, 978-0-385-12122-4, 146,

More recent times

File:Diagrams of Locusts which swarmed over England in 1748.jpg|thumb|Locusts which swarmed over England in 1748: Drawing by De la Cour; engraved by R. White, in Thomas PennantThomas PennantDuring the last two millennia, locust plagues continued to appear at irregular intervals with the main recorded outbreaks of the desert and migratory locusts occurring in Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. Other species of locusts caused havoc in North and South America, Asia, and Australasia; 173 outbreaks over a period of 1924 years have been recorded in China. The Bombay locust (Nomadacris succincta) was a major pest in India and southeastern Asia in the 18th and 19th centuries, but has seldom swarmed since the last plague in 1908.WEB,weblink Bombay locust - Nomadacris succincta, Locust Handbook, Humanity Development Library, 3 April 2015, In the spring of 1747 locusts arrived outside Damascus eating the majority of the crops and vegetation of the surrounding countryside. One local barber, Ahmad al-Budayri, recalled the locusts "came like a black cloud. They covered everything: the trees and the crops. May God Almighty save us!"BOOK, Grehan, James, Twilight of the Saints:Everyday Religion in Ottoman Syria and Palestine, 2014, Oxford University Press, 1, The extinction of the Rocky Mountain locust has been a source of puzzlement. It had swarmed throughout the west of the United States and parts of Canada in the 19th century. Albert's swarm of 1875 was estimated to cover {{convert|198000|sqmi|km2}} (greater than the area of California) and to weigh 27.5 million tons, with some 12.5 trillion insects.WEB,weblink Melanoplus spretus, Rocky Mountain grasshopper, Animal Diversity Web, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, 16 April 2009, The last specimen was seen alive in Canada in 1902. Recent research suggests the breeding grounds of this insect in the valleys of the Rocky Mountains came under sustained agricultural development during the large influx of gold miners,Encarta Reference Library Premium 2005 DVD. Rocky Mountain Locust. destroying the underground eggs of the locust.NEWS,weblink Ryckman, Lisa Levitt, The great locust mystery, Rocky Mountain News, 22 June 1999, 20 May 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070228084636weblink">weblink 28 February 2007, BOOK, Jeffrey A. Lockwood, 2005, Locust: the Devastating Rise and Mysterious Disappearance of the Insect that Shaped the American Frontier,weblink Basic Books, 978-0-465-04167-1,

Monitoring

File:Eugenio Morales en el Sáhara Español (1942).jpg|thumb|left|upright|Eugenio Morales Agacino on expedition monitoring locusts in the desert of Spanish SaharaSpanish SaharaEarly intervention is a more successful means of dealing with locusts than later action when swarms have already built up. The technology to control locust populations is now available, but the organisational, financial, and political problems may be difficult to overcome. Monitoring is the key to reducing damage, with the early detection and eradication of bands being the objective. Ideally, a sufficient proportion of nomadic bands can be treated with insecticide before the swarming phase is reached. Reaching this objective may be possible in richer countries like Morocco and Saudi Arabia, but neighbouring poorer countries (Mauritania, Yemen, etc.) lack the resources and may act as a source of locust swarms that threaten the whole region.Several organisations around the world monitor the threat from locusts. They provide forecasts detailing regions likely to suffer from locust plagues in the near future. In Australia, this service is provided by the Australian Plague Locust Commission.WEB,weblink Role of the Australian Plague Locust Commission, 14 June 2011, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Commonwealth of Australia, 2 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140715013827weblink">weblink 15 July 2014, It has been very successful with dealing with developing outbreaks, but has the great advantage of having a defined area to monitor and defend without locust invasions from elsewhere.BOOK, Krall, S., Peveling, R., Diallo, B.D., New Strategies in Locust Control,weblink 1997, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-3-7643-5442-8, 4–6, In Central and Southern Africa, the service is provided by the International Locust Control Organization for Central and Southern Africa.WEB, Red Locust disaster in Eastern Africa prevented,weblink Food and Agriculture Organization, 1 April 2015, 24 June 2009, In West and Northwest Africa, the service is co-ordinated by the Food and Agriculture Organization's Commission for Controlling the Desert Locust in the Western Region, and executed by locust control agencies belonging to each country concerned.WEB, Countries take responsibility for regional desert locust control,weblink FAO, 2 April 2015, 2015, The FAO also monitors the situation in the Caucasus and Central Asia, where over 25 million hectares of cultivated land are under threat.WEB,weblink Locusts in Caucasus and Central Asia, Locust Watch, Food and Agriculture Organization, 2 April 2015,

Control

File:Flaming Locusts in 1915.jpg|thumb|Preparing to flame locusts in Palestine, 1915]]Historically, people could do little to protect their crops from being devastated by locusts, although eating the insects may have been some consolation. By the early 20th century, efforts were being made to disrupt the development of the insects by cultivating the soil where eggs were laid, collecting hoppers with catching machines, killing them with flamethrowers, trapping them in ditches, and crushing them with rollers and other mechanical methods. By the 1950s, the organochloride dieldrin was found to be an extremely effective insecticide, but it was later banned from use in most countries because of its persistence in the environment and its bioaccumulation in the food chain.File:Cessna spraying red locusts in Iku Katavi NP.jpg|thumb|left|Cessna of the International Red Locust Control Organization spraying red locustred locustIn years when locust control is needed, the hoppers are targeted early by applying water-based, contact pesticides using tractor-based sprayers. This is effective but slow and labour-intensive, and where possible, spraying concentrated insecticide solutions from aircraft over the insects or the vegetation on which they feed is preferable.WEB,weblink Control, Locusts in Caucasus and Central Asia, Food and Agriculture Organization, 2 April 2015, The use of ultralow-volume spraying of contact pesticides from aircraft in overlapping swathes is effective against nomadic bands and can be used to treat large areas of land swiftly. Other modern technologies used for planning locust control include GPS, GIS tools, and satellite imagery, and computers provide rapid data management and analysis.WEB, Ceccato, Pietro, Operational Early Warning System Using Spot-Vegetation And Terra-Modis To Predict Desert Locust Outbreaks,weblink Food and Agriculture Organization, 5 March 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140510014559weblink">weblink 10 May 2014, WEB, Latchininsky, Alexandre V., Sivanpillai, Ramesh, Locust Habitat Monitoring And Risk Assessment Using Remote Sensing And GIS Technologies,weblink University of Wyoming, 2010, 5 March 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151230005049weblink">weblink 30 December 2015, dead, File:CSIRO ScienceImage 1367 Locusts attacked by the fungus Metarhizium.jpg|thumb|Locusts killed by the naturally occurring fungus MetarhiziumMetarhiziumA biological pesticide to control locusts was tested across Africa by a multinational team in 1997.JOURNAL, Lomer, C.J., Bateman, R.P., Johnson, D.L., Langewald, J., Thomas, M., 2001, Biological Control of Locusts and Grasshoppers, Annual Review of Entomology, 46, 667–702, 10.1146/annurev.ento.46.1.667, 11112183, Dried fungal spores of a Metarhizium acridum sprayed in breeding areas pierce the locust exoskeleton on germination and invade the body cavity, causing death.JOURNAL, The enhanced infectivity of Metarhizium flavoviride in oil formulations to desert locusts at low humidities, Annals of Applied Biology, 122, 145–152, 1993, Bateman, R., Carey, M., Moore, D., Prior, C., 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1993.tb04022.x, The fungus is passed from insect to insect and persists in the area, making repeated treatments unnecessary.JOURNAL, Thomas M.B., Gbongboui C., Lomer C.J., 1996, Between-season survival of the grasshopper pathogen Metarhizium flavoviride in the Sahel, Biocontrol Science and Technology, 6, 4, 569–573, 10.1080/09583159631208, This approach to locust control was used in Tanzania in 2009 to treat around 10,000 hectares in the Iku-Katavi National Park infested with adult locusts. The outbreak was contained and the elephants, hippopotamuses, and giraffes present in the area were unharmed.The ultimate goal in locust control is the use of preventive and proactive methods that disrupt the environment to the least possible extent. This would make agricultural production easier and more secure in the many regions where growing crops is of vital importance to the survival of the local people.

As experimental models

The locust is large and easy to breed and rear, and is used as an experimental model in research studies. It has been used in evolutionary biology research and to discover to what degree conclusions reached about other organisms, such as the fruit fly (Drosophila) and the housefly (Musca), are applicable to all insects.JOURNAL, Kellogg, Elizabeth A., Shaffer, H. Bradley, 1993, Model Organisms in Evolutionary Studies, Systematic Biology, 42, 4, 409–414, 10.2307/2992481, 2992481, JOURNAL, Andersson, Olga; Steen Honoré Hansen, Karin Hellman, Line Rørbæk Olsen, Gunnar Andersson, Lassina Badolo, Niels Svenstrup, and Peter Aadal Nielsen, The Grasshopper: A Novel Model for Assessing Vertebrate Brain Uptake, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, August 2013, 346, 2, 211–218, 10.1124/jpet.113.205476, 23671124, It is a suitable school laboratory animal because of its robustness and the ease with which it can be grown and handled.JOURNAL, Scott, Jon, The locust jump: an integrated laboratory investigation, Advances in Physiology Education, March 2005, 29, 1, 21–26, 10.1152/advan.00037.2004, The relative size and robustness of the locust make it simple to handle and ideal for such investigations., 15718379,

As food

{{see also|Kosher locust}}File:Skewered locusts.jpg|thumb|upright|Skewered locusts in BeijingBeijingLocusts are edible insects. Several cultures throughout the world consume insects, and locusts are considered a delicacy and eaten in many African, Middle Eastern, and Asian countries. They have been used as food throughout history.JOURNAL,weblink Edible Insects, Fromme, Smithsonian Zoogoer, Smithsonian Institution, 2005, 34, 4, Alison,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051111041211weblink">weblink 11 November 2005, 26 April 2015, They can be cooked in many ways, but are often fried, smoked, or dried.WEB,weblink The Nutritional Value of Locusts, Dubois, Sirah, 24 October 2011, Livestrong.com, 12 April 2015, The Bible records that John the Baptist ate locusts and wild honey () while living in the wilderness.Gospel of Mark Mark 1:6; Gospel of Matthew 3:4 Attempts have been made to explain the locusts as some ascetic vegetarian food such as carob beans, but the plain meaning of akrides is the insects.WEB, Brock, Sebastian, St John the Baptist's diet - according to some early Eastern Christian sources,weblink St John's College, Oxford, 4 May 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924102311weblink">weblink 24 September 2015, JOURNAL, Kelhoffer, James A., Did John The Baptist Eat Like A Former Essene? Locust-Eating In The Ancient Near East And At Qumran, Dead Sea Discoveries, 2004, 11, 3, 293–314, There is no reason, however, to question the plausibility of Mark 1:6c, that John regularly ate these foods while in the wilderness., 10.1163/1568517042643756, 4193332,weblink The Torah, although disallowing the use of most insects as food, permits the consumption of certain locusts; specifically, the red, the yellow, the spotted grey, and the white are considered permissible.WEB,weblink Are locusts really Kosher?! « Ask The Rabbi « Ohr Somayach, Ohr.edu, 12 April 2015, NEWS, Eating locusts: The crunchy, kosher snack taking Israel by swarm, Hebblethwaite, Cordelia,weblink BBC News: Magazine, 21 March 2013, In Islamic jurisprudence, eating locusts is considered halal.WEB,weblink The Fiqh of Halal and Haram Animals, Shariahprogram.ca, 12 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924101138weblink">weblink 24 September 2015, dead, The Islamic prophet, Muhammad, was reported to have eaten locusts during a military raid with his companions.BOOK, Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 67: Hunting, Slaughtering,weblink 8 November 2016, 403: Narrated Ibn Abi Aufa: We participated with the Prophet in six or seven Ghazawat, and we used to eat locusts with him., Locusts are eaten in the Arabian Peninsula, including Saudi Arabia,WEB, من المدخرات الغذائية في الماضي "الجراد",weblink www.al-jazirah.com, Al-Jazirah Newspaper, 8 November 2016, 2 December 2001, where consumption of locusts spiked around Ramadan especially in the Al-Qassim Region in 2014, since many Saudis believe they are healthy to eat. The Saudi Ministry of Health warned that pesticides they used against the locusts made them unsafe.WEB, سوق الجراد في بريدة يشهد تداولات كبيرة والزراعة تحذرمن التسمم,weblink صحيفة عاجل الإلكترونية, 8 November 2016, 11 December 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160611183839weblink">weblink 11 June 2016, dead, NEWS,weblink People told not to eat pesticide-laced locusts, Arab News, 4 April 2013, 8 January 2016, Yemenis also consume locusts, and expressed discontent over governmental plans to use pesticides to control them.WEB, أحلام الهمداني, اليمن تكافح الجراد بـ400 مليون واليمنيون مستاءون من (قطع الأرزاق),weblink www.nabanews.net, نبأ نيوز, 8 November 2016, 5 March 2007, Ê»Abd al-Salâm Shabînî described a locust recipe from Morocco.BOOK, El Hage Abd Salam Shabeeny, An account of Timbuctoo and Housa: territories in the interior of Africa,weblink 1820, 222–, 19th century European travellers observed Arabs in Arabia, Egypt, and Morocco selling, cooking, and eating locusts.BOOK, Edward Robinson, A Dictionary of the Holy Bible, for the Use of Schools and Young Persons,weblink 1835, Crocker and Brewster, 192–, They reported that in Egypt and Palestine locusts were consumed.BOOK, Augustin Calmet, Dictionary of the Holy Bible by Charles Taylor,weblink 1832, Holdsworth and Ball, 604–605, They reported that in Palestine, around the River Jordan, in Egypt, in Arabia, and in Morocco that Arabs ate locusts, while Syrian peasants did not eat locusts.In the Haouran region, Fellahs who were in poverty and suffered from famine ate locusts after removing the guts and head, while locusts were swallowed wholesale by Bedouins.BOOK, Augustin Calmet, Dictionary of the Holy Bible,weblink 1832, Crocker and Brewster, 635–, Syrians, Copts, Greeks, Armenians, and other Christians and Arabs themselves reported that in Arabia locusts were eaten frequently and one Arab described to a European traveler the different types of locusts which were favored as food by Arabs.BOOK, Oriental Literature, Applied To The Illustration Of The Sacred Scriptures; Especially With Reference To Antiquties, Traditions, and Manners (etc.),weblink 1822, Longman, Hurst, 213, BOOK, ... Description of Arabia Made from Personal Observations and Information Collected on the Spot by Carsten Niebuhr,weblink 1889, 57–, Niebuhr, Carsten, Persians use the Anti-Arab racial slur "Arabe malakh-khor" (, literally Arab locust eater) against Arabs.BOOK, Nasrin Rahimieh, Iranian Culture: Representation and Identity,weblink 27 August 2015, Routledge, 978-1-317-42935-7, 133–, NEWS, 5 May 2012, Persians v Arabs Same old sneers Nationalist feeling on both sides of the Gulf is as prickly as ever,weblink The Economist, WEB, Same old sneers; Persians vs Arabs.,weblinkweblink 2018-11-27, BOOK, Hooman Majd, The Ayatollah Begs to Differ: The Paradox of Modern Iran,weblink 23 September 2008, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 978-0-385-52842-9, 165–, Locusts yield about five times more edible protein per unit of fodder than cattle, and produce lower levels of greenhouse gases in the process.Global Steak – Demain nos enfants mangeront des criquets (2010 French documentary). The feed conversion rate of orthopterans is 1.7 kg/kg,BOOK, A., Collavo, Glew, R. H., Huang, Y. S., Chuang, L. T., Bosse, R., Paoletti, M. G., Paoletti, M. G., Ecological implications of minilivestock: potential of insects, rodents, frogs and snails, Science Publishers, 2005, New Hampshire, 519–544, House cricket small-scale farming, while for beef it is typically about 10 kg/kg.JOURNAL, Smil, V., 2002, Worldwide transformation of diets, burdens of meat production and opportunities for novel food proteins, Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 30, 3, 305–311, 10.1016/s0141-0229(01)00504-x, The protein content in fresh weight is between 13–28 g/100g for adult locust, 14–18 g/100g for larvae, as compared to 19–26 g/100g for beef.WEB,weblink Composition database for Biodiversity Version 2, BioFoodComp2, FAO, 10 January 2013, 1 April 2015, WEB, nutritional value of insects for human consumption,weblink FAO, 1 April 2015, The calculated protein efficiency ratio is low, with 1.69 for locust protein compared to 2.5 for standard casein. A serving of 100 g of desert locust provides 11.5 g of fat, 53.5% of which is unsaturated, and 286 mg of cholesterol.JOURNAL, Abul-Tarboush, Hamza M., Al-Kahtani, Hassan A., Aldryhim, Yousif N., Asif, Mohammed, 16 December 2010, Desert Locust (Schistocercsa gregaria): Proximate Composition, Physiochemcial Characteristics of Lipids, Fatty Acids and Cholesterol Contents and Nutritional Value of Protein,weblink Article, College of Foods and Agricultural Science, King Saud University, 21 January 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150122001451weblink">weblink 22 January 2015, dead, Among the fatty acids, palmitoleic, oleic and linolenic acids were found to be the most abundant. Varying amounts of potassium, sodium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc were present.

See also

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References

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External links

{{wiktionary}}{{Commons category|Caelifera}}

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