lightweight markup language

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lightweight markup language
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
A lightweight markup language (LML), also termed a simple or humane markup language, is a markup language with simple, unobtrusive syntax. It is designed to be easy to write using any generic text editor and easy to read in its raw form. Lightweight markup languages are used in applications where it may be necessary to read the raw document as well as the final rendered output.For instance, a person downloading a software library might prefer to read the documentation in a text editor rather than a web browser. Another application for such languages is to provide for data entry in web-based publishing, such as weblogs and wikis, where the input interface is a simple text box. The server software then converts the input into a common document markup language like HTML.


Lightweight markup languages were originally used on text-only displays which could not display characters in italics or bold, so informal methods to convey this information had to be developed. This formatting choice was naturally carried forth to plain-text email communications. Console browsers may also resort to similar display conventions.In 1986 international standard SGML provided facilities to define and parse lightweight markup languages using grammars and tag implication. The 1998 W3C XML is a profile of SGML that omits these facilities. However, no SGML DTD for any of the languages listed below is known.


Lightweight markup languages can be categorized by their tag types. Like HTML (bold), some languages use named elements that share a common format for start and end tags (e.g. BBCode bold), whereas proper lightweight markup languages are restricted to ASCII-only punctuation marks and other non-letter symbols for tags, but some also mix both styles (e.g. Textile bq. ) or allow embedded HTML (e.g. Markdown), possibly extended with custom elements (e.g. MediaWiki (1)).Most languages distinguish between markup for lines or blocks and for shorter spans of texts, but some only support inline markup.Some markup languages are tailored for a specific purpose, such as documenting computer code (e.g. POD, RD) or being converted to a certain output format (usually HTML) and nothing else, others are more general in application. This includes whether they are oriented on textual presentation or on data serialization.{{clarify|date=June 2014}}Presentation oriented languages include AsciiDoc, atx, BBCode, Creole, Crossmark, Epytext, Haml, JsonML, MakeDoc, Markdown, Org-mode, POD, reST, RD, Setext, SiSU, SPIP, Xupl, Texy!, Textile, txt2tags, UDO and Wikitext.Data serialization oriented languages include Curl (homoiconic, but also reads JSON; every object serializes), JSON, and YAML.

Comparison of language features

{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"|+ Comparing language features! Language! HTML export tool! HTML import tool! Tables! Link titles! class attribute! id attribute! Release date
! {{rh}} | AsciiDoc| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! {{rh}} | BBCode| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| 1998
! {{rh}} | Creole| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! {{rh}} | GitHub Flavored Markdown| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| ?
! {{rh}} | Markdown| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes-no}}| {{yes-no}}
DATE=2004-03-19 ARCHIVEDATE=2004-04-02 ACCESSDATE=2014-04-25,
! {{rh}} | Markdown Extra| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
PUBLISHER=MICHELF.COM ACCESSDATE=2013-10-08, | {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| ?
! {{rh}} | MediaWiki| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! {{rh}} | MultiMarkdown| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| ?
! {{rh}} | Org-mode| {{yes}}
Pandoc, which is written in Haskell (programming language)>Haskell, parses Markdown (in two forms) and ReStructuredText, as well as HTML and LaTeX; it writes from any of these formats to HTML, RTF, LaTeX, ConTeXt, OpenDocument, EPUB and several other formats, including (via LaTeX) PDF.| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}WEBSITE=ORGMODE.ORG ACCESSDATE=2016-12-09,
! {{rh}} | PmWiki
ACCESSDATE=7 JANUARY 2018, | {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| January, 2002
! {{rh}} | POD| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| 1994
! {{rh}} | reStructuredText| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! {{rh}} | Textile| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! {{rh}} | Texy| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! {{rh}} | txt2tags| {{yes}}
PUBLISHER=CPAN.ORG ACCESSDATE=2014-01-30, PUBLISHER=TXT2TAGS.ORG ACCESSDATE=2017-02-24, | {{yes}}| {{yes-no}}| {{yes-no}}ACCESSDATE=2017-02-24,
! {{rh}} | Slack| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! {{rh}} | WhatsApp| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
Markdown's own syntax does not support class attributes or id attributes; however, since Markdown supports the inclusion of native HTML code, these features can be implemented using direct HTML. (Some extensions may support these features.)txt2tags' own syntax does not support class attributes or id attributes; however, since txt2tags supports inclusion of native HTML code in tagged areas, these features can be implemented using direct HTML when saving to an HTML target.WEB,weblink Txt2tags User Guide,, 2017-02-24,

Comparison of implementation features

{| class="wikitable sortable"|+ Comparing implementations, especially output formats! Language !! Implementations! XHTML || Con/LaTeX || PDF || DocBook || ODF || EPUB || DOC(X)! LMLs || Other! License! {{rh}} | AsciiDoc
Python (programming language)>Python, Ruby, JavaScriptXHTML}} {{yesPDF}} {{yesODF}} {{yes| {{no}}| Man page etc.| GNU GPL, MIT
! {{rh}} | BBCode
Perl, PHP, C Sharp (programming language)>C#, Python (programming language), Ruby (programming language)>Ruby(X)HTML}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}}| —| Public Domain
! {{rh}} | Creole
PHP, Python (programming language)>Python, Ruby (programming language), JavaScriptHTTP://WWW.WIKICREOLE.ORG/WIKI/CONVERTERS PUBLISHER=WIKICREOLE ACCESSDATE=2013-10-08, Depends on implementationCC BY-SA>CC_BY-SA 1.0
! {{rh}} rowspan=2| GitHub Flavored Markdown| Haskell (Pandoc)
HTML}} {{yesPDF}} {{yesODF}} {{yesDOC}}AsciiDoc, reStructuredText>reST OPML| GPL
Java (programming language)>Java,pegdown: A Java library for Markdown processing JavaScript,gfms: Github Flavored Markdown Servermarked: A full-featured markdown parser and compiler, written in JavaScript. Built for speed.node-gfm: GitHub flavored markdown to HTML converter PHP,Parsedown: Markdown parser written in PHPCiconia: Markdown parser written in PHP Python (programming language),Grip: GitHub Readme Instant Preview Ruby (programming language)>Rubygithub-markdown: Self-contained Markdown parser for GitHubHTML}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}}| —| Proprietary
! {{rh}} | Markdown
Perl (originally), C (programming language)>C,peg-markdown is an implementation of markdown in C (programming language).Discount is also an implementation of markdown in C (programming language)>C. Python (programming language),HTTPS://GITHUB.COM/WAYLAN/PYTHON-MARKDOWN PUBLISHER=GITHUB.COM ACCESSDATE=2013-10-08, JavaScript, Haskell (programming language), Ruby (programming language)>Ruby,BRUCE WILLIAMS , FOR RUBY CENTRAL >URL=HTTPS://RUBYFORGE.ORG/PROJECTS/KRAMDOWN/ PUBLISHER=RUBYFORGE ACCESSDATE=2013-10-08 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130807011316/HTTP://RUBYFORGE.ORG/PROJECTS/KRAMDOWN DF=, C Sharp (programming language), Java (programming language)>Java, PHPHTML}} {{yes-NoPDF}} {{yes-NoODF}} {{yes-NoRTF}}MediaWiki#Markup, ReStructuredText>reST}} {{yes-NoMan page, S5 (file format)>S5 etc.}}| BSD-style & GPL (both)
! {{rh}} | Markdown Extra
PHP (originally), Python (programming language)>Python, RubyXHTML}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}}| —| BSD-style & GPL (both)
! {{rh}} | MediaWiki
Perl, PHP, Haskell (programming language)>Haskell, PythonXHTML}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}}| —| GNU GPL
! {{rh}} | MultiMarkdown
C (programming language)>C, Perl(X)HTML}} {{yesPDF}} {{no}} {{yesDOC, RTF}}| OPMLGNU GPL>GPL, MIT
! {{rh}} | Org-mode
Emacs Lisp, Ruby (programming language)>Ruby (parser only), Perl, OCamlXHTML}} {{yesPDF}} {{yesODF}} {{yesDOCX}}plain text>TXT, XOXO (microformat), iCalendar, Texinfo, Man page>man, contrib: groff (software), S5 (file format)>s5, deck.js, Confluence Wiki MarkupATLASSIAN > TITLE=CONFLUENCE 4.0 EDITOR - WHAT'S CHANGED FOR WIKI MARKUP USERS (CONFLUENCE WIKI MARKUP IS DEAD) ACCESSDATE=2018-03-28, , TaskJuggler, RSS, FreeMind| GPL
! {{rh}} | PmWiki| PHP
XHTML 1.0 Transitional, HTML5}} {{no}} {{yesEPUB export addon}} {{no}}| —| GNU GPL
! {{rh}} | POD| Perl
(X)HTML, XML}} {{yesDocBook}} {{no}} {{no}} {{yes|RTF}}| Man page, plain text| Artistic License, Perl's license
! {{rh}} | reStructuredText
Python (programming language)>Python,Docutils is an implementation of ReStructuredText in Python (programming language)Sphinx (documentation generator)>Sphinx is an implementation of ReStructuredText in Python (programming language) and Docutils with a number of output format Builders Pandoc>Haskell (Pandoc), Java,HTML, XML}} {{yesPDF}} {{yesODF}} {{yesDOC}}Man page>man, S5 (file format), Devhelp, Qt (framework)>QT Help, CHM, JSON| Public Domain
! {{rh}} | Textile
PHP, JavaScript, Java (programming language)>Java, Perl, Python (programming language), Ruby (programming language)>Ruby, Active Server Pages, C Sharp (programming language)>C#, HaskellXHTML}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}}| —| Textile License
! {{rh}} | Texy!
PHP, C Sharp (programming language)>C#(X)HTML}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}}| —| GNU GPL v2 License
! {{rh}} | txt2tags
Python (programming language)>Python,AURELIO JARGAS WWW.AURELIO.NET >URL=HTTP://TXT2TAGS.ORG/ PUBLISHER=TXT2TAGS ACCESSDATE=2013-10-08, PHPHTTP://TXT2TAGS.ORG/TXT2TAGS.FORM.PHP >TITLE=TXT2TAGS.CLASS.PHP - ONLINE CONVERTOR [SIC] DATE=, 2013-10-08, (X)HTML, SGML}} {{yesPDF}} {{yesODF}} {{noDOC}} Creole (markup), AsciiDoc, MediaWiki namespace>MediaWiki, MoinMoin, PmWiki, DokuWiki, Google Code >roff (computer program)>roff, Man page, MagicPoint, Lout (software)>Lout, PageMaker, ASCII Art, TXT| GPL

Comparison of lightweight markup language syntax

Although usually documented as yielding italic and bold text, most lightweight markup processors output semantic HTML elements em and strong instead. Monospaced text may either result in semantic code or presentational tt elements. Few languages make a distinction, e.g. Textile, or allow the user to configure the output easily, e.g. Texy.LMLs sometimes differ for multi-word markup where some require the markup characters to replace the inter-word spaces (infix).Some languages require a single character as prefix and suffix, other need doubled or even tripled ones or support both with slightly different meaning, e.g. different levels of emphasis.{| class="wikitable"|+ Comparing text formatting syntax!rowspan=2 {{rh}} | HTML output!width="20%"| strongly emphasized !width="20%"| emphasized text !width="20%"| code ! semantic
! bold text ! italic text ! monospace text ! presentational
AsciiDoc *bold text*| 'italic text'| +monospace text+ Can double operators to apply formatting where there is no word boundary (for example bold text yields bold text).
| _italic text_| `monospace text`
! {{rh}} | ATX| *bold text*| _italic text_
monospace text|| email style
! {{rh}} | Creole| bold text|italic text| {{{monospace text}}}| Triple curly braces are for nowiki which is optionally monospace.
!rowspan=2 {{rh}} | MarkdownWEB,weblink Markdown Syntax,, 2013-10-08, | bold text| *italic text*
`monospace text` semantic HTML tags
| __bold text__| _italic text_
! {{rh}} | MediaWiki| bold text| italic text| monospace text| mostly resorts to inline HTML
!rowspan=2 {{rh}} | Org-mode
*bold text* /italic text/| =code=
| ~verbatim~
! {{rh}} | PmWiki| bold text| italic text| @@monospace text@@|
! {{rh}} | reST| bold text| *italic text*| ``monospace text``|
! {{rh}} | Setext| bold text| ~italic text~| {{N/A}}|
!rowspan=2 {{rh}} | TextileTextile Syntax {{webarchive|url= |date=2010-08-12 }}| *strong*| _emphasis_
@monospace text@| semantic HTML tags
| bold text| __italic text__| presentational HTML tags
!rowspan=2 {{rh}} | Texy!
bold text| *italic text*`monospace text` semantic HTML tags by default, optional support for presentational tags
|italic text
! {{rh}} | txt2tags| bold text|italic text| ``monospace text``|
! {{rh}} | POD| B| I| C| Indented text is also shown as monospaced code.
! {{rh}} | BBCode| bold text| italic text| [code]monospace text[/code]| Formatting works across line breaks.
! {{rh}} | Slack| *bold text*| _italic text_| `monospace text`| ```block of monospaced text```
! {{rh}} | WhatsApp| *bold text*| _italic text_| ```monospace text```|
{| class="wikitable"|+ Bold face or strong emphasis| Code! AsciiDoc !! ATX !! Creole !! Markdown !! MediaWiki !! Org-mode !! PmWiki !! reST !! Setext !! Slack !! Textile !! Texy! !! txt2tags !! WhatsApp
! *bold*
| {{yes}}
! bold
| {{no}}
! __bold__
| {{no}}
! bold
| {{no}}
{| class="wikitable"|+ Italic type or normal emphasis| Code! AsciiDoc !! ATX !! Creole !! Markdown !! MediaWiki !! Org-mode !! PmWiki !! reST !! Setext !! Slack !! Textile !! Texy! !! txt2tags !! WhatsApp
! *italic*
| {{no}}
! italic
| {{no}}
! _italic_
| {{yes}}
! __italic__
| {{no}}
! 'italic'
| {{no}}
! italic
| {{no}}
! /italic/
| {{no}}
| {{no}}
! ~italic~
| {{no}}
{| class="wikitable"|+ Underlined text| Code! AsciiDoc !! ATX !! Creole !! Markdown !! MediaWiki !! Org-mode !! PmWiki !! reST !! Setext !! Slack !! Textile !! Texy! !! txt2tags !! WhatsApp
! _underline_
| {{no}}
! __underline__
| {{no}}
{| class="wikitable"|+ Strike-through text| Code! AsciiDoc !! ATX !! Creole !! Markdown !! MediaWiki !! Org-mode !! PmWiki !! reST !! Setext !! Slack !! Textile !! Texy! !! txt2tags !! WhatsApp
! ~stricken~
| {{yes}}
! ~~stricken~~
GFM}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}}
! +stricken+
| {{no}}
! --stricken--
| {{no}}
{| class="wikitable"|+ Monospaced font, teletype text or code| Code! AsciiDoc !! ATX !! Creole !! Markdown !! MediaWiki !! Org-mode !! PmWiki !! reST !! Setext !! Slack !! Textile !! Texy! !! txt2tags !! WhatsApp
! @code@
| {{no}}
! @@code@@
| {{no}}
! `code`
| {{no}}
! ``code``
| {{no}}
! ```code```
| {{yes}}
! =code=
| {{no}}
! ~code~
| {{no}}
! +code+
| {{no}}
! ++code++
| {{no}}
! {{{code}}}
| {{no}}
! |code|
| {{no}}

Heading syntax

Headings are usually available in up to six levels, but the top one is often reserved to contain the same as the document title, which may be set externally. Some documentation may associate levels with divisional types, e.g. part, chapter, section, article or paragraph.Most LMLs follow one of two styles for headings, either Setext-like underlines or atx-like"atx, the true structured text format" by Aaron Swartz (2002) line markers, or they support both.

Underlined headings

Level 1 Heading

Level 2 Heading-----------
Level 3 Heading~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~The first style uses underlines, i.e. repeated characters (e.g. equals =, hyphen - or tilde ~, usually at least two or four times) in the line below the heading text.{| class="wikitable"|+ Underlined heading levels! Chars:! =! -! ~! *! #! +! ^! _! :! ”! ’! `! !title=“Minimum of characters”| min! {{rh}} | Markdown
1}} {{yes| 1
! {{rh}} | Setext
1}} {{yes| {{dunno}}
! {{rh}} | AsciiDoc
1}} {{yes3}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} 2
! {{rh}} | Texy!
| {{dunno}}
! {{rh}} | reStructuredText
| heading width
RST and Texy determine heading levels dynamically, which makes authoring more individual on the one hand, but complicates merges from external sources on the other hand.

Prefixed headings

  1. Level 1 Heading
Level 2 Heading # Level 3 Heading #The second style is based on repeated markers (e.g. hash #, equals = or asterisk *) at the start of the heading itself, where the number of repetitions indicates the (sometimes inverse) heading level. Most languages also support the reduplication of the markers at the end of the line, but whereas some make them mandatory, others do not even expect their numbers to match.{| class="wikitable"|+ Line prefix (and suffix) headings! Character:! =! #! *! !! +! Suffix! Levels ! Indentation ! {{rh}} | AsciiDoc
| {{no}}| {{no}}
! {{rh}} | ATX
| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! {{rh}} | Creole
| {{no}}| {{no}}
! {{rh}} | MediaWiki
| {{no}}| {{no}}
! {{rh}} | txt2tags
| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! {{rh}} | Markdown
| {{no}}| {{no}}
! {{rh}} | Texy!
| {{no}}| {{no}}
! {{rh}} | Org-mode
! {{rh}} | PmWiki
| {{no}}| {{no}}
POD and Textile choose the HTML convention of numbered heading levels instead.Org-mode supports indentation as a means of indicating the level.BBCode does not support section headings at all.{| class="wikitable"|+ Other heading formats! Language! Format
! {{rh}} | POD|=head1 Level 1 Heading">

head2 Level 2 Heading

! {{rh}} | Textile,Jira|h1. Level 1 Headingh2. Level 2 Headingh3. Level 3 Headingh4. Level 4 Headingh5. Level 5 Headingh6. Level 6 Heading

Link syntax

Hyperlinks can either be added inline, which may clutter the code because of long URLs, or with named alias or numbered id references to lines containing nothing but the address and related attributes and often may be located anywhere in the document.Most languages allow the author to specify text Text to be displayed instead of the plain addressweblink and some also provide methods to set a different link title Title which may contain more information about the destination.LMLs that are tailored for special setups, e.g. wikis or code documentation, may automatically generate named anchors (for headings, functions etc.) inside the document, link to related pages (possibly in a different namespace) or provide a textual search for linked keywords.Most languages employ (double) square or angular brackets to surround links, but hardly any two languages are completely compatible. Many can automatically recognize and parse absolute URLs inside the text without further markup.{| class="wikitable"|+ Inline hyperlink syntax! Languages! Basic syntax !! Text syntax !! Title syntax! BBCode, Creole, MediaWiki, PmWiki
! Textile
"Text"weblink| "Text (Title)"weblink
! Texy!| "Text .(Title)"weblink
!AsciiDocweblink[Text] >|
! Slack
! txt2tags
weblink| [Textweblink]|
! MediaWiki| Text|
! Creole, MediaWiki, PmWiki
! Org-mode| Name][Text|
! Creole
! Org-mode| (Namespace:Name][Text)(|
! Creole, PmWiki! BBCode| [urlweblink[/url]| Text
! Markdown
| [Text]weblink| [Text]weblink "Title")
! reStructuredText| `Text `_|
! POD| L||
! POD| L||
{| class="wikitable"|+ Reference syntax! Languages! Text syntax !! Title syntax! reStructuredText| ... Name_ ..... _Name:weblink|
! ATX| ... [Text] ...[Text]weblink|
!rowspan=2| AsciiDoc| ... id ...| ... id ...
| ... anchor:id ...xref:id| ... anchor:id ...xref:id[Text]
!rowspan=3| Markdown| ... [Text][id] ...[id]:weblink| ... [Text][id] ...[id]:weblink "Title"
| ... [Text][] ...[Text]:weblink| ... [Text][] ...[Text]:weblink "Title"
| ... [Text] ...[Text]:weblink| ... [Text] ...[Text]:weblink "Title"
! Org-mode
Org-mode's normal link syntax does a text search of the file. You can also put in dedicated targets with .
! Textile| ... "Text":alias ...[aliasweblink| ... "Text":alias ...[alias (Title)weblink
! Texy!| ... "Text":alias ...[alias]:weblink| ... "Text":alias ...[alias]:weblink .(Title)

List syntax

HTML requires an explicit element for the list, specifying its type, and one for each list item, but most lightweight markup languages need only different line prefixes for the bullet points or enumerated items. Some languages rely on indentation for nested lists, others use repeated parent list markers.{| class="wikitable"|+ Unordered, bullet list items! Characters:! *! -! +! #! .!title="middle dot"| ·!title="bullet"| •! _! :!title="en-dash"| –!title="em-dash"| —!title=“number of whitespace characters before the line prefix”| indent!title=“number of whitespace characters after the line prefix”| skip! nest! {{rh}} | Markdown
| indent
! {{rh}} | MediaWiki
| repeat
Languages differ on whether they support optional or mandatory digits in numbered list items, which kinds of enumerators they understand (e.g. decimal digit 1, roman numerals i or I, alphabetic letters a or A) and whether they support to keep explicit values in the output format. Some Markdown dialects, for instance, will honor a start value other than 1, but ignore any other explicit value.{| class="wikitable"|+ Ordered, enumerated list items! Chars:! #1! 1.! 1)! 1]! 1}! (1)! [1]! {1}!title=“number of whitespace characters before the line prefix”| indent!title=“number of whitespace characters after the line prefix”| skip! nest! {{rh}} | Markdown
1}} {{yes| indent
! {{rh}} | MediaWiki
#}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} {{no}} 0 1+ repeat
Slack assists the user in entering enumerated and bullet lists, but does not actually format them as such, i.e. it just includes a leading digit followed by a period and a space or a bullet character • in front of a line.

See also



External links

{{Markup languages}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "lightweight markup language" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 2:48am EDT - Sun, Aug 25 2019
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