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lambda

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**Lambda**(uppercase

**';**

*', lowercase**lÃ¡m(b)da*) is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet, representing the sound /l/. In the system of Greek numerals lambda has a value of 30. Lambda is related to the Phoenician letter Lamed (File:Phoenician lamedh.svg|15px|Lamedh). Letters in other alphabets that stemmed from lambda include the Latin L and the Cyrillic letter El (Ð›, Ð»). The ancient grammarians and dramatists give evidence to the pronunciation as {{IPA-el|laËbdaË|}} () in Classical Greek times.Herbert Weir Smyth.

*A Greek Grammar for Colleges*. I.1.c In Modern Greek the name of the letter, Î›Î¬Î¼Î´Î±, is pronounced {{IPA-el|lamÃ°a|}}.In early Greek alphabets, the shape and orientation of lambda varied.WEB,weblink Epigraphic Sources for Early Greek Writing, Poinikastas.CSAD.ox.ac.uk, 2011-10-03, Most variants consisted of two straight strokes, one longer than the other, connected at their ends. The angle might be in the upper-left, lower-left ("Western" alphabets), or top ("Eastern" alphabets). Other variants had a vertical line with a horizontal or sloped stroke running to the right. With the general adoption of the Ionic alphabet, Greek settled on an angle at the top; the Romans put the angle at the lower-left.The HTML 4 character entity references for the Greek capital and small letter lambda are "Λ" and "λ", respectively.WEB, World Wide Web Consortium, HTML 4.01 Specification, 24. Character entity references in HTML 4,weblink The Unicode code points for lambda are U+039B and U+03BB.File:NAMA Alphabet grec.jpg|thumb|The Greek alphabet on a black figureblack figure

## Symbol

### Upper-case letter Î›

{{multiple issues|section=y|{{Refimprove section|date=February 2016}}{{Trivia section|date=September 2017}}}}Examples of the symbolic use of uppercase lambda include:- The lambda particle is a type of subatomic particle in subatomic particle physics.
- Lambda is the set of logical axioms in the axiomatic method of logical deduction in first-order logic.
- Lambda was used as a shield pattern by the Spartan army. This stood for Lacedaemon (), the name of the polis of the Spartans, as opposed to the city itself.
- Lambda is the von Mangoldt function in mathematical number theory.
- In statistics, Wilks's lambda is used in multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA analysis) to compare group means on a combination of dependent variables.
- In the spectral decomposition of matrices, lambda indicates the diagonal matrix of the eigenvalues of the matrix.
- In computer science, lambda is the time window over which a process is observed for determining the working memory set for a digital computer's virtual memory management.
- In astrophysics, lambda represents the likelihood that a small body will encounter a planet or a dwarf planet leading to a deflection of a significant magnitude. An object with a large value of lambda is expected to have cleared its neighborhood, satisfying the current definition of a planet.
- In crystal optics, lambda is used to represent the period of a lattice.
- In NATO military operations, a chevron (a capital lambda symbol) is painted on the vehicles of this military alliance for identification.
- In chemistry there are Î” (delta) and Î› (lambda) isomers, see: coordination complex
- In electrochemistry, lambda denotes the "equivalent conductance" of an electrolyte solution.
- In cosmology, lambda is the symbol for the cosmological constant, a term added to some dynamical equations to account for the acceleration of the universe.
- In optics, lambda denotes the grating pitch of a Bragg reflector.
- In block-handwritten Russian, this letter represents Ð› in both uppercase and lowercase.

### Lower-case letter Î»

{{multiple issues|section=y|{{Refimprove section|date=October 2013}}{{Trivia section|date=September 2017}}}}(File:Greek lc lamda thin.svg|thumb|upright=0.5|Lower-case lambda)Examples of the symbolic use of lowercase lambda include:- In evolutionary algorithms, Î» indicates the number of offspring that would be generated from Î¼ current population in each generation. The terms Î¼ and Î» are originated from Evolution strategy notation.
- Lambda indicates the wavelength of any wave, especially in physics, electronics engineering, and mathematics.BOOK, Fundamentals of Physics, Nelkon, Michael, Hart-Davis Educational, 1977, St. Albans, Hertfordshire, 329,
- Lambda indicates the radioactivity decay constant in nuclear physics and radioactivity. This constant is very simply related (by a multiplicative constant) to the half-life of any radioactive material.
- In probability theory, lambda represents the density of occurrences within a time interval, as modeled by the Poisson distribution.
- In mathematical logic and computer science, lambda is used to introduce anonymous functions expressed with the concepts of lambda calculus.
- Lambda is a unit of volume, synonymous with one microliter (1 Î¼L), that is, one cubic millimetre (1 mm3). This use is currently deprecated.
- Lambda indicates an eigenvalue in the mathematics of linear algebra.
- In the physics of electric fields, lambda sometimes indicates the linear charge density of a uniform line of electric charge (measured in coulombs per meter).
- Lambda denotes a Lagrange multiplier in multi-dimensional calculus.
- In solid-state electronics, lambda indicates the channel length modulation parameter of a MOSFET.
- In ecology, lambda denotes the long-term intrinsic growth rate of a population. This value is often calculated as the dominant eigenvalue of the age/size class matrix (mathematics).
- In formal language theory and in computer science, lambda denotes the empty string.
- Lambda is a nonstandard symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet.
- Lambda denotes the Lebesgue measure in mathematical set theory.
- The Goodman and Kruskal's lambda in statistics indicates the proportional reduction in error when one variable's values are used to predict the values of another variable.
- Lambda denotes the oxygen sensor in a vehicle that measures the air-to-fuel ratio in the exhaust gases of an internal-combustion engine.
- A Lambda 4S solid-fuel rocket was used to launch Japan's first orbital satellite in 1970.WEB,weblink Encyclopedia Astronautica: Lambda, Astronautix.com, 2012-12-18, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121022140407weblink">weblink 2012-10-22,
- Lambda denotes the failure rate of devices and systems in reliability theory, and it is measured in failure events per hour. Numerically, this lambda is also the reciprocal of the mean time between failures.
- In criminology, lambda denotes an individual's frequency of offenses.
- In cartography and navigation, lambda denotes the longitude of a location.
- In electrochemistry, lambda also denotes the ionic conductance of a given ion (The composition of the ion is generally shown as a subscript to the lambda character).
- In neurobiology, lambda denotes the length constant (or exponential rate of decay) of the electric potential across the cell membrane along a length of a nerve cell's axon.
- In the science and technology of heat transfer, lambda denotes the heat of vaporization per mole of material (a.k.a. its "latent heat").Wankat Separation Process Engineering 2nd ed, Prentice Hall
- In the technology and science of celestial navigation, lambda denotes the longitude as opposed to the Roman letter "L", which denotes the latitude.
- A block style Lambda is used as a recurring symbol in the Valve Corporation computer game series
*Half-Life*,WEB, Half-Life on Steam,weblink store.steampowered.com, Valve, 2017-01-02, referring to the Lambda complex of the fictional Black Mesa Research Facility, as well as making appearances in the sequel*Half-Life 2*.WEB, Half-Life 2 on Steam,weblink store.steampowered.com, Valve, 2017-01-02, - In 1970, a lowercase lambda was chosen by Tom Doerr as the symbol of the New York chapter of the Gay Activists Alliance.WEB, Rapp, Linda, Gay Activists Alliance,weblink glbtq.com, 2004, WEB, 1969, The Year of Gay Liberation,weblink The New York Public Library, June 2009, 17 November 2018, The lambda symbol became associated with Gay LiberationBOOK, Goodwin, Joseph P., More Man Than You'll Ever Be: Gay Folklore and Acculturation in Middle America, 1989, Indiana University Press, 26, It Takes One to Know One, 978-0253338938, WEB, Rapp, Linda, Symbols,weblink glbtq.com, 2003, and recognized as an LGBT symbol for some time afterwards, being used as such by the International Gay Rights Congress in Edinburgh,BOOK, Haggerty, George E., Gay Histories and Cultures: An Encyclopedia (Encyclopedia of Gay Histories and Cultures, Volume II), 2000, Garland Publishing, London, 529, 1, WorldCat, OCLC Number: 750790369, 0-8153-1880-4, the gay rights organization Lambda Legal, and the Lambda Literary Foundation, among others.

### Litra symbol

The Roman*libra*and Byzantine

*lÃtra*(), which served as both the pound mass unit and liter volume unit, were abbreviated in Greek using lambda with modified forms of the iota subscript (as Î»Í…). These are variously encoded in Unicode. The Ancient Greek Numbers Unicode block includes 10183 {{sc|greek litra sign}} (ð†ƒ) as well as ð…¢, which is described as 10162 {{sc|greek acrophonic hermionian ten}}Unicode Ancient Greek Numbers block. but was much more common as a form of the litra sign. A variant of the sign can be formed from 0338 {{sc|combining long solidus overlay}} and either 039B {{sc|greek capital letter lamda}} (Î›Ì¸) or 03BB {{sc|greek small letter lamda}} (Î»Ì¸).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110716030016weblink">weblink yes, 2011-07-16, Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, Stephanus.TLG.UCI.edu, PDF,

## Character encodings

Unicode uses the spelling "lamda" in character names, instead of "lambda", due to "preferences expressed by the Greek National Body"weblink- Greek Lambda / Coptic Laula

name1=Greek Capital Letter Lamda | name2=Greek Small Letter Lamda | name3=Greek Letter Small Capital Lamda | name4=Coptic Capital Letter Laula | name5=Coptic Small Letter Laula | Code page 737>DOS Greek | map2char2=A2 | Code page 869>DOS Greek-2 | map3char2=E5 | Windows-1253>map4char1=CB|map4char2=EB | TeX>ref1char1=Lambda|ref1char2=lambda}} - Mathematical Lambda
| name1=Mathematical BoldCapital Lamda | name2=Mathematical BoldSmall Lamda | name3=Mathematical ItalicCapital Lamda | name4=Mathematical ItalicSmall Lamda | name5=Mathematical Bold ItalicCapital Lamda | name6=Mathematical Bold ItalicSmall Lamda}}{{charmap | name1=Mathematical Sans-SerifBold Capital Lamda | name2=Mathematical Sans-SerifBold Small Lamda | name3=Mathematical Sans-SerifBold Italic Capital Lamda | name4=Mathematical Sans-SerifBold Italic Small Lamda}}These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style.## See also{{Wiktionary|Î›|Î»}}- El (Cyrillic) â€“ Ð›, Ð»
- Fraser alphabetConsonants
- Greek letters used in mathematics, science, and engineering
## References{{Reflist}} |

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