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istishab
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{{Usul al-fiqh}}{{italic}}Istishab ( {{trans|continuity}}) is an Islamic term used in the jurisprudence to denote the principle of the presumption of continuity.WEB,weblink Istishab - Oxford Islamic Studies Online, www.oxfordislamicstudies.com, en, Islamic legal term for the presumption of continuity, where a situation existing previously is presumed to be continuing at present until the contrary is proven., 2017-11-30, It is derived from an Arabic word suhbah meaning accompany.WEB,weblink ترجمة و معنى استصحاب في قاموس عربي انجليزي, Meaning of Istishab in English Arabic Almaany Dictionary, Team, Almaany, www.almaany.com, en, 2017-11-30, It is one of the fundamental principles of the legal deduction that presumes the continuation of a fact. It is based on probability and can be applied in the absence of other proofs.BOOK,weblink Theory and Practice of Modern Islamic Finance: The Case Analysis from Australia, Ahmad, Abu Umar Faruq, 2010, Universal-Publishers, 9781599425177, en, Istishab, an initiative of ash-Shafii,BOOK,weblink Understanding Islamic Theology, Sookhdeo, Patrick, 2014-06-30, BookBaby, 9780989290548, en, is the rationalistic principle of extracting a legal solution according to which changes are not considered to occur until clear signs of these changes are apparent. It serves as the basis for many legal rulings such as the presumption of innocence—the person is regarded as innocent unless proven guilty. Malik ibn Anas and ash-Shafii regarded it to be a proof until it is contradicted.BOOK,weblink Shari’a Law in Commercial and Banking Arbitration: Law and Practice in Saudi Arabia, Baamir, Abdulrahman Yahya, 2016-04-01, Routledge, 9781317055624, en, Several classical jurists differed over this principle with some Hanafi jurists refusing to regard it as an evidence.BOOK,weblink Mabānī-i istinbāṭ-i ḥuqūq-i Islāmī, yā, Uṣūl-i fiqh, al-Ḥasan., Muḥammadī, Abū, 2002, Muʼassasah-ʼi Intishārāt va Chāp-i Dānishgāh-i Tihrān, 9640340766, Chāp-i 14, Tihrān, 54049210, BOOK,weblink Foundations of Jurisprudence - An Introduction to Imāmī Shīʿī Legal Theory: Mabādiʾ al-wuṣūl ilā ʿilm al-uṣūl, al-Ḥillī, al-ʿAllāmah, 2016-11-10, BRILL, 9789004311770, en, It is now widely employed by the contemporaries scholars with the exception of Hanbali scholars.BOOK,weblink Shari'ah Law: An Introduction, Kamali, Mohammad Hashim, 2008-03-17, Oneworld Publications, 9781780740379, en, WEB,weblink Al Qawaaid al Fiqhiyyah - Shakeel Mahate, www.smahate.com, 2017-11-30,

Definition

Ibn al-Qayyim defined it asWEB,weblink The Eighth Principle: The Principle of Istishab (Presumption of Continuity), www.iium.edu.my, 2017-11-30, Al-Qarafi expressed it as the validity of the former state in the following words.

Types

Istishab is divided into several types. The majority of the scholars agree upon three types.BOOK,weblink Inevitable Doubt: Two Theories of Shīʻī Jurisprudence, Gleave, Robert, 2000, BRILL, 9004115951, en,

Presumption of the original absence

It is the absence of any Shariah norms on an adult Muslim, until their legitimacy is established. An example is the absence of the mandatory sixth prayer for a Muslim, the resumption of the person's innocence in a crime, etc. Islamic theologians are unanimous regarding the validity of this type.BOOK,weblink Foundations of Jurisprudence - An Introduction to Imāmī Shīʿī Legal Theory: Mabādiʾ al-wuṣūl ilā ʿilm al-uṣūl, al-Ḥillī, al-ʿAllāmah, 2016-11-10, BRILL, 9789004311770, en,

Basis in everyday life is permissiveness

The overwhelming majority of jurists believe that the basis in useful everyday things is permissiveness and in harmful things is prohibition. For example, a certain type of food is allowed until a Sharia argument is established, proving its prohibition.

Presumption of existence before evidence is available

If there are Sharia texts with respect to any norm, backed up by the Istishab, then statements about the abolition of this rule will not be accepted until they are backed up by evidence. An example is the continued ownership of property rights. The application to terminate property will not be accepted until evidence is submitted supporting these statements. Another example is the validity of the ablution, which will not invalidated on the mere basis of doubt.

References

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