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interpretations of quantum mechanics
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{{Quantum mechanics|cTopic=Interpretations}}An interpretation of quantum mechanics is an attempt to explain how the mathematical theory of quantum mechanics "corresponds" to reality. Although quantum mechanics has held up to rigorous and extremely precise tests in an extraordinarily broad range of experiments (not one prediction from quantum mechanics is found to be contradicted by experiments), there exist a number of contending schools of thought over their interpretation. These views on interpretation differ on such fundamental questions as whether quantum mechanics is deterministic or random, which elements of quantum mechanics can be considered "real", and what is the nature of measurement, among other matters.Despite nearly a century of debate and experiment, no consensus has been reached amongst physicists and philosophers of physics concerning which interpretation best "represents" reality.Murray Gell-Mann - Quantum Mechanics Interpretations - Feynman Sum over Histories - EPR Bertlemann'weblink P Feynman: Quantum Mechanical View of Reality 1 (Part 1weblink Schlosshauer, Maximilian, Kofler, Johannes, Zeilinger, Anton, 2013-08-01, A snapshot of foundational attitudes toward quantum mechanics, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 44, 3, 222â€“230, 10.1016/j.shpsb.2013.04.004, 1355-2198, 1301.1069, - the content below is remote from Wikipedia
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History
{{multiple image| header = Influential figures in the interpretation of quantum mechanics| header_align = center| header_background = #CCCCFF|align=right|direction=horizontal|image1=Erwin Schrodinger2.jpg! Interpretation! Year published! Author(s)! Deterministic?! Ontologically real wavefunction?! Unique history?! Hidden variables?! Collapsing wavefunctions?! Observer role?! Local dynamics?! Counterfactually definite?! Extant universal wavefunction?| Quantum logic|1936|Garrett Birkhoff| Time-symmetric theories|1955|Satosi Watanabe| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}weblink| {{no}}| {{yes}}| Many-worlds interpretation|1957|Hugh Everett| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| Stochastic interpretation|1966|Edward Nelson| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| Many-minds interpretation|1970|H. Dieter Zeh| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| Consistent histories|1984|Robert B. Griffiths| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| Transactional interpretation|1986|John G. Cramer| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| QBism|2010| Christopher Fuchs, Ruediger Schack| {{no}}Erwin SchrÃ¶dinger>SchrÃ¶dinger|width1=150|image2=Max Born.jpg | Max Born>Born|width2=147|image3=Niels Bohr.jpg | Niels Bohr>Bohr|width3=135}}The definition of quantum theorists' terms, such as wave functions and matrix mechanics, progressed through many stages. For instance, Erwin SchrÃ¶dinger originally viewed the electron's wave function as its charge density smeared across space, whereas Max Born reinterpreted the absolute square value of the wave function as the electron's probability density distributed across space.The views of several early pioneers of quantum mechanics, such as Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, are often grouped together as the "Copenhagen interpretation", though physicists and historians of physics have argued that this terminology obscures differences between the views so designated.BOOK, Jammer, Max, Max Jammer, Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics: The interpretations of quantum mechanics in historical perspective, 1974, Wiley-Interscience, JOURNAL, Camilleri, Kristian, 2009-02-01, Constructing the Myth of the Copenhagen Interpretation,weblink Perspectives on Science, 17, 1, 26â€“57, 1530-9274, 10.1162/posc.2009.17.1.26, While Copenhagen-type ideas were never universally embraced, challenges to a perceived Copenhagen orthodoxy gained increasing attention in the 1950s with the pilot-wave interpretation of David Bohm and the many-worlds interpretation of Hugh Everett III.Vaidman, L. (2002, March 24). Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:weblink Frank J. Tipler, The Physics of Immortality: Modern Cosmology, God, and the Resurrection of the Dead,weblink 1994, Anchor Books, 978-0-385-46799-5, Moreover, the strictly formalist position, shunning interpretation, has been challenged by proposals for falsifiable experiments that might one day distinguish among interpretations, as by measuring an AI consciousnessQuantum theory as a universal physical theory, by David Deutsch, International Journal of Theoretical Physics, Vol 24 #1 (1985) or via quantum computing.Three connections between Everett's interpretation and experiment Quantum Concepts of Space and Time, by David Deutsch, Oxford University Press (1986){{Primary source inline|date=July 2019|reason=We shouldn't just cite Deutsch for Deutsch's ideas; the community seems as divided about what QC implies for foundations as it is for anything else involving foundations}}The physicist N. David Mermin once quipped, "New interpretations appear every year. None ever disappear."JOURNAL, Mermin, N. David, 2012-07-01, Commentary: Quantum mechanics: Fixing the shifty split, Physics Today, 65, 7, 8â€“10, 10.1063/PT.3.1618, 0031-9228, 2012PhT....65g...8M, As a rough guide to development of the mainstream view during the 1990s to 2000s, consider the "snapshot" of opinions collected in a poll by Schlosshauer et al. at the "Quantum Physics and the Nature of Reality" conference of July 2011.JOURNAL, 1301.1069
, A Snapshot of Foundational Attitudes Toward Quantum Mechanics
The authors reference a similarly informal poll carried out by Max Tegmark at the "Fundamental Problems in Quantum Theory" conference in August 1997. The main conclusion of the authors is that "the Copenhagen interpretation still reigns supreme", receiving the most votes in their poll (42%), besides the rise to mainstream notability of the many-worlds interpretations:
, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics , 44 , 3 , 222â€“230 , 2013-01-06 , Schlosshauer , Maximilian , Kofler , Johannes , Zeilinger , Anton , Anton Zeilinger , 10.1016/j.shpsb.2013.04.004 , 2013SHPMP..44..222S ,
"The Copenhagen interpretation still reigns supreme here, especially if we lump it together with intellectual offsprings such as information-based interpretations and the Quantum Bayesian interpretation. In Tegmark's poll, the Everett interpretation received 17% of the vote, which is similar to the number of votes (18%) in our poll."
NatureMore or less, all interpretations of quantum mechanics share two qualities:
Challenges
SummariesClassification adopted by EinsteinAn interpretation (i.e. a semantic explanation of the formal mathematics of quantum mechanics) can be characterized by its treatment of certain matters addressed by Einstein, such as:
Copenhagen interpretationThe Copenhagen interpretation is the "standard" interpretation of quantum mechanics formulated by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg while collaborating in Copenhagen around 1927. Bohr and Heisenberg extended the probabilistic interpretation of the wavefunction proposed originally by Max Born. The Copenhagen interpretation rejects questions like "where was the particle before I measured its position?" as meaningless. The measurement process randomly picks out exactly one of the many possibilities allowed for by the state's wave function in a manner consistent with the well-defined probabilities that are assigned to each possible state. According to the interpretation, the interaction of an observer or apparatus that is external to the quantum system is the cause of wave function collapse, thus according to Paul Davies, "reality is in the observations, not in the electron"weblink In general, after a measurement (click of a Geiger counter or a trajectory in a spark or bubble chamber) it ceases to be relevant unless subsequent experimental observations can be performed.Many worldsThe many-worlds interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics in which a universal wavefunction obeys the same deterministic, reversible laws at all times; in particular there is no (indeterministic and irreversible) wavefunction collapse associated with measurement. The phenomena associated with measurement are claimed to be explained by decoherence, which occurs when states interact with the environment producing entanglement, repeatedly "splitting" the universe into mutually unobservable alternate historiesâ€”effectively distinct universes within a greater multiverse.Consistent historiesThe consistent histories interpretation generalizes the conventional Copenhagen interpretation and attempts to provide a natural interpretation of quantum cosmology. The theory is based on a consistency criterion that allows the history of a system to be described so that the probabilities for each history obey the additive rules of classical probability. It is claimed to be consistent with the SchrÃ¶dinger equation.According to this interpretation, the purpose of a quantum-mechanical theory is to predict the relative probabilities of various alternative histories (for example, of a particle).Ensemble interpretationThe ensemble interpretation, also called the statistical interpretation, can be viewed as a minimalist interpretation. That is, it claims to make the fewest assumptions associated with the standard mathematics. It takes the statistical interpretation of Born to the fullest extent. The interpretation states that the wave function does not apply to an individual system{{spaced ndash}}for example, a single particle{{spaced ndash}}but is an abstract statistical quantity that only applies to an ensemble (a vast multitude) of similarly prepared systems or particles. Probably the most notable supporter of such an interpretation was Einstein:The most prominent current advocate of the ensemble interpretation is Leslie E. Ballentine, professor at Simon Fraser University, author of the graduate level text book Quantum Mechanics, A Modern Development. An experiment illustrating the ensemble interpretation is provided in Akira Tonomura's Video clip 1.WEB,weblink, An experiment illustrating the ensemble interpretation
, Hitachi.com , , 2011-01-24, It is evident from this double-slit experiment with an ensemble of individual electrons that, since the quantum mechanical wave function (absolutely squared) describes the completed interference pattern, it must describe an ensemble. De Broglieâ€“Bohm theoryThe de Broglieâ€“Bohm theory of quantum mechanics (also known as the pilot wave theory) is a theory by Louis de Broglie and extended later by David Bohm to include measurements. Particles, which always have positions, are guided by the wavefunction. The wavefunction evolves according to the SchrÃ¶dinger wave equation, and the wavefunction never collapses. The theory takes place in a single space-time, is non-local, and is deterministic. The simultaneous determination of a particle's position and velocity is subject to the usual uncertainty principle constraint. The theory is considered to be a hidden-variable theory, and by embracing non-locality it satisfies Bell's inequality. The measurement problem is resolved, since the particles have definite positions at all times.JOURNAL, Maudlin, T., 1995, Why Bohm's Theory Solves the Measurement Problem, Philosophy of Science, 62, 3, 479â€“483, 10.1086/289879, Collapse is explained as (wikt:phenomenology|phenomenological).ARXIV, Durr, D., Zanghi, N., Goldstein, S., quant-ph/9511016, Bohmian Mechanics as the Foundation of Quantum Mechanics , Nov 14, 1995, Also published in BOOK, J.T. Cushing, Arthur Fine, S. Goldstein, Bohmian Mechanics and Quantum Theory: An Appraisal,weblink 17 April 2013, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-94-015-8715-0, 21â€“43,Relational quantum mechanicsThe essential idea behind relational quantum mechanics, following the precedent of special relativity, is that different observers may give different accounts of the same series of events: for example, to one observer at a given point in time, a system may be in a single, "collapsed" eigenstate, while to another observer at the same time, it may be in a superposition of two or more states. Consequently, if quantum mechanics is to be a complete theory, relational quantum mechanics argues that the notion of "state" describes not the observed system itself, but the relationship, or correlation, between the system and its observer(s). The state vector of conventional quantum mechanics becomes a description of the correlation of some degrees of freedom in the observer, with respect to the observed system. However, it is held by relational quantum mechanics that this applies to all physical objects, whether or not they are conscious or macroscopic. Any "measurement event" is seen simply as an ordinary physical interaction, an establishment of the sort of correlation discussed above. Thus the physical content of the theory has to do not with objects themselves, but the relations between them.WEB,weblink, Relational Quantum Mechanics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
An independent relational approach to quantum mechanics was developed in analogy with David Bohm's elucidation of special relativity,David Bohm, The Special Theory of Relativity, Benjamin, New York, 1965 in which a detection event is regarded as establishing a relationship between the quantized field and the detector. The inherent ambiguity associated with applying Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is subsequently avoided.See relational approach to wave-particle duality. For a full account see JOURNAL, 10.4006/1.3029255,weblink Quantum Optics as a Relativistic Theory of Light, Physics Essays, 9, 3, 447, 1996, Zheng, Qianbing, Kobayashi, Takayoshi, 1996PhyEs...9..447Z, Also, see Annual Report, Department of Physics, School of Science, University of Tokyo (1992) 240., Plato.stanford.edu , , 2011-01-24, For more information, see JOURNAL, 10.1007/BF02302261, Carlo Rovelli, 1996, Relational Quantum Mechanics, International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 35, 8, 1637â€“1678, quant-ph/9609002, 1996IJTP...35.1637R, Carlo Rovelli, Transactional interpretationThe transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics (TIQM) by John G. Cramer is an interpretation of quantum mechanics inspired by the Wheelerâ€“Feynman absorber theory.WEB,weblink , It describes the collapse of the wave function as resulting from a time-symmetric transaction between a possibility wave from the source to the receiver (the wave function) and a possibility wave from the receiver to source (the complex conjugate of the wave function). This interpretation of quantum mechanics is unique in that it not only views the wave function as a real entity, but the complex conjugate of the wave function, which appears in the Born rule for calculating the expected value for an observable, as also real., Quantum Nocality â€“ Cramer , Npl.washington.edu , 2011-01-24 , dead ,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101229074514weblink">weblink , 2010-12-29 Stochastic mechanicsAn entirely classical derivation and interpretation of SchrÃ¶dinger's wave equation by analogy with Brownian motion was suggested by Princeton University professor Edward Nelson in 1966.JOURNAL, Nelson, E, 1966, Derivation of the SchrÃ¶dinger Equation from Newtonian Mechanics, Phys. Rev., 150, 4, 1079â€“1085, 10.1103/physrev.150.1079, 1966PhRv..150.1079N, Similar considerations had previously been published, for example by R. FÃ¼rth (1933), I. FÃ©nyes (1952), and Walter Weizel (1953), and are referenced in Nelson's paper. More recent work on the stochastic interpretation has been done by M. Pavon.JOURNAL, Pavon, M., 2000, Stochastic mechanics and the Feynman integral, J. Math. Phys., 41, 9, 6060â€“6078, 10.1063/1.1286880, quant-ph/0007015, 2000JMP....41.6060P, An alternative stochastic interpretationJOURNAL, Roumen Tsekov, Bohmian Mechanics versus Madelung Quantum Hydrodynamics, 2012, 112â€“119, Ann. Univ. Sofia, Fac. Phys., 0904.0723, 2012AUSFP..SE..112T, SE, 10.13140/RG.2.1.3663.8245,weblink was developed by Roumen Tsekov.Objective collapse theoriesObjective collapse theories differ from the Copenhagen interpretation by regarding both the wave function and the process of collapse as ontologically objective (meaning these exist and occur independent of the observer). In objective theories, collapse occurs either randomly ("spontaneous localization") or when some physical threshold is reached, with observers having no special role. Thus, objective-collapse theories are realistic, indeterministic, no-hidden-variables theories. Standard quantum mechanics does not specify any mechanism of collapse; QM would need to be extended if objective collapse is correct. The requirement for an extension to QM means that objective collapse is more of a theory than an interpretation. Examples include, Frigg, R. GRW theory
, , 2011-01-24,
,weblink , , Review of Penrose's Shadows of the Mind , Thymos.com , 1999 , 2011-01-24 ,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20010209001439weblink">weblink , 2001-02-09 , dead
Consciousness causes collapse (von Neumannâ€“Wigner interpretation)In his treatise The Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, John von Neumann deeply analyzed the so-called measurement problem. He concluded that the entire physical universe could be made subject to the SchrÃ¶dinger equation (the universal wave function). He also described how measurement could cause a collapse of the wave function.von Neumann, John. (1932/1955). Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Translated by Robert T. Beyer. This point of view was prominently expanded on by Eugene Wigner, who argued that human experimenter consciousness (or maybe even dog consciousness) was critical for the collapse, but he later abandoned this interpretation.[Michael Esfeld, (1999), "Essay Review: Wigner's View of Physical Reality", published in Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 30B, pp. 145â€“154, Elsevier Science Ltd.]ARXIV, quant-ph/9501014, Zvi Schreiber, The Nine Lives of SchrÃ¶dinger's Cat, 1995, Variations of the consciousness causes collapse interpretation include:
Subjective reduction research
This principle, that consciousness causes the collapse, is the point of intersection between quantum mechanics and the mind/body problem; and researchers are working to detect conscious events correlated with physical events that, according to quantum theory, should involve a wave function collapse; but, thus far, results are inconclusive.Dick J. Bierman and Stephen Whitmarsh. (2006). Consciousness and Quantum Physics: Empirical Research on the Subjective Reduction of the State Vector. in Jack A. Tuszynski (Ed). The Emerging Physics of Consciousness. p. 27-48.JOURNAL, Nunn, C. M. H., etal, 1994, Collapse of a Quantum Field may Affect Brain Function. ', Journal of Consciousness Studies, 1, 1, 127â€“139,
Participatory anthropic principle (PAP)
John Archibald Wheeler's participatory anthropic principle says that consciousness plays some role in bringing the universe into existence.WEB,weblink , - The anthropic universe
Other physicists have elaborated their own variations of the consciousness causes collapse interpretation; including: , 2006-02-18 , Abc.net.au , 2011-01-24,
Many mindsThe many-minds interpretation of quantum mechanics extends the many-worlds interpretation by proposing that the distinction between worlds should be made at the level of the mind of an individual observer.Quantum logicQuantum logic can be regarded as a kind of propositional logic suitable for understanding the apparent anomalies regarding quantum measurement, most notably those concerning composition of measurement operations of complementary variables. This research area and its name originated in the 1936 paper by Garrett Birkhoff and John von Neumann, who attempted to reconcile some of the apparent inconsistencies of classical boolean logic with the facts related to measurement and observation in quantum mechanics.Quantum information theoriesQuantum informational approachesNEWS,weblink
, In the beginning was the bit , New Scientist , 2001-02-17 , 2013-01-25, have attracted growing support.NEWS ,weblink , Quantum physics has been rankling scientists for decades , Boulder Daily Camera , Kate Becker , 2013-01-25 , 2013-01-25, They subdivide into two kindsInformation, Immaterialism, Instrumentalism: Old and New in Quantum Information. Christopher G. Timpson
Modal interpretations of quantum theoryModal interpretations of quantum mechanics were first conceived of in 1972 by B. van Fraassen, in his paper "A formal approach to the philosophy of science." However, this term now is used to describe a larger set of models that grew out of this approach. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy describes several versions:WEB,weblink, Modal Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics
, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , Science.uva.nl , , 2011-01-24,
Time-symmetric theoriesSeveral theories have been proposed which modify the equations of quantum mechanics to be symmetric with respect to time reversal.JOURNAL, Watanabe, Satosi, 1955, Symmetry of physical laws. Part III. Prediction and retrodiction, Reviews of Modern Physics, 27, 2, 179â€“186, 10.1103/revmodphys.27.179, 1955RvMP...27..179W, 10945/47584, JOURNAL, Aharonov, Y., etal, 1964, Time Symmetry in the Quantum Process of Measurement, Phys. Rev., 134, 6B, B1410â€“1416, 10.1103/physrev.134.b1410, 1964PhRv..134.1410A, Aharonov, Y. and Vaidman, L. "On the Two-State Vector Reformulation of Quantum Mechanics." Physica Scripta, Volume T76, pp. 85-92 (1998).JOURNAL, Wharton, K. B., 2007, Time-Symmetric Quantum Mechanics, Foundations of Physics, 37, 1, 159â€“168, 10.1007/s10701-006-9089-1, 2007FoPh...37..159W, JOURNAL, Wharton, K. B., 2010, A Novel Interpretation of the Kleinâ€“Gordon Equation, Foundations of Physics, 40, 3, 313â€“332, 10.1007/s10701-009-9398-2, 2010FoPh...40..313W, 0706.4075, JOURNAL, Heaney, M. B., 2013, A Symmetrical Interpretation of the Kleinâ€“Gordon Equation, Foundations of Physics, 43, 6, 733â€“746, 10.1007/s10701-013-9713-9, 1211.4645, 2013FoPh...43..733H, (E.g. see Wheeler-Feynman time-symmetric theory). This creates retrocausality: events in the future can affect ones in the past, exactly as events in the past can affect ones in the future. In these theories, a single measurement cannot fully determine the state of a system (making them a type of hidden-variables theory), but given two measurements performed at different times, it is possible to calculate the exact state of the system at all intermediate times. The collapse of the wavefunction is therefore not a physical change to the system, just a change in our knowledge of it due to the second measurement. Similarly, they explain entanglement as not being a true physical state but just an illusion created by ignoring retrocausality. The point where two particles appear to "become entangled" is simply a point where each particle is being influenced by events that occur to the other particle in the future.Not all advocates of time-symmetric causality favour modifying the unitary dynamics of standard quantum mechanics. Thus a leading exponent of the two-state vector formalism, Lev Vaidman, highlights how well the two-state vector formalism dovetails with Hugh Everett's many-worlds interpretation.Yakir Aharonov, Lev Vaidman: The Two-State Vector Formalism of Quantum Mechanics: an Updated Review. In: Juan Gonzalo Muga, Rafael Sala Mayato, ÃÃ±igo Egusquiza (eds.): Time in Quantum Mechanics, Volume 1, Lecture Notes in Physics 734, pp. 399â€“447, 2nd ed., Springer, 2008, {{ISBN|978-3-540-73472-7}}, {{doi|10.1007/978-3-540-73473-4_13}}, {{arXiv|quant-ph/0105101}}, p. 443Branching space-time theoriesBST theories resemble the many worlds interpretation; however, "the main difference is that the BST interpretation takes the branching of history to be a feature of the topology of the set of events with their causal relationships... rather than a consequence of the separate evolution of different components of a state vector." In MWI, it is the wave functions that branches, whereas in BST, the space-time topology itself branches.BST has applications to Bell's theorem, quantum computation and quantum gravity. It also has some resemblance to hidden-variable theories and the ensemble interpretation: particles in BST have multiple well defined trajectories at the microscopic level. These can only be treated stochastically at a coarse grained level, in line with the ensemble interpretation.Sharlow, Mark; "What Branching Spacetime might do for Physics" p.2Other interpretationsAs well as the mainstream interpretations discussed above, a number of other interpretations have been proposed which have not made a significant scientific impact for whatever reason. These range from proposals by mainstream physicists to the more occult ideas of quantum mysticism.ComparisonThe most common interpretations are summarized in the table below. The values shown in the cells of the table are not without controversy, for the precise meanings of some of the concepts involved are unclear and, in fact, are themselves at the center of the controversy surrounding the given interpretation. For another table comparing interpretations of quantum theory, see reference.BOOK, What is quantum information?, Olimpia, Lombardi, 1979-, Fortin, Sebastian, Federico, Holik, Cristian, LÃ³pez, 2017, 9781107142114, 138â€“144, 965759965, 1509.04711, 10.1017/9781316494233.009, Interpretations of Quantum Theory: A Map of Madness, No experimental evidence exists that distinguishes among these interpretations. To that extent, the physical theory stands, and is consistent with itself and with reality; difficulties arise only when one attempts to "interpret" the theory. Nevertheless, designing experiments which would test the various interpretations is the subject of active research.Most of these interpretations have variants. For example, it is difficult to get a precise definition of the Copenhagen interpretation as it was developed and argued about by many people.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center;" | |||||||||||
Ensemble Interpretation>Ensemble interpretation|1926|Max Born | Agnostic}}| {{no}}| {{yes}} | Agnostic}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}} | |||||||||||
Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics>Copenhagen interpretation|1927|Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg| {{no}} | note1|1}}| {{yes}}| {{no}} | note2|2}} | Causal}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}} | ||||||||||
De Broglieâ€“Bohm theory>de Broglieâ€“ Bohm theory|1927- 1952|Louis de Broglie, David Bohm| {{yes}} | note3|3}} | note4|4}}| {{yes}} | Phenomenological}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} | ||||||||||
Agnostic}} | Agnostic}} | note5|5}}| {{no}}| {{no}} | Interpretational{{ref | 6}}}} | Agnostic}}| {{no}}| {{no}} | ||||||||
Von Neumannâ€“Wigner interpretation>Consciousness causes collapse|1961- 1993|Eugene Wigner,Henry Stapp| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}} | Causal}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}} | ||||||||||||
note14|14}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}} | note14|14}}| {{no}} | ||||||||||||
Interpretational{{ref | 7}}}}| {{yes}} | Ill-posed}}| {{yes}} | |||||||||||
note8|8}}| {{no}} | note12|12}}| {{yes}}| {{no}} | ||||||||||||
Objective collapse theory>Objective collapse theories|1986- 1989 | Ghirardiâ€“Riminiâ€“Weber theory>Ghirardiâ€“Riminiâ€“Weber, Penrose interpretation| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}} | ||||||||||||
Relational quantum mechanics>Relational interpretation|1994|Carlo Rovelli| {{no}weblink| {{no}} | Agnostic{{ref | 9}}}}| {{no}} | note10|10}} | Intrinsic{{ref | 11}}}} | LAST2=ROVELLI | DATE=2007-03-01 | JOURNAL=FOUNDATIONS OF PHYSICS | VOLUME=37 | PAGES=427â€“445 | ISSN=0015-9018 | BIBCODE=2007FOPH...37..427S, | {{no}}| {{no}} | |
note16|16}} | Agnostic{{ref | 17}}}}| {{no}} | note18|18}} | Intrinsic{{ref | 19}}}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}} |
- {{note label|note1|1}} According to Bohr, the concept of a physical state independent of the conditions of its experimental observation does not have a well-defined meaning. According to Heisenberg the wavefunction represents a probability, but not an objective reality itself in space and time.
- {{note label|note2|2}} According to the Copenhagen interpretation, the wavefunction collapses when a measurement is performed.
- {{note label|note3|3}} Both particle AND guiding wavefunction are real.
- {{note label|note4|4}} Unique particle history, but multiple wave histories.
- {{note label|note5|5}} But quantum logic is more limited in applicability than Coherent Histories.
- {{note label|note6|6}} Quantum mechanics is regarded as a way of predicting observations, or a theory of measurement.
- {{note label|note7|7}} Observers separate the universal wavefunction into orthogonal sets of experiences.
- {{note label|note8|8}} In the TI the collapse of the state vector is interpreted as the completion of the transaction between emitter and absorber.
- {{note label|note9|9}} Comparing histories between systems in this interpretation has no well-defined meaning.
- {{note label|note10|10}} Any physical interaction is treated as a collapse event relative to the systems involved, not just macroscopic or conscious observers.
- {{note label|note11|11}} The state of the system is observer-dependent, i.e., the state is specific to the reference frame of the observer.
- {{note label|note12|12}} The transactional interpretation is explicitly non-local.
- {{note label|note13|13}} The assumption of intrinsic periodicity is an element of non-locality consistent with relativity as the periodicity varies in a causal way.
- {{note label|note14|14}} In the stochastic interpretation is not possible to define velocities for particles, i.e. the paths are not smooth. Moreover, to know the motion of the particles at any moment, you have to know what the Markov process is. However, once we know the exactly initial conditions and the Markov process, the theory is in fact a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics.
- {{note label|note16|16}} A wavefunction merely encodes an agentâ€™s expectations for future experiences. It is no more real than a probability distribution is in subjective Bayesianism.
- {{note label|note17|17}} Quantum theory is a tool any agent may use to help manage their expectations. The past comes into play only insofar as an agentâ€™s individual experiences and temperament influence their priors.
- {{note label|note18|18}} Although QBism would eschew this terminology. A change in the wavefunction that an agent ascribes to a system as a result of having an experience represents a change in his or her beliefs about further experiences they may have. See Doxastic logic.
- {{note label|note19|19}} Observers, or more properly, participants, are as essential to the formalism as the systems they interact with.
The silent approach
Although interpretational opinions are openly and widely discussed today, that was not always the case. A notable exponent of a tendency of silence was Paul Dirac who once wrote: "The interpretation of quantum mechanics has been dealt with by many authors, and I do not want to discuss it here. I want to deal with more fundamental things."P. A. M. Dirac, The inadequacies of quantum field theory, in Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, B. N. Kursunoglu and E. P. Wigner, Eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, 1987) p. 194 This position is not uncommon among practitioners of quantum mechanics.BOOK, Quantum Optics for Engineers, CRC, New York, 2014, 978-1439888537, F. J. Duarte, Others, like Nico van Kampen and Willis Lamb, have openly criticized non-orthodox interpretations of quantum mechanics.van Kampen, N. G. (2008). "The scandal of quantum mechanics". Am. J. Phys. 76: 989.Lamb, W. E. (2001). "Super classical quantum mechanics: the best interpretation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics." Am. J. Phys. 69: 413-421.See also
{{div col|colwidth=22em}}- Afshar experiment
- Bohrâ€“Einstein debates
- Einstein's thought experiments
- Glossary of quantum philosophy
- Macroscopic quantum phenomena
- Path integral formulation
- Philosophical interpretation of classical physics
- Popper's experiment
- Quantum foundations
- Quantum gravity
- Quantum Zeno effect
References
{{Reflist}}Sources
- JOURNAL, Bub, J., Clifton, R., 1996, A uniqueness theorem for interpretations of quantum mechanics, Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 27B, 181â€“219,
- Rudolf Carnap, 1939, "The interpretation of physics", in Foundations of Logic and Mathematics of the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science. University of Chicago Press.
- Dickson, M., 1994, "Wavefunction tails in the modal interpretation" in Hull, D., Forbes, M., and Burian, R., eds., Proceedings of the PSA 1" 366â€“76. East Lansing, Michigan: Philosophy of Science Association.
- --------, and Clifton, R., 1998, "Lorentz-invariance in modal interpretations" in Dieks, D. and Vermaas, P., eds., The Modal Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers: 9â€“48.
- Fuchs, Christopher, 2002, "Quantum Mechanics as Quantum Information (and only a little more)." {{arxiv|quant-ph/0205039}}
- -------- and A. Peres, 2000, "Quantum theory needs no â€˜interpretationâ€™", Physics Today.
- Herbert, N., 1985. Quantum Reality: Beyond the New Physics. New York: Doubleday. {{ISBN|0-385-23569-0}}.
- Hey, Anthony, and Walters, P., 2003. The New Quantum Universe, 2nd ed. Cambridge Univ. Press. {{ISBN|0-521-56457-3}}.
- JOURNAL, Jackiw, Roman, Roman Jackiw, Kleppner, D., 2000, One Hundred Years of Quantum Physics, 10.1126/science.289.5481.893, 17839156, Science (journal), Science, 289, 5481, 893â€“898, quant-ph/0008092,
- Max Jammer, 1966. The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics. McGraw-Hill.
- --------, 1974. The Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics. Wiley & Sons.
- Al-Khalili, 2003. Quantum: A Guide for the Perplexed. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
- de Muynck, W. M., 2002. Foundations of quantum mechanics, an empiricist approach. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. {{ISBN|1-4020-0932-1}}.
- Roland OmnÃ¨s, 1999. Understanding Quantum Mechanics. Princeton Univ. Press.
- Karl Popper, 1963. Conjectures and Refutations. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. The chapter "Three views Concerning Human Knowledge" addresses, among other things, instrumentalism in the physical sciences.
- Hans Reichenbach, 1944. Philosophic Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Univ. of California Press.
- JOURNAL, Tegmark, Max, Max Tegmark, Wheeler, J. A., 2001, 100 Years of Quantum Mysteries, Scientific American, 284, 2, 68â€“75, 10.1038/scientificamerican0201-68, 2001SciAm.284b..68T,
- Bas van Fraassen, 1972, "A formal approach to the philosophy of science", in R. Colodny, ed., Paradigms and Paradoxes: The Philosophical Challenge of the Quantum Domain. Univ. of Pittsburgh Press: 303-66.
- John A. Wheeler and Wojciech Hubert Zurek (eds), Quantum Theory and Measurement, Princeton: Princeton University Press, {{ISBN|0-691-08316-9}}, LoC QC174.125.Q38 1983.
Further reading
Almost all authors below are professional physicists.- David Z Albert, 1992. Quantum Mechanics and Experience. Harvard Univ. Press. {{ISBN|0-674-74112-9}}.
- John S. Bell, 1987. Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics. Cambridge Univ. Press, {{ISBN|0-521-36869-3}}. The 2004 edition ({{ISBN|0-521-52338-9}}) includes two additional papers and an introduction by Alain Aspect.
- Dmitrii Ivanovich Blokhintsev, 1968. The Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics. D. Reidel Publishing Company. {{ISBN|90-277-0105-9}}.
- David Bohm, 1980. Wholeness and the Implicate Order. London: Routledge. {{ISBN|0-7100-0971-2}}.
- ARXIV, Adan Cabello, 15 November 2004, Bibliographic guide to the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information, quant-ph/0012089,
- David Deutsch, 1997. The Fabric of Reality. London: Allen Lane. {{ISBN|0-14-027541-X}}; {{ISBN|0-7139-9061-9}}. Argues forcefully against instrumentalism. For general readers.
- BOOK, Quantum Optics for Engineers, CRC, New York, 2014, 978-1439888537, F. J. Duarte, Provides a pragmatic perspective on interpretations. For general readers.
- Bernard d'Espagnat, 1976. Conceptual Foundation of Quantum Mechanics, 2nd ed. Addison Wesley. {{ISBN|0-8133-4087-X}}.
- Bernard d'Espagnat, 1983. In Search of Reality. Springer. {{ISBN|0-387-11399-1}}.
- Bernard d'Espagnat, 2003. Veiled Reality: An Analysis of Quantum Mechanical Concepts. Westview Press.
- Bernard d'Espagnat, 2006. On Physics and Philosophy. Princeton Univ. Press.
- Arthur Fine, 1986. The Shaky Game: Einstein Realism and the Quantum Theory. Science and its Conceptual Foundations. Univ. of Chicago Press. {{ISBN|0-226-24948-4}}.
- Ghirardi, Giancarlo, 2004. Sneaking a Look at God's Cards. Princeton Univ. Press.
- Gregg Jaeger (2009) Entanglement, Information, and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Springer. {{ISBN|978-3-540-92127-1}}.
- N. David Mermin (1990) Boojums all the way through. Cambridge Univ. Press. {{ISBN|0-521-38880-5}}.
- Roland OmnÃ¨s, 1994. The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Princeton Univ. Press. {{ISBN|0-691-03669-1}}.
- Roland OmnÃ¨s, 1999. Understanding Quantum Mechanics. Princeton Univ. Press.
- Roland OmnÃ¨s, 1999. Quantum Philosophy: Understanding and Interpreting Contemporary Science. Princeton Univ. Press.
- Roger Penrose, 1989. The Emperor's New Mind. Oxford Univ. Press. {{ISBN|0-19-851973-7}}. Especially chpt. 6.
- Roger Penrose, 1994. Shadows of the Mind. Oxford Univ. Press. {{ISBN|0-19-853978-9}}.
- Roger Penrose, 2004. The Road to Reality. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Argues that quantum theory is incomplete.
- JOURNAL
, Styer, Daniel F.
, Daniel F. Styer
, March 2002
, Nine formulations of quantum mechanics
, American Journal of Physics
, 70, 3, 288â€“297
, 2002AmJPh..70..288S
, 10.1119/1.1445404
, Balkin
, Miranda S.
, Becker
, Kathryn M.
, Burns
, Matthew R.
, Dudley
, Christopher E.
, Forth
, Scott T.
, Gaumer
, Jeremy S.
, Kramer
, Mark A.
, Oertel
, David C., Park
, Leonard H.
, Rinkoski
, Marie T.
, Smith
, Clait T.
, Wotherspoon
, Timothy D.
, 8
,weblink
,
, Daniel F. Styer
, March 2002
, Nine formulations of quantum mechanics
, American Journal of Physics
, 70, 3, 288â€“297
, 2002AmJPh..70..288S
, 10.1119/1.1445404
, Balkin
, Miranda S.
, Becker
, Kathryn M.
, Burns
, Matthew R.
, Dudley
, Christopher E.
, Forth
, Scott T.
, Gaumer
, Jeremy S.
, Kramer
, Mark A.
, Oertel
, David C., Park
, Leonard H.
, Rinkoski
, Marie T.
, Smith
, Clait T.
, Wotherspoon
, Timothy D.
, 8
,weblink
,
External links
{{Wikiversity|Making sense of quantum mechanics}}- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
- "Bohmian mechanics" by Sheldon Goldstein.
- "Collapse Theories." by Giancarlo Ghirardi.
- "Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics" by Jan Faye.
- "Everett's Relative State Formulation of Quantum Mechanics" by Jeffrey Barrett.
- "Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics" by Lev Vaidman.
- "Modal Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics" by Michael Dickson and Dennis Dieks.
- "Philosophical Issues in Quantum Theory" by Wayne Myrvold.
- "Quantum-Bayesian and Pragmatist Views of Quantum Theory" by Richard Healey.
- "Quantum Entanglement and Information" by Jeffrey Bub.
- "Quantum mechanics" by Jenann Ismael.
- "Quantum Logic and Probability Theory" by Alexander Wilce.
- "Relational Quantum Mechanics" by Federico Laudisa and Carlo Rovelli.
- "The Role of Decoherence in Quantum Mechanics" by Guido Bacciagaluppi.
- Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
- "Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics" by Peter J. Lewis.
- "Everettian Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics" by Christina Conroy.
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