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{{pp-pc1|expiry=September 19, 2019}}{{About|the application software|the media store|iTunes Store}}{{Other uses|iTunes (disambiguation)}} {{pp-move-indef}}{{lowercase title}}

| size = {edih}| license = Freewareweblink}}}}{{Use mdy dates|date = June 2019}}{{macOS topics}}iTunes ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|aɪ|tj|uː|n|z}}){{citation|last=Wells|first=John C.|year=2008|title=Longman Pronunciation Dictionary|edition=3rd|publisher=Longman|page=427|isbn=9781405881180}} is a media player, media library, Internet radio broadcaster, and mobile device management application developed by Apple Inc. It was announced on January 9, 2001. It is used to play, download, and organize digital multimedia files, including music and video, on personal computers running the macOS and Windows operating systems. Content must be purchased through the iTunes Store, whereas iTunes is the software letting users manage their purchases.The original and main focus of iTunes is music, with a library offering organization, collection, and storage of users' music collections. It can be used to rip songs from CDs, as well as play content with the use of dynamic, smart playlists. Options for sound optimizations exist, as well as ways to wirelessly share the iTunes library. In 2005, Apple expanded on the core features with video support, later also adding podcasts, e-books, and a section for managing mobile apps for Apple's iOS operating system, the last of which it discontinued in 2017.The original iPhone smartphone required iTunes for activation and, until the release of iOS 5 in 2011, iTunes was required for installing software updates for the company's iOS devices. Newer iOS devices rely less on the iTunes software, though it can still be used for backup and restoration of phone contents, as well as for the transfer of files between a computer and individual iOS applications. iTunes has received significant criticism for a bloated user experience, with Apple adopting an all-encompassing feature-set in iTunes rather than sticking to its original music-based purpose.On June 3, 2019, Apple announced that iTunes will be replaced in macOS Catalina by separate applications for Music, Podcasts, and TV. Finder will also be able to perform the device management capabilities previously contained within iTunes. This increases continuity with iOS, where they are also separate apps.WEB,weblink Apple breaks up iTunes, creates separate Podcasts, TV, and Music apps for macOS, Carman, Ashley, 2019-06-03, The Verge, 2019-06-03, WEB,weblink Apple Is Officially Killing iTunes, Replacing It With Three Dedicated Media Apps, Roettgers, Janko, 2019-06-03, Variety, en, 2019-06-03, This change will not affect Windows or older macOS versions.WEB,weblink Apple’s iTunes Store, iTunes App for Windows Aren’t Going Away, Spangler, Todd, 2019-06-03, Variety, en, 2019-06-03,


{{See also|History of iTunes}}SoundJam MP, released by Casady & Greene in 1998, was renamed "iTunes" when Apple purchased it in 2000. The primary developers of the software moved to Apple as part of the acquisition, and simplified SoundJam's user interface, added the ability to burn CDs, and removed its recording feature and skin support.WEB, Jonathan, Seff, The Song Is Over for SoundJam,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, May 1, 2001, December 16, 2017, The first version of iTunes, promotionally dubbed "World’s Best and Easiest To Use Jukebox Software",WEB, Jacqui, Cheng, iTunes through the ages,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, November 23, 2012, December 16, 2017, was announced on January 9, 2001.WEB, Kirk, McElhearn, 15 years of iTunes: A look at Apple’s media app and its influence on an industry,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, January 9, 2016, December 16, 2017, Subsequent releases of iTunes often coincided with new hardware devices, and gradually included support for new features, including "smart playlists," the iTunes Store, and new audio formats.

Platform availability

Apple released iTunes for Windows in 2003.WEB,weblink Apple Launches iTunes for Windows, October 16, 2003, Apple Newsroom, Apple Inc., December 16, 2017, In May 2017, Microsoft and Apple announced that they would bring iTunes to the Microsoft Store by the end of that yearWEB,weblink Apple is bringing iTunes to the Windows Store, Warren, Tom, May 11, 2017, The Verge, Vox Media, December 16, 2017, in order to work on Windows 10 S devices, which are limited to software available in the Microsoft Store.WEB,weblink Apple is bringing iTunes to the Windows Store, Fingas, Jon, May 11, 2017, Engadget, Oath Inc., December 16, 2017, However, Apple told ZDNet in December that it "[needs] a little more time to get it right", and thus won't be available in 2017.WEB,weblink iTunes won't be in the Microsoft Store this year, Foley, Mary Jo, December 15, 2017, ZDNet, CBS Interactive, December 16, 2017, Apple released the Microsoft Store version on April 26, 2018.NEWS,weblink iTunes is now available in the Microsoft Store for Windows 10, Warren, Tom, April 26, 2018, The Verge, 2018-04-26,

Media management


Metadata and music importation

iTunes features a music library. Each track has attributes, called metadata, that can be edited by the user, including changing the name of the artist, album, and genre, year of release, artwork, among other additional settings.WEB, Matt, Elliott, Clean up and organize your iTunes music library,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, April 30, 2014, December 16, 2017, WEB, Dan, Miller, How I edit track metadata in iTunes,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, February 13, 2014, December 16, 2017, The software supports importing digital audio tracks that can then be transferred to iOS devices,WEB, Sam, Costello, How to Import Downloaded Music to iTunes,weblink Lifewire, Dotdash, October 4, 2017, December 16, 2017, as well as supporting ripping content from CDs.WEB, Sam, Costello, Use iTunes to Copy CDs to Your iPhone or iPod,weblink Lifewire, Dotdash, June 13, 2017, December 16, 2017, WEB, Christopher, Breen, How to rip CDs with iTunes,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, January 12, 2011, December 16, 2017, iTunes supports WAV, AIFF, Apple Lossless, AAC, and MP3 audio formats.WEB, Kirk, McElhearn, The complete guide to using iTunes with lossless audio,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, April 14, 2016, December 16, 2017, It uses the Gracenote music database to provide track name listings for audio CDs. When users rip content from a CD, iTunes attempts to match songs to the Gracenote service. For self-published CDs, or those from obscure record labels, iTunes will normally only list tracks as numbered entries ("Track 1", "Track 2") on an unnamed album by an unknown artist, requiring manual input of data.WEB, Sam, Costello, What To Do When iTunes Doesn't Have CD Names for Your Music,weblink Lifewire, Dotdash, March 28, 2017, December 16, 2017, File metadata is displayed in users' libraries in columns, including album, artist, genre, composer, and more.WEB, Tony, Bove, How to browse iTunes by artist and album,weblink For Dummies, John Wiley & Sons, December 16, 2017, Users can enable or disable different columns, as well as change view settings.WEB, Cory, Bohon, How to change iTunes playlist view,weblink TechRadar, Future plc, August 21, 2015, December 16, 2017,

Special playlists

Introduced in 2004,WEB, Jason, Snell, iTunes 4.5: Hits and Misses,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, April 28, 2004, December 16, 2017, "Party Shuffle" selected tracks to play randomly from the library, though users could press a button to skip the current song and go to the next in the list.WEB, Kirk, McElhearn, Doing the iTunes shuffle,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, February 5, 2007, December 16, 2017, The feature was later renamed "iTunes DJ",WEB, Jason Duaine, Hahn, Happy Birthday, iTunes: Here's How Apple's Media App Has Changed Over 14 Years,weblink Complex (magazine), Complex, Verizon Hearst Media Partners, January 10, 2015, December 16, 2017, before being discontinued altogether, replaced by a simpler "Up Next" feature that notably lost some of "iTunes DJ"'s functionality.WEB, Sam, Costello, Using the Up Next Feature in iTunes,weblink Lifewire, Dotdash, February 9, 2017, December 16, 2017, Introduced in iTunes 8 in 2008, "{{visible anchor|Genius}}" can automatically generate a playlist of songs from the user's library that "go great together".WEB, David, Chartier, Apple rocks out, announces new iPods, iTunes 8,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, September 9, 2008, December 16, 2017, "Genius" transmits information about the user's library to Apple anonymously, and evolves over time to enhance its recommendation system. It can also suggest purchases to fill out "holes" in the library.WEB, Daniel, Dumas, Let's rock: Apple unveils new iPod, Genius playlists, HDTV, NBC,weblink Wired (website), Wired, Condé Nast, September 9, 2008, December 16, 2017, The feature was updated with iTunes 9 in 2009 to offer "Genius Mixes", which generated playlists based on specific music genres.WEB, Tim, Cox, Tip: Update Genius in iTunes 9 to Access Genius Mixes,weblink Cult of Mac, September 9, 2009, December 16, 2017, WEB, Steven, Sande, iTunes 9 Genius Mixes: You don't need to be a genius to create 'em,weblink Engadget, Oath Inc., September 11, 2009, December 16, 2017, "Smart playlists" are a set of playlists that can be set to automatically filter the library based on a customized list of selection criteria, much like a database query. Multiple criteria can be entered to manage the smart playlist.WEB, Bryan, Gardiner, Use Smart playlists to keep your iPhone filled with your newest music,weblink Wired (website), Wired, Condé Nast, September 3, 2013, December 16, 2017, Selection criteria examples include a genre like Christmas music, songs that haven't been played recently, or songs the user has listened to the most in a time period.WEB, Gina, Trapani, Top 10 iTunes Smart Playlists,weblink Lifehacker, Univision Communications, February 13, 2008, December 16, 2017,

Library sharing

Through a "Home Sharing" feature, users can share their iTunes library wirelessly.WEB, Nik, Rawlinson, How to share your iTunes music library on a home network,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, June 13, 2012, December 16, 2017, Computer firewalls must allow network traffic, and users must specifically enable sharing in the iTunes preferences menu. iOS applications also exist that can transfer content without Internet.WEB, Drew, Prindle, How to share your iTunes library,weblink Digital Trends, April 4, 2013, December 16, 2017, Additionally, users can set up a network-attached storage system, and connect to that storage system through an app.WEB, Lance, Whitney, How to Share Your iTunes Library Among Multiple Devices,weblink PC Magazine, Ziff Davis, February 16, 2017, December 16, 2017,

Artwork printing

To compensate for the "boring" design of standard CDs, iTunes can print custom-made jewel case inserts. After burning a CD from a playlist, one can select that playlist and bring up a dialog box with several print options, including different "Themes" of album artworks.WEB, Jim, Heid, Create CD Inserts in iTunes,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, October 18, 2004, December 16, 2017,

Sound processing

iTunes includes sound processing features, such as equalization, "sound enhancement" and crossfade. There is also a feature called {{visible anchor|Sound Check}}, which automatically adjusts the playback volume of all songs in the library to the same level.WEB, Topher, Kessler, How to improve sound quality in iTunes,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, December 4, 2012, December 16, 2017, WEB, Kirk, McElhearn, How to tweak your sound in iTunes and on iOS devices,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, June 6, 2016, December 16, 2017,


In May 2005, video support was introduced to iTunes with the release of iTunes 4.8,WEB, iTunes 4.8 adds video support, Yorkdale store photos, more,weblink AppleInsider, May 9, 2005, December 16, 2017, though it was limited to bonus features part of album purchases.WEB, Luke, Dormehl, Today in Apple history: iTunes experiments with video downloads,weblink Cult of Mac, May 9, 2017, December 16, 2017, The following October, Apple introduced iTunes 6, enabling support for purchasing and viewing video content purchased from the iTunes Store. At launch, the store offered popular shows from the ABC network, including Desperate Housewives and Lost, along with Disney Channel series That's So Raven and The Suite Life of Zack and Cody. Then-CEO Steve Jobs told the press that "We’re doing for video what we’ve done for music — we’re making it easy and affordable to purchase and download, play on your computer, and take with you on your iPod".WEB, Mathew, Honan, Apple Releases iTunes 6,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, October 12, 2005, December 16, 2017, In 2008, Apple and select film studios introduced "iTunes Digital Copy", a feature on select DVDs and Blu-ray discs allowing a digital copy in iTunes and associated media players.WEB, Dan, Frakes, First Look: iTunes Digital Copy,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, January 22, 2008, December 16, 2017, WEB, Lionsgate joins Apple's Digital Copy for iTunes program,weblink AppleInsider, March 10, 2008, December 16, 2017, WEB, Neil, Hughes, iTunes Digital Copy redemptions from non-4K Blu-rays appear to support 4K streaming on new Apple TV,weblink AppleInsider, September 22, 2017, December 16, 2017,


(File:Podcasting icon.svg|thumb|The icon used by Apple to represent a podcast)In June 2005, Apple updated iTunes with support for podcasts.WEB, Pete, Naughton, The 10 best ever podcasts,weblink The Daily Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, June 14, 2015, December 16, 2017, WEB, Cyrus, Farivar, iTunes 4.9 First Look: Apple takes on Podcasting,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, June 28, 2005, December 16, 2017, Users can subscribe to podcasts, change update frequency, define how many episodes to download and how many to delete.Similarly to songs, "Smart playlists" can be used to control podcasts in a playlist, setting criteria such as date and number of times listened to.WEB, Mike, Schramm, How to: Create a smart podcast playlist in iTunes,weblink Engadget, Oath Inc., February 1, 2008, December 16, 2017,


In January 2010, Apple announced the iPad tablet, and along with it, a new app for it called Apple Books (previously known as iBooks). The app allowed users to purchase e-books from the iTunes Store, manage them through iTunes, and transfer the content to their iPad.WEB, Bobbie, Johnson, Charles, Arthur, Apple iPad: the wait is over – but is it future of media or oversized phone?,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, January 27, 2010, February 16, 2017,


On July 10, 2008, Apple introduced native mobile apps for its iOS operating system. On iOS, a dedicated App Store application served as the storefront for browsing, purchasing and managing applications, whereas iTunes on computers had a dedicated section for apps rather than a separate app.WEB, Lex, Friedman, The App Store turns five: A look back and forward,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, July 8, 2013, December 16, 2017, In September 2017, Apple updated iTunes to version 12.7, removing the App Store section in the process.WEB, Chris, Welch, Apple starts cutting the bloat from iTunes by removing iOS App Store,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, September 12, 2017, December 16, 2017, WEB, Jake, Smith, Apple's iTunes removes iOS App Store from desktop version,weblink ZDNet, CBS Interactive, September 13, 2017, December 16, 2017, However, the following month, iTunes 12.6.3 was also released, retaining the App Store, with 9to5Mac noting that the secondary release was positioned by Apple as "necessary for some businesses performing internal app deployments".WEB, Benjamin, Mayo, Apple still offers an iTunes version with App Store, Ringtones and other features removed in ‘focused’ iTunes 12.7,weblink 9to5Mac, October 9, 2017, December 16, 2017, WEB, Tim, Hardwick, Apple Quietly Releases iTunes 12.6.3 With Built-In App Store,weblink MacRumors, October 9, 2017, December 16, 2017,

iTunes Store

On April 28, 2003, Apple introduced the iTunes Store, then-named "iTunes Music Store". It allowed users to buy and download songs, with 200,000 tracks available at launch. In its first week, customers bought more than one million songs.WEB, Brian X., Chen, April 28, 2003: Apple opens iTunes Store,weblink Wired (website), Wired, Condé Nast, April 28, 2010, December 16, 2017, Music purchased was protected by FairPlay, an encryption layer referred to as digital rights management (DRM).WEB, Daniel Eran, Dilger, How FairPlay Works: Apple's iTunes DRM Dilemma,weblink RoughlyDrafted, February 26, 2007, December 16, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 2017-09-27, yes,
The use of DRM, which limited devices capable of playing purchased files,WEB, Dave, Hamilton, How iTunes Movie DRM-Removal Software Keeps Me Honest,weblink The Mac Observer, September 2, 2015, December 16, 2017, sparked efforts to remove the protection mechanism.WEB, Jim, Tanous, The iTunes DRM Removal Saga: NoteBurner and a Look Back at Requiem,weblink TekRevue, September 2, 2015, December 16, 2017, Eventually, after an open letter to the music industry by then-CEO Steve Jobs in February 2007,WEB, Arnold, Kim, Steve Jobs 'Thoughts on Music' - Asks for No Digital Rights Management,weblink MacRumors, February 6, 2007, December 16, 2017, Apple introduced a selection of DRM-free music in the iTunes Store in April 2007,WEB, Michael, Arrington, Michael Arrington, EMI, Apple To Sell DRM-Free Music for $1.29/song,weblink TechCrunch, Oath Inc., April 2, 2007, December 16, 2017, followed by its entire music catalog without DRM in January 2009.WEB, Bobbie, Johnson, Apple drops DRM copy protection from millions of iTunes songs,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, January 6, 2009, December 16, 2017,
In October 2005, Apple announced that movies and television shows would become available through its iTunes Store, employing the DRM protection.

iTunes U

In May 2007, Apple announced the launch of "iTunes U" via the iTunes Store, which delivers university lectures from top U.S. colleges.WEB, Peter, Cohen, iTunes U comes to the iTunes Store,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, May 30, 2007, December 16, 2017, WEB, Scott, McNulty, iTunes U comes to the iTunes Store,weblink Engadget, Oath Inc., May 30, 2007, December 16, 2017, With iTunes version 12.7 in August 2017, iTunes U collections became a part of the Podcasts app.WEB, Tim, Hardwick, iTunes U Collections Will Move to Apple Podcasts From September,weblink MacRumors, August 21, 2017, December 16, 2017,

iTunes in the Cloud and iTunes Match

In June 2011, Apple announced "iTunes in the Cloud", in which music purchases were stored on Apple's servers and made available for automatic downloading on new devices. For music the user owns, such as content ripped from CDs, the company introduced "iTunes Match", a feature that can upload content to Apple's servers, match it to its catalog, change the quality to 256kbit/s AAC format, and make it available to other devices.WEB, Chris, Ziegler, iTunes in the Cloud beta available today, iTunes Match lets you 'upload' the tracks you already own for $24.99 a year,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, June 6, 2011, December 16, 2017, WEB, Courtney Boyd, Myers, iTunes Match: Apple announces its cloud based music service,weblink The Next Web, June 6, 2011, December 16, 2017,

Internet radio and music streaming

When iTunes was first released, it came with support for the Kerbango Internet radio tuner service.WEB, Tyler, Gray, Why Apple’s iTunes Is Still Fundamentally Flawed, Even In iOS 7,weblink Fast Company (magazine), Fast Company, Mansueto Ventures, September 18, 2013, December 16, 2017, In June 2013, the company announced iTunes Radio, a free music streaming service.WEB, Doug, Gross, Apple arrives (late?) to music streaming with iTunes Radio,weblink CNN, Turner Broadcasting System, June 11, 2013, December 16, 2017, In June 2015, Apple announced Apple Music, its paid music streaming service, and subsequently rebranded iTunes Radio into Beats 1, a radio station accompanying Apple Music.WEB, Ben, Popper, Micah, Singleton, Apple announces its streaming music service, Apple Music,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, June 8, 2015, December 16, 2017,

iPhone activation

iTunes was used to activate early iPhone models. Beginning with the iPhone 3G in June 2008, activation did not require iTunes, making use of activation at point of sale.WEB, Jonathan, Geller, iPhone 3G: the details you never wanted to know,weblink Boy Genius Report, BGR, Penske Media Corporation, June 9, 2008, December 16, 2017,


With the release of iTunes 10 in September 2010, Apple announced iTunes Ping, which then-CEO Steve Jobs described as "social music discovery". It had features reminiscent of Facebook, including profiles and the ability to follow other users.WEB, Chloe, Albanesius, Apple Goes Social with 'Ping' Inside iTunes 10,weblink PC Magazine, Ziff Davis, September 1, 2010, December 16, 2017, Ping was discontinued in September 2012.WEB, Angela, Moscaritolo, Apple Shutting Down iTunes Ping on Sept. 30,weblink PC Magazine, Ziff Davis, September 13, 2012, December 16, 2017,



The Telegraph reported in November 2011 that Apple had been aware of a security vulnerability since 2008 that would let unauthorized third parties install "updates" to users' iTunes software. Apple fixed the issue prior to the Telegraph{{'}}s report, and told the media that "The security and privacy of our users is extremely important", though this was questioned by security researcher Brian Krebs, who told the publication that "A prominent security researcher warned Apple about this dangerous vulnerability in mid-2008, yet the company waited more than 1,200 days to fix the flaw".WEB, Christopher, Williams, Apple iTunes flaw 'allowed government spying for 3 years',weblink The Daily Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, November 24, 2011, December 16, 2017,

Software bloat

iTunes has been repeatedly accused of being bloated as part of Apple's efforts to turn it from a music player to an all-encompassing multimedia platform.WEB, Amy, Wang, iTunes is 13 years old—and it’s still awful,weblink Quartz (publication), Quartz, Atlantic Media, April 28, 2016, December 16, 2017, WEB, Ben, Lovejoy, Opinion: iTunes is now so clunky the only safe solution is to nuke it from orbit,weblink 9to5Mac, July 28, 2015, December 16, 2017, WEB, Robinson, Meyer, iTunes Really Is That Bad,weblink The Atlantic, Emerson Collective, July 29, 2015, December 16, 2017, WEB, Scott, Gilbertson, The top ten reasons iTunes sucks,weblink Wired (website), Wired, Condé Nast, November 5, 2008, December 16, 2017, Former PC World editor Ed Bott accused the company of hypocrisy in its advertising attacks on Windows for similar practices.WEB, Ed, Bott, Slimming down the bloated iTunes installer,weblink ZDNet, CBS Interactive, October 3, 2008, December 16, 2017, During the announcement of macOS Catalina, Craig Federighi addressed the evolution of iTunes, and joked about the potential to include Email, Calendar, and Safari in before announcing iTunes's separation into independent apps.

See also



External links

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