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{{short description|Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca}}{{other uses|Hajj (disambiguation)|Haj (disambiguation)}}{{Good article}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2017}}

File:Haji pilgrimage mina tent city.jpg|thumb|Tents in Mina cityMina city{{Islam|practices}}The Hajj ({{IPAc-en|h|æ|dʒ}};"Hajj". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. {{transl|ar|DIN|Ḥaǧǧ}} "(wikt:pilgrimage|pilgrimage)") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia,BOOK, Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi, Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi, The Laws of Islam, 26 March 2016, Enlight Press, 978-0994240989,weblink 22 December 2017, Modarresi, English, 471, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.BOOK, Long, Matthew, Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures,weblink 2 September 2014, 2011, Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 978-0-7614-7926-0, 86, BOOK, Nigosian, S. A., Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices,weblink 2004, Indiana University Press, Indiana, 0-253-21627-3, 110, Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs - Islam {{Webarchive|url= |date=2 October 2011 }} See drop-down essay on "Islamic Practices"The literal meaning of the word Hajj is heading to a place for the sake of visiting. In Islamic terminology, Hajj is a pilgrimage made to Kaaba, the "House of Allah", in the sacred city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. The rites of Hajj are performed over five or six days, beginning on the eighth and ending on the thirteenth day of Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar.WEB,weblink Hajj, The Holy Pilgrimage, It is one of the five pillars of Islam, alongside Shahadah, Salat, Zakat and Sawm. The Hajj is the second largest annual gathering of Muslims in the world, after the Arba'een Pilgrimage in Karbala, Iraq.WEB,weblink Arbaeen: Millions of Shia Muslims gather in Karbala in world's largest annual pilgrimage, David, Sim, 21 November 2016, 14 November 2017, The state of being physically and financially capable of performing the Hajj is called istita'ah, and a Muslim who fulfils this condition is called a mustati. The Hajj is a demonstration of the solidarity of the Muslim people, and their submission to God (Allah).BOOK, Hooker, M. B., Indonesian Syariah: Defining a National School of Islamic Law,weblink 6 October 2014, 2008, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 9789812308023, 228, The word Hajj means "to attend a journey", which connotes both the outward act of a journey and the inward act of intentions.BOOK, E. Dada, Adelowo, Perspectives in Religious Studies: Volume III,weblink 2014, HEBN Publishers Plc, Ibadan, 9789780814472, 395, The pilgrimage occurs from the 8th to 12th (or in some cases 13th{{citation|url= |title=13th of Zil Hajj |}}) of Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar. Because the Islamic calendar is lunar and the Islamic year is about eleven days shorter than the Gregorian year, the Gregorian date of Hajj changes from year to year. Ihram is the name given to the special spiritual state in which pilgrims wear two white sheets of seamless cloth and abstain from certain actions.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink ihram, 2014, Encyclopædia Britannica, 6 October 2014, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 21 July 2008, Ihram - Summary, Hajj Portal, 20 November 2013, The Hajj (sometimes spelt Hadj, Hadji or Haj also in English) is associated with the life of Islamic prophet Muhammad from the 7th century AD, but the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca is considered by Muslims to stretch back thousands of years to the time of Abraham. During Hajj, pilgrims join processions of millions of people, who simultaneously converge on Mecca for the week of the Hajj, and perform a series of rituals: each person walks counter-clockwise seven times around the Kaaba (the cube-shaped building and the direction of prayer for the Muslims), trots (walks briskly) back and forth between the hills of Safa and Marwah seven times, then drinks from the Zamzam Well, goes to the plains of Mount Arafat to stand in vigil, spends a night in the plain of Muzdalifa, and performs symbolic stoning of the devil by throwing stones at three pillars. After the sacrifice of their animal, the Pilgrims then are required to shave their head. Then they celebrate the three-day global festival of Eid al-Adha.BOOK, Islam: A Short History, Karen Armstrong, Modern Library Chronicles, Modern Library, Revised Updated, 2002, 10–12, 0-8129-6618-X, NEWS, Inside Makkah, video documentary, National Geographic Society, 2003, Anisa Mehdi, John Bredar, WEB,weblink Eid ul Adha, 7 September 2009, BBC, 30 December 2012, Sahih Bukhari-hadith No-732-733Pilgrims can also go to Mecca to perform the rituals at other times of the year. This is sometimes called the "lesser pilgrimage", or 'Umrah (). However, even if they choose to perform the Umrah, they are still obligated to perform the Hajj at some other point in their lifetime if they have the means to do so, because Umrah is not a substitute for Hajj.BOOK, Matt Stefon, Islamic Beliefs and Practices, Britannica Educational Publishing, 2010, New York City, New York, 978-1-61530-060-0, 73, In 2017, the number of pilgrims coming from outside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to perform Hajj was officially reported as 1,752,014 and 600,108 Saudi Arabian residents bringing the total number of pilgrims to 2,352,122.WEB,weblink Haj Statistics, 2017, General Authority for Statistics, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,weblink 20 June 2018, {{TOC limit|3}}


The word in {{IPA-ar|ħædʒ, ħæɡ|}} comes from the {{transl|he|ḥag}} {{IPA-he|χaɡ|}}, which means "holiday", from the triliteral Semitic root ח-ג-ג. The meaning of the verb is "to circle, to go around".חג to circle, circumscribe; go around, Academic Dictionaries and EncyclopediasBOOK, Jastrow, Marcus,weblink Jastrow Dictionary Vol 1, 424, Judaism uses circumambulation in the Hakafot ritual during Hoshanah Rabbah at the end of the Festival of Sukkot and on Simchat Torah; traditionally, Jewish brides circumambulate their grooms during the wedding ceremony under the chuppah. From this custom, the root was borrowed for the familiar meaning of holiday, celebration and festivity. In the Temple, every festival would bring a sacrificial feast. Similarly in Islam, the person who commits the Hajj to Mecca has to circle around the Kaaba and to offer sacrifices.BOOK, Moše Flôrenṭîn,weblink Late Samaritan Hebrew: A Linguistic Analysis Of Its Different Types, BRILL, 2005, 138, 9789004138414,


File:Masjid al-Haram 1.jpg|thumb|right|A 1907 image of the Great Mosque of MeccaGreat Mosque of MeccaFile:Hajj.ogg|thumb|right|The KaabaKaabaThe present pattern of Hajj was established by Muhammad.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Hajj, 2014, Encyclopædia Britannica, 12 August 2014, However, according to the Quran, elements of Hajj trace back to the time of Abraham. According to Islamic tradition, Abraham was ordered by God to leave his wife Hajara and his son Ishmael alone in the desert of ancient Mecca. In search of water, Hajara desperately ran seven times between the two hills of Safa and Marwah but found none. Returning in despair to Ishmael, she saw the baby scratching the ground with his leg and a water fountain sprang forth underneath his foot.BOOK, Haykal, Muhammad Husayn, Muhammad Ali Selami Husayn Haykal, The Life of Muhammad, The Other Press,weblink 1994, 29, 9789839154177, Later, Abraham was commanded to build the Kaaba (which he did with the help of Ishmael) and to invite people to perform pilgrimage there.BOOK, Peters, F. E., The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places,weblink 1994, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 0-691-02120-1, 4–7, The Quran refers to these incidents in verses QURAN, 2, 124–127, ns, n, and QURAN, 22, 27–30, ns, n, .The verses read: "And remember that Abraham was tried by his Lord with certain commands, which he fulfilled.... Remember We made the House a place of assembly for men and a place of safety; and take ye the station of Abraham as a place of prayer; and We covenanted with Abraham and Ishmael, that they should sanctify My House for those who compass it round, or use it as a retreat, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer).... And remember Abraham and Ishmael raised the foundations of the House (2:124–127)" and "And proclaim the Pilgrimage among men: they will come to thee on foot and (mounted) on every kind of camel, through deep and distant mountain highways, that they may witness the benefits (provided) for them, and celebrate the name of Allah, through the Days appointed, over the cattle which He has provided for them (for sacrifice): then eat ye thereof and feed the distressed one, the needy. Then let them complete the rites prescribed for them, perform their vows, and (again) circumambulate the Ancient House." (22:27–29) It is said that the archangel Gabriel brought the Black Stone from Heaven to be attached to the Kaaba.In pre-Islamic Arabia, a time known as jahiliyyah, the Kaaba became surrounded by pagan idols.BOOK, Al Mubarakpuri, Safi ur Rahman, Religions of the Arabs, The Sealed Nectar: Biography of the Noble Prophet,weblink 2002, Darussalam, 9960-899-55-1, 45, Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum, In 630 AD, Muhammad led his followers from Medina to Mecca, cleansed the Kaaba by destroying all the pagan idols, and then reconsecrated the building to Allah.BOOK, Husayn Haykal, Muhammad, Muhammad Husayn Haykal, The Life of Muhammad,weblink 2008, Islamic Book Trust, Selangor, 978-983-9154-17-7, 439–40, In 632 AD, Muhammad performed his only and last pilgrimage with a large number of followers, and instructed them on the rites of Hajj.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Juan E. Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam,weblink Facts On File, 2009, 978-0-8160-5454-1, 494, It was from this point that Hajj became one of the five pillars of Islam.During the medieval times, pilgrims would gather in big cities of Syria, Egypt, and Iraq to go to Mecca in groups and caravans comprising tens of thousands of pilgrims,BOOK, Peters, F. E., The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places, Princeton University Press,weblink 1994, 164, 9780691026190, often under state patronage.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Juan E. Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam,weblink Facts On File, 2009, 978-0-8160-5454-1, 283, Hajj caravans, particularly with the advent of the Mamluk Sultanate and its successor, the Ottoman Empire, were escorted by a military force accompanied by physicians under the command of an amir al-hajj.{{Citation |first=Amy |last=Singer |authorlink =Amy Singer (historian)|title=Constructing Ottoman Beneficence: An Imperial Soup Kitchen in Jerusalem |url= |publisher=SUNY Press |year=2002 |isbn=9780791453513 |page=141}}{{Citation |first=Thomas |last=Philipp |title=The Mamluks in Egyptian Politics and Society |url= |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=1998 |isbn=9780521591157 |pages=102–104}} This was done in order to protect the caravan from Bedouin robbers or natural hazards,Ibn Jubayr noted the skeletons of the faithful who had died of thirst en route. In the 17th century, a group of Egyptian pilgrims lost over 1,500 people and 900 camels. In 1924 around one-fifth of a group of Syrian pilgrims died and two years later, 12,000 are thought to have died during the journey. [Islam in the World by Malise Ruthven. Granta Publications, 2006. p. 2. {{ISBN|1-86207-906-4}}.] and to ensure that the pilgrims were supplied with the necessary provisions. Muslim travelers like Ibn Jubayr and Ibn Battuta have recorded detailed accounts of Hajj-travels of medieval time.BOOK, Peters, F. E., The Hajj: The Muslim Pilgrimage to Mecca and the Holy Places,weblink Princeton University Press, 1994, 71, 9780691026190, The caravans followed well-established routes called in Arabic darb al-hajj, lit. "pilgrimage road", which usually followed ancient routes such as the King's Highway.

Timing of Hajj

The date of Hajj is determined by the Islamic calendar (known as Hijri calendar or AH), which is based on the lunar year.BOOK, Reynolds, Gabriel Said, The Emergence of Islam: Classical Traditions in Contemporary Perspective,weblink 15 November 2014, 2012, Fortress Press, 9781451408126, 33, Every year, the events of Hajj take place in a ten day period, starting on 1 and ending on 10 Dhu al-Hijjah, the twelfth and last month of the Islamic calendar. Among these ten days, the 9th Dhul-Hijjah is known as Day of Arafah, and this day is called the day of Hajj. Because the Islamic calendar is lunar and the Islamic year is about eleven days shorter than the Gregorian year, the Gregorian date for Hajj changes from year to year. Thus, each year in the Gregorian calendar, the pilgrimage starts eleven days (sometimes ten days) earlier.BOOK, Aziz, Sheikh, Caring for Muslim Patients,weblink 15 November 2014, 2008, Radcliffe Publishing, 9781857758122, 95, This makes it possible for the Hajj season to fall twice in one Gregorian year, and it does so every 33 years. The last time this phenomenon occurred was 2006.WEB,weblink Principal Islamic Days of Observance according to Umm al-Qura Calendar, 2014, The Umm al-Qura Calendar of Saudi Arabia, 24 November 2014, The table below shows the Gregorian dates of Hajj of recent years (the dates correspond to 9 Dhul-Hijjah of Hijri calendar):{|class="wikitable!AH!Gregorian date|1432
|1433|2012, 25 October
|1439|2018, 20 August
, The Umm al-Qura Calendar of Saudi Arabia
, Robert Harry
, van Gent
|1440|2019, 10 August
|1441|2020, 30 July
|1442|2021, 19 July
|1443|2022, 8 July


(File:Hajj locations and rites.png|thumb|right|Artwork showing locations and rites of Hajj)Fiqh literature describes in detail the manners of carrying out the rites of Hajj, and pilgrims generally follow handbooks and expert guides to successfully fulfill the requirements of Hajj.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Juan E. Campo, Encyclopedia of Islam,weblink Facts On File, 2009, 978-0-8160-5454-1, 282, In performing the rites of Hajj, the pilgrims not only follow the model of Muhammad, but also commemorate the events associated with Abraham.BOOK, Neusner, Jacob, World Religions in America: An Introduction,weblink 6 October 2014, 2000, Westminster John Knox Press, 9780664258399, 178,


When the pilgrims reach the appropriate Miqat (depending on where they have come from), they are believed to enter into a state of holiness – known as Ihram – that consists of wearing two white seamless cloths for the male, with the one wrapped around the waist reaching below the knee and the other draped over the left shoulder and tied at the right side; wearing ordinary dress for the female that fulfills the Islamic condition of public dress with hands and face uncovered;BOOK, Hajj to Umrah: From A to Z, Mohamed, Mamdouh N., Amana Publications, 1996, 0-915957-54-X,weblink {{page needed|date=January 2015}} taking ablution; refraining from certain activities such as clipping the nails, shaving any part of the body, having sexual relations; using perfumes, damaging plants, killing animals, covering head (for men) or the face and hands (for women); getting married; or carrying weapons.BOOK, Nigosian, S. A., Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices,weblink 2004, Indiana University Press, Indiana, 0-253-21627-3, 111, The ihram is meant to show equality of all pilgrims in front of God: there is no difference between the rich and the poor.Donning such unsewn white garments entirely is believed to distance man from material ostentation, and engross him in a world of purity and spirituality, since clothes are believed to show individuality and distinction and create superficial barriers that separate individuals. The garments of Ihram are seen as the antithesis of that individualism. Ihram clothing is also a reminder of shrouds worn after death.WEB,weblink The Philosophy of Hajj Rituals, 29 August 2017,

First day of Hajj: 8th Dhu al-Hijjah

On the 8th Dhu al-Hijjah, the pilgrims are reminded of their duties. They again don the ihram garments and confirm their intention to make the pilgrimage. The prohibitions of ihram start now.

Tarwiyah Day

The 8th day of Dhu al-Hijjah coincides with the Tarwiyah Day. The name of Tarwiyah refers to a narration of Ja'far al-Sadiq. He described the reason that there was any water at Mount Arafat in the 8th day of Dhu al-Hijjah. If pilgrims wanted to stay at Arafat, he would have prepared water from Mecca and carried it by themselves to there. So they told each other drink enough. Finally, this day called Tarwiyah WEB, Reyshahri, Mohammad, Hajj in Quran and Hadith,weblink lib.eshia, that means to quench thirst in the Arabic language.WEB, the reason for naming Tarwiyah day,weblink farsnews, 22 September 2015, 22 September 2015, The Tarwiyah Day is the first day of Hajj ritual. Also at this day, Husayn ibn Ali began to go to Karbala from Mecca.WEB, Reyshahri, Mohammad, Enclopedia of Imam husain based on quran and Hadith,weblink lib.eshia, Muhammad prophet nominated to Tarwiyah Day as one of the four chosen days.

Tawaf and sa'ay

File:Tavaf.jpg|right|thumb|Direction of the TawafTawafThe ritual of Tawaf involves walking seven times counterclockwise around the Kaaba.BOOK,weblink Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures, Long, Matthew, Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 2011, 978-0-7614-7926-0, 89, 2 September 2014, Upon arriving at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (, The Sacred Mosque), pilgrims perform an arrival tawaf either as part of Umrah or as a welcome tawaf.BOOK,weblink The Hajj Today: A Survey of the Contemporary Pilgrimage to Makkah, Long, David E., SUNY Press, 1979, 0-87395-382-7, 16, During tawaf, pilgrims also include Hateem – an area at the north side of the Kaaba – inside their path. Each circuit starts with the kissing or touching of the Black Stone (Hajar al- Aswad).BOOK,weblink The Hajj Today: A Survey of the Contemporary Pilgrimage to Makkah, Long, David E., SUNY Press, 1979, 9780873953825, 17, If kissing the stone is not possible because of the crowds, they may simply point towards the stone with their hand on each circuit. Eating is not permitted but the drinking of water is allowed, because of the risk of dehydration. Men are encouraged to perform the first three circuits at a hurried pace, known as Ramal, and the following four at a more leisurely pace.{{page needed|date=January 2015}}The completion of Tawaf is followed by two Rakaat prayers at the Place of Abraham (Muqam Ibrahim), a site near the Kaaba inside the mosque.BOOK,weblink Perspectives in Religious Studies: Volume III, HEBN Publishers Plc, 2014, 9789780814472, Ibadan, 401, E. Dada, Adelowo, However, again because of large crowds during the days of Hajj, they may instead pray anywhere in the mosque. After prayer, pilgrims also drink water from the Zamzam well, which is made available in coolers throughout the Mosque.NEWS,weblink Pilgrims complain of Zamzam water shortage in Makkah, 7 July 2014, 7 September 2014, Arab News, Although the circuits around the Kaaba are traditionally done on the ground level, Tawaf is now also performed on the first floor and roof of the mosque because of the large crowds.This rite is actually the manifestation of Tawhid, the Oneness of God. The heart and soul of the pilgrim should move around Kaaba, the symbol of the House of Allah, in a way that no worldly attraction distracts him from this path. Only Tawhid should attract him. Tawaf also represents Muslims’ unity. During Tawaf, everyone encircles Kaaba collectively.Tawaf is followed by sa'ay, running or walking seven times between the hills of Safa and Marwah, located near the Kaaba. Previously in open air, the place is now entirely enclosed by the Sacred Mosque, and can be accessed via air-conditioned tunnels.WEB,weblink Hajj, Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia, 12 August 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 August 2014, dmy-all, Pilgrims are advised to walk the circuit, though two green pillars mark a short section of the path where they run. There is also an internal "express lane" for the disabled. After sayee, the male pilgrims shave their heads and women generally clip a portion of their hair, which completes the Umrah.File:Sa'yee To Go.jpg|Sa'yee towards SafaFile:Sa'yee For older.jpg|Central section reserved for the elderly and the disabled. It is also divided into two directions of travel.File:Sa'yee To return.jpg|Sa'yee returning from Safa


(File:Arafat pilgrims.jpg|thumb|Pilgrims wearing ihram on the plains of Arafat on the day of Hajj)(File:Mount Arafah.jpg|thumb|Mount Arafat during Hajj)After the morning prayer on the 8th of Dhu al-Hijjah, the pilgrims proceed to Mina where they spend the whole day and offer noon (Note: On Friday, Friday Prayer is Offered, instead of Dhuhr Prayer, at Mina), afternoon, evening, and night prayers.BOOK, E. Dada, Adelowo, Perspectives in Religious Studies: Volume III,weblink 2014, HEBN Publishers Plc, Ibadan, 9789780814472, 403, The next morning after morning prayer, they leave Mina to go to Arafat.

Second day: 9th Dhu al-Hijjah

The 9th Dhul-Hijjah is known as Day of Arafah, and this day is called the Day of Hajj.


On 9th Dhu al-Hijjah before noon, pilgrims arrive at Arafat, a barren and plain land some 20 kilometers east of Mecca, where they stand in contemplative vigil: they offer supplications, repent on and atone for their past sins, and seek mercy of God, and listen to sermon from the Islamic scholars who deliver it from near Jabal al-Rahmah (The Mount of Mercy) from where Muhammad is said to have delivered his last sermon. Lasting from noon through sunset, this is known as 'standing before God' (wuquf), one of the most significant rites of Hajj. At Masjid al-Namirah, pilgrims offer noon and afternoon prayers together at noon time. A pilgrim's Hajj is considered invalid if they do not spend the afternoon on Arafat.BOOK, Long, David E., The Hajj Today: A Survey of the Contemporary Pilgrimage to Makkah,weblink 1979, 0-87395-382-7, 19,


(File:MuzdalifahPanorama.jpg|thumb|A scenery of Muzdalifa)Pilgrims must leave Arafat for Muzdalifah after sunset without praying maghrib (sunset) prayer at Arafat.Sahih Muslim-Hadith No 2941.2944 Muzdalifah is an area between Arafat and Mina. Upon reaching there, pilgrims perform Maghrib and Isha prayer jointly, spend the night praying and sleeping on the ground with open sky, and gather pebbles for the next day's ritual of the stoning of the Devil (Shaitan).Sahih Bukhari Hadith No: 732,733, and 734

Third day: 10th Dhu al-Hijjah

After returning from Muzdalifah, the Pilgrims spend the night at Mina.

Ramy al-Jamarat

(File:Amellie - Stoning of the devil 2006 Hajj.jpg|thumb|Pilgrims performing Stoning of the devil ceremony at 2006 Hajj)Back at Mina, the pilgrims perform symbolic stoning of the devil (Ramy al-Jamarat) by throwing seven stones from sunrise to sunset at only the largest of the three pillars, known as Jamrat al-Aqabah.BOOK, al-Hasani, Abu Qanit al-Sharif, The Guiding Helper: Main Text and Explanatory Notes,weblink 2009,, 9781445237916, 220, The remaining two pillars (jamarah) are not stoned on this day.WEB,weblink,, 19 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 August 2011, These pillars are said to represent Satan.BOOK, Nigosian, Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices,weblink 2004, 0-253-21627-3, 112, Pilgrims climb ramps to the multi-levelled Jamaraat Bridge, from which they can throw their pebbles at the jamarat. Because of safety reasons, in 2004 the pillars were replaced by long walls, with catch basins below to collect the pebbles.BOOK, Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures,weblink 2 September 2014, 2011, Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 978-0-7614-7926-0, 90, BOOK, Mohamed, Gad-el-Hak, Large-Scale Disasters: Prediction, Control, and Mitigation,weblink 13 January 2015, 2008, Cambridge University Press, 9781139472296, 54,

Animal sacrifice

After the casting of stones, animals are slaughtered to commemorate the story of Ibrahim and Ismael. Traditionally the pilgrims slaughtered the animal themselves, or oversaw the slaughtering. Today many pilgrims buy a sacrifice voucher in Mecca before the greater Hajj begins, which allows an animal to be slaughtered in the name of God (Allah) on the 10th, without the pilgrim being physically present. Modern abattoirs complete the processing of the meat, which is then sent as charity to poor people around the world. At the same time as the sacrifices occur at Mecca, Muslims worldwide perform similar sacrifices, in a three-day global festival called Eid al-Adha.

Hair removal

After sacrificing an animal, another important rite of Hajj is shaving head or trimming hair (known as Halak). All male pilgrims shave their head or trim their hair on the day of Eid al Adha and women pilgrims cut the tips of their hair.BOOK, Long, The Hajj Today: A Survey of the Contemporary Pilgrimage to Makkah,weblink 1979, 0-87395-382-7, 21, Sahih Muslim Hadith no:2985,2994

Tawaf Ziyarat

(File:Kaaba 2.JPG|thumb|Pilgrims performing Tawaf around the Kaaba)On the same or the following day, the pilgrims re-visit the Sacred Mosque in Mecca for another tawaf, known as Tawaf al-Ifadah, an essential part of Hajj. It symbolizes being in a hurry to respond to God and show love for Him, an obligatory part of the Hajj. The night of the 10th is spent back at Mina.

Fourth day: 11th Dhu al-Hijjah

Starting from noon to sunset on the 11 Dhu al-Hijjah (and again the following day), the pilgrims again throw seven pebbles at each of the three pillars in Mina. This is commonly known as the "Stoning of the Devil".

Fifth day: 12th Dhu al-Hijjah

On 12 Dhu al-Hijjah, the same process of stoning of the pillars as of 11 Dhu al-Hijjah takes place. Pilgrims may leave Mina for Mecca before sunset on the 12th.

Last day at Mina: 13th Dhu al-Hijjah

If unable to leave on the 12th before sunset or opt to stay at free will, they must perform the stoning ritual again on the 13th before returning to Mecca.

Tawaf al-Wadaa

Finally, before leaving Mecca, pilgrims perform a farewell tawaf called the Tawaf al-Wadaa. 'Wadaa' means 'to bid farewell'. The pilgrims circle the Kaaba seven times counter-clockwise, and if they can, attempt to touch or kiss the Kaaba.

Journey to Medina

Though not a part of Hajj, pilgrims may choose to travel to the city of Medina and the Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet), which contains Muhammad's tomb. The Quba Mosque and Masjid al-Qiblatayn are also usually visited.BOOK,weblink A life that matters: a spiritual experience, Norani Noridin, Nordin Yusof, The Other Press, 32, 9789675062025,

Arrangement and facilities

(File:Saudi security forces on parade - Flickr - Al Jazeera English (16).jpg|thumb|A Saudi security officer on vigil)Most of the Hajj related issues are handled by Ministry of Hajj and Umrah. Making necessary arrangements each year for the growing number of pilgrims poses a logistic challenge for the government of Saudi Arabia, which has, since the 1950s, spent more than $100 billion to increase pilgrimage facilities.BOOK, David, Harrison, Tourism and the Less Developed World: Issues and Case Studies,weblink 6 October 2014, 2001, CABI (CAB International), CABI, 9780851994338, 156, Major issues like housing, transportation, sanitation, and health care have been addressed and improved greatly by the government by introducing various development programs, with the result that pilgrims now enjoy modern facilities and perform various rites at ease. The Saudi government often sets quotas for various countries to keep the pilgrims' number at a manageable level, and arranges huge security forces and CCTV cameras to maintain overall safety during Hajj.NEWS, Dhaka seeks reconsidering 20pc cut in Hajj pilgrims quota,weblink 2 September 2014, The Daily Star, 19 February 2014, NEWS, Hajj pilgrimage 2011: by numbers,weblink 1 September 2014, Telegraph, 3 November 2011, Various institutions and government programs, such as the Haj subsidy offered in Pakistan or the Tabung Haji based in Malaysia assist pilgrims in covering the costs of the journey.WEB,weblink History of Haj Announcement India, Government of Uttar Pradesh, India, For the 2014 Hajj, special Hajj information desks were set up at Pakistani airports to assist the pilgrims.NEWS, First Hajj flight leaves for Jeddah,weblink 3 September 2014, The News International, 29 August 2014,

Technology solutions

The Saudi government employs technology to provide a safe and great experience for the pilgrim’s journey. Recently, the Ministry of Hajj and Umrah has introduced the Hajj pilgrims' e-bracelet program that stores pilgrims essential data which helps to provide them with the necessary support.WEB,weblink Hajj safety: Saudi Arabia introduces hi-tech bracelets for all pilgrims,, en, 2019-05-08, In 2018, SAFCSP organized the Hajj Hackathon event in Jeddah, west of Saudi Arabia, with 2,950 participants from over 100 countries. the event aims at exploring the use of technology to provide solutions for Hajj pilgrims.WEB,weblink With 2,950 participants from 100 countries, Hajj Hackathon makes Guinness Record,, en, 2019-05-08, WEB,weblink Saudi Arabia looks to technology to make hajj pilgrims safer – Huff Point, en-US, 2019-05-08, In 2019, the “Fatwa Robot” service was launched to provide pilgrims with fatwas and other religious advice.WEB,weblink Saudi ministry offers Hajj hotline and 'Fatwa Robot' service, 2019-08-11, Arab News, en, 2019-08-13, Two interactive apps were lanched by Hajj authorities to provide pilgrims with a range of services through their smartphones.  The services, which are available in nine languages, help pilgrims in finding emergency service centers, holy sites, currency exchanges, restaurants, and accommodation.WEB,weblink Hajj chiefs launch two smart apps to help pilgrims, 2019-08-07, Arab News, en, 2019-08-13,

Visa requirements

In order to enter Saudi Arabia to participate in the Hajj, visa requirements exist.WEB,weblink Hajj Visa {{!, Umrah Expert|last=umrahexpert||access-date=30 May 2017}}WEB,weblink Hajj And Umra Visa Requirements {{!, kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Ministry of Foreign Affairs||language=ar|access-date=25 May 2017}}WEB,weblink Entry requirements - Saudi Arabia travel advice - GOV.UK,, en, 25 May 2017, WEB,weblink Visa Requirements for Hajj from UK – Umrah Expert BlogUmrah Expert Blog,, en-US, 25 May 2017, Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Hajj and Umrah is planning to ease visas issuance by enabling Hajj and Umrah pilgrims to obtain e-visa within minutes through campaigns and companies.WEB,weblink Hajj and Umrah e-visas to be issued in minutes, 2019-03-12, Arab News, en, 2019-04-15, For the upcoming Umrah season, Umra visas can be electronically issued within 24 hours via a special platform established by the Ministry of Haj and Umrah.WEB,weblink e-visa for Umrah in less than 24 hours, 2019-08-17, Saudigazette, English, 2019-08-22,

Makkah Route Initiative

Makkah Route Initiative is an initiative made by the Saudi government to facilitate the pilgrims entries to Saudi Arabia by completing it in the airports of their countries.The initiative has been implemented since 2018 by The Saudi Ministry of Foreign Affairs.WEB,weblink Mecca Road Initiative launches for second year to ease Hajj journey,, en, 2019-07-15, In 2019, the initiative is planned to provide service to around 225,000 pilgrims from airports in Malaysia, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Tunisia.WEB,weblink Nearly 37,000 Hajj pilgrims arrive in Saudi Arabia via Makkah Route initiative, 2019-07-14, Arab News, en, 2019-07-15, The provided services include:
  1. Issuance of visas.
  2. Making sure that the pilgrims’ health conditions comply with the requirements and to make certain that the potential pilgrims have take preventive measures related to the epidemiological situation in the world.WEB,weblink Makkah Route: Health services presented to Hajjis in their home countries, 2019-07-21, Arab News, en, 2019-07-30,
  3. Codifying and sorting luggage at the pilgrims’ airports and delivering them to the pilgrims’ hotels directly upon arrival.

Green Haj Camp

In 2019, Saudi Arabia launched an environment-friendly hajj initiative. The project is implemented in 30 camps in Mina where pilgrims are encouraged to sort out their wastes. Moreover, the proceeds are used for charitable purposes.WEB,weblink Saudi Arabia expands 'Green Haj',, en, 2019-08-06, The project has a number of objectives as follows:
  1. Decreasing the environmental harms.
  2. Improving the management system of solid waste.
  3. Preserving pilgrims and camps safety.


(File:A_Step_by_Step_Guide_to_Hajj_(Islamic_pilgrimages).webm|thumbtime=1|thumb |220px |alt=A Step by Step Guide to Hajj|A step by step guide to hajj)Traditionally, the pilgrimage to Mecca was mainly an overland journey using camels as a means of transport. During the second half of the nineteenth century (after 1850s), steamships began to be used in the pilgrimage journey to Mecca, and the number of pilgrims traveling on sea route increased.BOOK, Eric, Tagliacozzo, Shawkat, Toorawa, The Hajj: Pilgrimage in Islam,weblink 2016, Cambridge University Press, New York, 978-1-107-61280-8, 178, This continued for some time,BOOK, Elfenbein, Caleb Heart Iyer, Differentiating Islam: Colonialism, Sayyid Qutb, and Religious Transformation in Modern Egypt,weblink 29 August 2014, 2008, ProQuest, 9780549987710, 209, until air travel came to predominate; Egypt introduced the first airline service for Hajj pilgrims in 1937.BOOK, Long, David E., The Hajj Today: A Survey of the Contemporary Pilgrimage to Makkah,weblink 1979, SUNY Press, 0-87395-382-7, 48, JOURNAL, Miller, M. B., Pilgrims' Progress: The Business of the Hajj, Past & Present, 191, 1, 2006, 189–228, 0031-2746, 10.1093/pastj/gtj009, Today, many airlines and travel agents offer Hajj packages, and arrange for transportation and accommodation for the pilgrims.BOOK, David, Harrison, Tourism and the Less Developed World: Issues and Case Studies,weblink 29 August 2014, 2001, CABI (CAB International), CABI, 9780851994338, 157, King Abdulaziz International Airport in Jeddah and Prince Mohammad Bin Abdulaziz Airport in Medina have dedicated pilgrim terminals to assist the arrival of pilgrims.WEB,weblink Air Travel, 2013, Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia, 29 August 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 October 2014, dmy-all, NEWS, Pilgrims Start Arriving From India, Pakistan as Haj Terminal Is Officially Opened,weblink Arab News, 26 February 2013, Other international airports around the world, such as Indira Gandhi in New Delhi, Rajiv Gandhi International Airport in Hyderabad, Jinnah in Karachi and Soekarno-Hatta in Jakarta also have dedicated terminals or temporary facilities to service pilgrims as they depart and return home.WEB,weblink New Delhi Indira Gandhi International Airport (DEL) Information, 2014, World Guides, TravelSmart Ltd, 29 August 2014, During Hajj, many airlines run extra flights to accommodate the large number of pilgrims.During official Hajj days, pilgrims travel between the different locations by metro, bus or on foot. The Saudi government strictly controls vehicles access into these heavily congested areas. However, the journey could take many hours due to heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic. In 2010, the Saudi government started operating the Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro line as an exclusive shuttle train for pilgrims between Arafat, Muzdalifa and Mina. The service, which operates only during the seven days of Hajj, shortens the travel time during the critical "Nafrah" from Arafat to Muzdalifah to minutes. Due to its limited capacity, the use of the metro is not open to all pilgrims.

Modern crowd-control problems

Pilgrim numbers have greatly increased in recent years, which has led to numerous accidents and deaths due to overcrowding. The first major accident during Hajj in modern times occurred in 1990, when a tunnel stampede led to the death of 1,462 people.NEWS,weblink Glance at major hajj-related incidents in Saudi Arabia, Associated Press, 11 September 2015, 10 October 2015,weblink 10 October 2015, Afterwards, various crowd-control techniques were adopted to ensure safety. Because of large crowds, some of the rituals have become more symbolic. For example, it is no longer necessary to kiss the Black Stone. Instead, pilgrims simply point at it on each circuit around the Kaaba. Also, the large pillars used for pebble throwing were changed into long walls in 2004 with basins below to catch the stones. Another example is that animal sacrifice is now done at slaughterhouses appointed by the Saudi authorities, without the pilgrims being present there.WEB,weblink Rituals of Haj Sacrifice, 3 October 2013, Consulate General of India, Jeddah, 24 October 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2016, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The Saudi Project for Utilization of Hajj Meat, ADAHI, 24 October 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 October 2015, dmy-all, For the Hajj in 2016, Saudi authorities will also be giving pilgrims GPS-tracked electronic bracelets.WEB,weblink Hajj 2016: Saudi Arabia introduces bracelets for safety,, 15 August 2016, {{Update inline|date=February 2017}}Despite safety measures, incidents may happen during the Hajj as pilgrims are trampled or ramps collapse under the weight of the many visitors. During 2015 Hajj, a stampede resulted in 769 deaths and injuries to 934 others, according to the Saudi authorities.NEWS, Hajj stampede: Saudis face growing criticism over deaths,weblink 25 September 2015, BBC, 25 September 2015, A report from Associated Press totalled at least 1470 fatalities from official reports from other countries, making it the most deadly such episode to date.NEWS, Saudi crush was deadliest hajj tragedy ever,weblink 10 October 2015, Associated Press, 10 October 2015,weblink 10 October 2015, Concerns were raised in 2013 and 2014 about the spread of MERS because of mass gatherings during the Hajj.NEWS,weblink As the Hajj Unfolds in Saudi Arabia, A Deep Look Inside the Battle Against MERS, Time (magazine), Time, 16 October 2013, 17 October 2013, Katz, Andrew, NEWS, Eaves, Elisabeth, WHO's Maurizio Barbeschi Talks About MERS and Mass Events,weblink Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 9 June 2014, 9 June 2014, Saudi Health Minister Abdullah Al-Rabia said authorities have detected no cases of MERS among the pilgrims so far.NEWS,weblink Spain reports its first MERS case; woman travelled to Saudi Arabia for Hajj, The Vancouver Sun, 7 November 2013, 12 November 2013, Branswell, Helen, The Canadian Press, He also said that, despite few cases of MERS, Saudi Arabia was ready for the 2014 pilgrimage.JOURNAL, Barasheed, Osamah, Rashid, Harunor, Heron, Leon, Ridda, Iman, Haworth, Elizabeth, Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan, Dwyer, Dominic E., Booy, Robert, Influenza Vaccination Among Australian Hajj Pilgrims: Uptake, Attitudes, and Barriers, Journal of Travel Medicine, November 2014, 21, 6, 384–390, 10.1111/jtm.12146, 25145836, NEWS, Hajj pilgrimage to continue despite deadly MERS Epidemic,weblink IANS,, 23 April 2014, {{Update inline|date=February 2017}}In November 2017, Saudi authorities banned selfies at the two holy sites.NEWS,weblink Selfie at Mecca at Median banned by Saudi Kingdom, 26 November 2017,,


To the Muslims, Hajj is associated with religious as well as social significance.BOOK, Aziz, Sheikh, Caring for Muslim Patients,weblink 2 September 2014, 2008, Radcliffe Publishing, 9781857758122, 96, The obligation for performing this pilgrimage is only fulfilled if it is done on the eighth to twelfth day of the last month of the Islamic calendar. If in a given year, an adult Muslim is in good health and his life and wealth is safe, they must perform the Hajj in the same year. Delaying it is considered sinful unless the delay is caused by reasons beyond their control.{{sfn|Musharraf|2012|pp=204-205}}Apart from being an obligatory religious duty, the Hajj is seen to have a spiritual merit that provides the Muslims with an opportunity of self-renewal. Hajj serves as a reminder of the Day of Judgment when Muslims believe people will stand before God.BOOK, Powell, William, Saudi Arabia and Its Royal Family,weblink 7 October 2014, 1982, Lyle Stuart, 9780818403262, 113, Hadith literature (sayings of Muhammad) articulates various merits a pilgrim achieves upon successful completion of their Hajj.For example, one such Hadith says: Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet (p.b.u.h) said, "Whoever performs Hajj for Allah's pleasure and does not have sexual relations with his wife, and does not do evil or sins then he will return (after Hajj free from all sins) as if he were born anew." {{Hadith-usc|bukhari|usc=yes|2|26|596}} After successful pilgrimage, pilgrims can prefix their names with the title 'Al-Hajji', and are held with respect in Muslim society.BOOK, Andrea Schulte-Peevers, Oman, UAE & Arabian Peninsula,weblink 2010, Lonely Planet, 9781741791457, 67, However, Islamic scholars suggest Hajj should signify a Muslim's religious commitment, and should not be a measurement of their social status. Hajj brings together and unites the Muslims from different parts of the world irrespective of their race, colour, and culture, which acts as a symbol of equality.WEB,weblink Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca, 8 September 2009, BBC, 6 October 2014, A 2008 study on the impact of participating in the Islamic pilgrimage found that Muslim communities become more positive and tolerant after Hajj experience. Titled Estimating the Impact of the Hajj: Religion and Tolerance in Islam's Global Gathering and conducted in conjunction with Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government, the study noted that the Hajj "increases belief in equality and harmony among ethnic groups and Islamic sects and leads to more favorable attitudes toward women, including greater acceptance of female education and employment" and that "Hajjis show increased belief in peace, and in equality and harmony among adherents of different religions."JOURNAL, 1124213, Estimating the Impact of the Hajj: Religion and Tolerance in Islam's Global Gathering,, April 2008, Kremer, Michael, Khwaja, Asim Ijaz, Clingingsmith, David, Malcolm X, an American activist during the Civil Rights Movement, describes the sociological atmosphere he experienced at his Hajj in the 1960s as follows:}}(File:Masjid al-Haram panorama.JPG|thumb|center|800px|{{center|Panorama of the Great Mosque during Hajj, 2007.}})

Hajj and the Saudi economy

In 2014, Saudi Arabia was expected to have earned up to $8.5 billion from Hajj.WEB,weblink Saudi Arabia: $8.5 billion income from hajj expected, Al-Arabiya English, Saudi Arabia's highest source of revenue after oil and gas is Hajj and the country is expected to depend more on Hajj as the amounts of available oil and gas for sale decline.WEB,weblink Saudi Arabia to move from oil, earn more from Hajj, RussiaToday, 25 March 2016, Furthermore, the increase of religious tourism from about 12 million Muslims annually to almost 17 million by 2025 has given rise to increasing luxury hotel businesses in the area to accommodate pilgrims. The Abraj al-Bait firm intends to build hotels, shopping malls and apartments which is claimed to be an estimated value of three billion dollars.WEB,weblink Mecca makeover: how the hajj has become big business for Saudi Arabia, Riazat, Butt, 14 November 2010, the Guardian, According to The Embassy of Saudi Arabia, the Saudi government are working towards establishing programs which promote sanitation, housing, transportation, and welfare as the amount of visiting pilgrims increases.Most pilgrims, from countries such as the United States, Australia and United Kingdom decide to purchase Hajj Packages from licensed hajj agencies in their countries. This helps direct the flow of traffic into the Kingdom and allows for pilgrims to work directly with a business responsible for their services instead of dealing directly with Saudi Arabia's government. WEB,weblink US Hajj Company: For Hajj & Umrah Packages, EZ Hajj Groups,

Number of pilgrims per year

{{annual_human_migration_world_map.svg|250px}}There has been a substantial increase in the number of pilgrims during the last 92 years, and the number of foreign pilgrims has increased by approximately 2,824 percent, from 58,584 in 1920 to 1,712,962 in 2012.WEB,weblink Number of foreign Hajis grows by 2,824 percent in 92 years,weblink" title="">weblink 2 November 2012, The News International, 9 October 2016, Because of development and expansion work at Masjid al-Haram, the authority restricted the number of pilgrims in 2013.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Reduction in Hajj 2013 Quota, Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, 8 July 2013, 17 September 2014, NEWS,weblink Saudi Arabia cuts Hajj Quota for foreign pilgrims by 20 percent, Yahoo News, 19 June 2013, 17 September 2013, dead,weblink 6 October 2014, dmy-all, The following number of pilgrims arrived in Saudi Arabia each year to perform Hajj:{| class="wikitable sortable"! Gregorian year !! Hijri year !! Local pilgrims !! Foreign pilgrims !! Total
DATE=15 APRIL 1997 ACCESSDATE=7 OCTOBER 2014, 1,865,234
| 1,942,851
| 1,831,998
| 1,944,760
DATE=22 SEPTEMBER 2015 ACCESSDATE=15 FEBRUARY 2017, 2,000,000 (approx.)
DATE=2019-08-10LANGUAGE=EN, 2019-08-13,

Differences between the Hajj and Umrah

  • Both are Islamic pilgrimages, the main difference is their level of importance and the method of observance.JOURNAL, Gannon, Martin Joseph, Baxter, Ian W. F., Collinson, Elaine, Curran, Ross, Farrington, Thomas, Glasgow, Steven, Godsman, Elliot M., Gori, Keith, Jack, Gordon R. A., 2017-06-11, Travelling for Umrah: destination attributes, destination image, and post-travel intentions, The Service Industries Journal, 37, 7–8, 448–465, 10.1080/02642069.2017.1333601, 0264-2069,weblink
  • Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam. It is obligatory for every Muslim once in their lifetime, provided they are physically fit and financially capable.Edgar, Scott. "The Five Pillars of Islam in the Hadith." Studia Antiqua 2, no. 1 (2002).weblink vol2/iss1/9
  • Hajj is performed over specific days during a designated Islamic month. However, Umrah can be performed at any time.
  • Although they share common rites, Umrah can be performed in less than a few hours while Hajj is more time consuming, and involves more rituals.

Hajj Badal

Hajj is one of the most important acts of faith a Muslim can commit. The act is one of the Five Pillars of Islam and is considered mandatory for those who practice Islam. As presented above, the pilgrimage is entrenched in traditions and codified by a multitude of holy texts. Muslims are bound in a contract with Allah and Hajj is one of the payments which Allah requires of his followers.WEB,weblink Pillars of Islam - Oxford Islamic Studies Online,, en, 2018-07-24, For this reason, those who are unable to make themselves, are permitted to send another in their place under specific circumstances. First, the person who send someone in their place must be unable because of an incurable sickness or old age. If the sickness may be cured, the follower of Allah must go when they are able. Also, Hajj Badal may be performed on a person's behalf if they are already deceased. This act is considered a form of vicarious atonement. In this case, one of the Five Pillars of Islam can be completed for a Muslim who was not able to fulfill their duties while living.WEB,weblink Hajj Badal - Belief - Islamic Shariah -,, en, 2018-07-24, Like the requirements for the person who is having Hajj being completed on their behalf, there are also requirements for those who are carrying out the act. When the person committing the act enters the Ihram—the holy garb worn during Hajj—they must acknowledge the person who they are representing. Also, when the Ihram is donned, the Hajj can only be for the single person who they represent and not for themselves. Another qualifications is that the present person must be Muslim and in good standing with the Islamic community. Because there are multiple distinct types of Hajj, the person performing the ceremony in another's place must attend the type which is desired by the unable.WEB,weblink Types of Hajj,, en, 2018-07-25, 27 August 2015, Lastly, if the person is still alive, then the performer of the Hajj Badal must ask for the permission of the person they hope to represent.WEB,weblink Guidelines and rulings on Hajj al-badal (proxy Hajj) -,, en, 2018-07-24, The basis of Hajj Badal can be found in the writings of Abd Allah ibn Abbas who recorded the Prophet Muhammad's words. When approached by a woman from Juhayan, this exchange occurred between the two: "My mother vowed to go for Hajj, but she died before she did so. Can I perform Hajj on her behalf?" The Prophet replied: "Yes, perform Hajj on her behalf. Do you not think if your mother owed a debt that you would pay it off for her? Fulfil her debt to Allah; for Allah is more deserving that what is owed to him should be paid." (Hadith No.77, narrated by Ibn Abbas)WEB,weblink Hadith by Ibn Abbas from Sahih Bukhari {{!,||language=en|access-date=2018-07-25}} Other instances of recorded conversation which solidified the act were recorded by other Islamic scholars such as Abdullah bin Az-Zubair and Al-Fadl ibn 'Abbas.WEB,weblink The Book of Hajj - Sunan an-Nasa'i - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad,, 2018-07-25, However, the validity of Hajj Badal has been questioned by other Islamic scholars. The Ulama, a large body of Islamic scholars, oppose Hajj Badal because of its imitation of Christian beliefs. Also, the Qur’an contains phrases which state that no man can truly bear the responsibility of others. Hajj Badal is an act which shifts the Islamic duty of a person to another which contradicts the teaching of the Qur’an.WEB,weblink HAJJ_E_BADAL,, 2018-07-25, Hadiths, which are supposed sayings of the prophet Muhammed, cannot contradict the Qur’an according to Usool-e-Fiqh—the guiding Jurisprudence principles of Islam.WEB,weblink The Principles of Jurisprudence (usul al-fiqh),, en, 2018-07-25, 11 May 2015, Another reason why Hajj Badal is criticized stems from lack of consistency. Out of the Five Pillars of Islam, none are subject to vicarious atonement. If prayer, Kalima, fasting, or Zakat are not able to be atoned for vicariously, then why can Hajj.WEB,weblink The Five Pillars of Islam,, 2018-07-25, Permitting vicarious atonement harms the strictness of performing Islamic traditions on the living and could harm the religion as a whole.Lastly, passages in the Qur’an—specifically 22:28—stress the importance of witnessing the traditions of Hajj with one's own eyes.WEB,weblink Surah Al-Haj [22:28], Surah Al-Haj [22:28], en-US, 2018-07-25, Hajj Badal effectively prevents a follower of Islam from partaking in the ceremonies. This contradiction with the word of the Qur’an is another reason why Islamic scholars disapprove of the practice.


File:Supplicating_Pilgrim_at_Masjid_Al_Haram._Mecca,_Saudi_Arabia.jpg|Pilgrim in supplication at the Sacred Mosque.File:Aqaba_the_big_one.jpg|The largest Jamarah (pillar).File:Zamzamwill.JPG|Pilgrims visiting the well of Zamzam.File:Mount Safa Mecca.jpg|Mount Safa near the Kaaba, inside the Sacred Mosque.File:Al-Marwah.JPG|Mount MarwahFile:Tents_at_Mina.JPG|Tents at Mina.File:Day of Hajj. Mecca, Saudi Arabia.jpg|Plain of Arafat during Hajj, 2003.File:Mount_Arafat.jpg|Mount Arafat.File:Haji pilgrimage mina tent city.jpg|The picture describes the tents in Mina city (Saudi Arabia), just 2 kilometers away from Mecca. The tents are air conditioned with evaporative cooling units made in Australia.

See also





Further reading

  • BOOK, Bianchi, Robert R., 2004, Guests of God: Pilgrimage and Politics in the Islamic World, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-517107-5,
  • BOOK, Hammoudi, Abdellah, 2006, A Season in Mecca: Narrative of a Pilgrimage, Hill and Wang, 978-0-8090-7609-3,weblink
  • Khan, Qaisra, "Hajj & 'Umra", in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol. I, pp. 239–245.
  • BOOK, Patler, Nicholas, From Mecca to Selma: Malcolm X, Islam, and the Journey tnto the American Civil Rights Movement, 2017, The Islamic Monthly,weblink
  • BOOK, Trojanow, Ilija, 2007, Mumbai to Mecca: A Pilgrimage to the Holy Sites of Islam, Haus Publishing, 978-1-904950-29-5, Ilija Trojanow,



, Parvez Sharma
, 2016
, A Sinner in Mecca
, DVD, videodisc
, English; a little Arabic with subtitles
, Haram Films
, 976505435, Web site:weblink
, . A documentary on Mecca during the Hajj.

External links

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