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{{short description|Amorphous solid that exhibits a glass transition}}{{About|the material}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2011}}{{Use American English|date=February 2015}}File:Soda-lime glass jar showing bubbles trapped within.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|A jar made of soda-limesoda-limeFile:Glass welding two tubes together.JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|The joining of two tubes made of lead glass during glass welding.]]Glass is a non-crystalline, amorphous solid that is most often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative uses in, for example, window panes, tableware, optics and optoelectronics. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of manufactured glass are "silicate glasses" based on the chemical compound silica (silicon dioxide, or quartz), the primary constituent of sand. The term glass, in popular usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material, which is familiar from use as window glass and in glass bottles. Of the many silica-based glasses that exist, ordinary glazing and container glass is formed from a specific type called soda-lime glass, composed of approximately 75% silicon dioxide (SiO2), sodium oxide (Na2O) from sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), calcium oxide (CaO), also called lime, and several minor additives.Many applications of silicate glasses derive from their optical transparency, giving rise to their primary use as window panes. Glass will transmit, reflect and refract light; these qualities can be enhanced by cutting and polishing to make optical lenses, prisms, fine glassware, and optical fibers for high speed data transmission by light. Glass can be coloured by adding metallic salts, and can also be painted and printed with vitreous enamels. These qualities have led to the extensive use of glass in the manufacture of art objects and in particular, stained glass windows. Although brittle, silicate glass is extremely durable, and many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures. Because glass can be formed or moulded into any shape, it has been traditionally used for vessels: bowls, vases, bottles, jars and drinking glasses. In its most solid forms it has also been used for paperweights, marbles, and beads. When extruded as glass fiber and matted as glass wool in a way to trap air, it becomes a thermal insulating material, and when these glass fibers are embedded into an organic polymer plastic, they are a key structural reinforcement part of the composite material fiberglass. Some objects historically were so commonly made of silicate glass that they are simply called by the name of the material, such as drinking glasses and eyeglasses.Scientifically, "glass" is often defined in a broader sense, encompassing every solid that possesses a non-crystalline (that is, amorphous) structure at the atomic scale and that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid state. Porcelains and many polymer thermoplastics familiar from everyday use are glasses. These sorts of glasses can be made of quite different kinds of materials than silica: metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, and polymers. For many applications, like glass bottles or eyewear, polymer glasses (acrylic glass, polycarbonate or polyethylene terephthalate) are a lighter alternative than traditional glass.

Silicate glass

Ingredients

Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is a common fundamental constituent of glass.BOOK,weblink Forensic Polymer Engineering: Why Polymer Products Fail in Service, Lewis, Peter Rhys, 2016-06-09, Woodhead Publishing, 978-0-08-100728-0, live,weblink 24 April 2017, dmy-all, In nature, vitrification of quartz occurs when lightning strikes sand, forming hollow, branching rootlike structures called fulgurites.BOOK,weblink Land, sea and sky; or, Wonders of life and nature, tr. from the Germ. [Die Erde und ihr organisches Leben] of H.J. Klein and dr. Thomé, by J. Minshull, Klein, Hermann Joseph, 1881-01-01, live,weblink 2 December 2017, dmy-all, Fused quartz is a glass made from chemically-pure silica. It has excellent resistance to thermal shock, being able to survive immersion in water while red hot. However, its high melting temperature (1723 Â°C) and viscosity make it difficult to work with.WEB,weblink 1 April 2015, Glass – Chemistry Encyclopedia, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402113454weblink">weblink 2 April 2015, dmy-all, Normally, other substances are added to simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, "soda"), which lowers the glass-transition temperature. The soda makes the glass water-soluble, which is usually undesirable, so lime (CaO, calcium oxide, generally obtained from limestone), some magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) are added to provide for a better chemical durability. The resulting glass contains about 70 to 74% silica by weight and is called a soda-lime glass.B.H.W.S. de Jong, "Glass"; in "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry"; 5th edition, vol. A12, VCH Publishers, Weinheim, Germany, 1989, {{ISBN|978-3-527-20112-9}}, pp. 365–432. Soda-lime glasses account for about 90% of manufactured glass.WEB,weblink Borosilicate Glass vs. Soda Lime Glass?, rayotek.com, 2017-04-23, live,weblink 23 April 2017, dmy-all, 2016-08-02, BOOK,weblink Food Packaging: Principles and Practice, Second, Robertson, Gordon L., 2005, CRC Press, 978-0-8493-3775-8, live,weblink 2 December 2017, dmy-all, Most common glass contains other ingredients to change its properties. Lead glass or flint glass is more "brilliant" because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more specular reflection and increased optical dispersion. Adding barium also increases the refractive index. Thorium oxide gives glass a high refractive index and low dispersion and was formerly used in producing high-quality lenses, but due to its radioactivity has been replaced by lanthanum oxide in modern eyeglasses.WEB,weblink Glass Ingredients – What is Glass Made Of?, www.historyofglass.com, 2017-04-23, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170423155431weblink">weblink 23 April 2017, dmy-all, Iron can be incorporated into glass to absorb infrared radiation, for example in heat-absorbing filters for movie projectors, while cerium(IV) oxide can be used for glass that absorbs ultraviolet wavelengths.BOOK, Pfaender, Heinz G., Schott guide to glass,weblink 8 February 2011, 1996, Springer, 978-0-412-62060-7, 135, 186, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130525185349weblink">weblink 25 May 2013, dmy-all, The following is a list of the more common types of silicate glasses and their ingredients, properties, and applications:
  • Fused quartz,BOOK,weblink Materials Selection for Corrosion Control, Chawla, Sohan L., 1993, ASM International, 978-1-61503-728-5, live,weblink 2 December 2017, dmy-all, also called fused-silica glass,BOOK,weblink Materials and Design: The Art and Science of Material Selection in Product Design, Ashby, Michael F., Johnson, Kara, 2013, Butterworth-Heinemann, 978-0-08-098282-3, live,weblink 24 April 2017, dmy-all, vitreous-silica glass: silica (SiO2) in vitreous, or glass, form (i.e., its molecules are disordered and random, without crystalline structure). It has very low thermal expansion, is very hard, and resists high temperatures (1000–1500 Â°C). It is also the most resistant against weathering (caused in other glasses by alkali ions leaching out of the glass, while staining it). Fused quartz is used for high-temperature applications such as furnace tubes, lighting tubes, melting crucibles, etc.
  • Soda-lime-silica glass, window glass:BOOK,weblink Basic Civil Engineering, Punmia, Dr B.C., Jain, Ashok Kumar, Jain, Arun Kr, 2003, Firewall Media, 978-81-7008-403-7, live,weblink 24 April 2017, dmy-all, silica + sodium oxide (Na2O) + lime (CaO) + magnesia (MgO) + alumina (Al2O3).BOOK,weblink Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms – Parenteral Medications, Third Edition: Volume 3: Regulations, Validation and the Future, Nema, Sandeep, Ludwig, John D., 2010, CRC Press, 978-1-4200-8648-5, live,weblink 24 April 2017, dmy-all, BOOK,weblink Sustainability of Construction Materials, Khatib, Jamal, 2016, Woodhead Publishing, 978-0-08-100391-6, live,weblink 24 April 2017, dmy-all, Is transparent,BOOK,weblink Laboratory Safety for Chemistry Students, Jr, Robert H. Hill, Finster, David C., 2016, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-119-24338-0, live,weblink 2 December 2017, dmy-all, easily formed and most suitable for window glass (see flat glass).BOOK,weblink Construction Materials, Methods and Techniques, Spence, William P., Kultermann, Eva, 2016, Cengage Learning, 978-1-305-08627-2, live,weblink 2 December 2017, dmy-all, It has a high thermal expansion and poor resistance to heat (500–600 Â°C). It is used for windows, some low-temperature incandescent light bulbs, and tableware.BOOK,weblink Forensic Science: An Encyclopedia of History, Methods, and Techniques, Tilstone, William J., Savage, Kathleen A., Clark, Leigh A., 2006, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-57607-194-6, live,weblink 2 December 2017, dmy-all, Container glass is a soda-lime glass that is a slight variation on flat glass, which uses more alumina and calcium, and less sodium and magnesium, which are more water-soluble. This makes it less susceptible to water erosion.
  • Sodium borosilicate glass, Pyrex: silica + boron trioxide (B2O3) + soda (Na2O) + alumina (Al2O3).BOOK,weblink Handbook of Recycling: State-of-the-art for Practitioners, Analysts, and Scientists, Worrell, Ernst, Reuter, Markus, 2014, Newnes, 978-0-12-396506-6, live,weblink 2 December 2017, dmy-all, Stands heat expansion much better than window glass. Used for chemical glassware, cooking glass, car head lamps, etc. Borosilicate glasses (e.g. Pyrex, Duran) have as main constituents silica and boron trioxide. They have fairly low coefficients of thermal expansion (7740 Pyrex CTE is 3.25{{e|-6}}/°CCorning, Inc. Pyrex data sheet {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120113050839weblink |date=13 January 2012 }}. (PDF). Retrieved 2012-05-15. as compared to about 9{{e|-6}}/°C for a typical soda-lime glassAR-GLAS {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120612224929weblink |date=12 June 2012 }} Schott, N.A., Inc data sheet), making them more dimensionally stable. The lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) also makes them less subject to stress caused by thermal expansion, thus less vulnerable to cracking from thermal shock. They are commonly used for reagent bottles, optical components and household cookware.
  • Lead-oxide glass, crystal glass, lead glass:BOOK


,weblink
, The Brilliance of Swedish Glass, 1918–1939: An Alliance of Art and Industry
, Ericsson, Anne-Marie, 1996
, Yale University Press, 978-0-300-07005-7
, silica + lead oxide (PbO) + potassium oxide (K2O) + soda (Na2O) + zinc oxide (ZnO) + alumina. Because of its high density (resulting in a high electron density), it has a high refractive index, making the look of glassware more brilliantBOOK
,weblink
, Encyclopedia of Materials, Parts and Finishes
, Second
, Schwartz
, Mel
, 2002
, CRC Press
, 978-1-4200-1716-8
, live
,weblink
, 2 December 2017
, dmy-all
, (called "crystal", though of course it is a glass and not a crystal). It also has a high elasticity, making glassware "ring". It is also more workable in the factory, but cannot stand heating very well. This kind of glass is also more fragile than other glassesBOOK
,weblink
, Introduction to Glass Science and Technology
, Shelby
, J.E.
, 2017
, Royal Society of Chemistry
, 978-0-85404-639-3
, live
,weblink
, 2 December 2017
, dmy-all
, and is easier to cut.
  • Aluminosilicate glass: silica + alumina + lime + magnesiaBOOK,weblink Essentials of Materials Science & Engineering, Askeland, Donald R., Fulay, Pradeep P., 2008, Cengage Learning, 978-0-495-24446-2, live,weblink 2 December 2017, dmy-all, + barium oxide (BaO) + boric oxide (B2O3). Extensively used for fiberglass, used for making glass-reinforced plastics (boats, fishing rods, etc.) and for halogen bulb glass. Aluminosilicate glasses are also resistant to weathering and water erosion.BOOK


,weblink
, Corrosion Control
, Bradford, S.
, 2012, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-1-4684-8845-6
,
  • Germanium-oxide glass: alumina + germanium dioxide (GeO2). Extremely clear glass, used for fiber-optic waveguides in communication networks.JOURNAL


, Jiang, Xin, Lousteau, Joris, Richards, Billy, Jha, Animesh, 2009-09-01
, Investigation on germanium oxide-based glasses for infrared optical fibre development
, Optical Materials, 31, 11, 1701–1706, 10.1016/j.optmat.2009.04.011, 2009OptMa..31.1701J
, Light loses only 5% of its intensity through 1 km of glass fiber.Mining the sea sand {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120229061512weblink |date=29 February 2012 }}. Seafriends.org.nz (1994-02-08). Retrieved 2012-05-15.Another common glass ingredient is crushed alkali glass or 'cullet' ready for recycled glass. The recycled glass saves on raw materials and energy. Impurities in the cullet can lead to product and equipment failure. Fining agents such as sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, or antimony oxide may be added to reduce the number of air bubbles in the glass mixture. Glass batch calculation is the method by which the correct raw material mixture is determined to achieve the desired glass composition.BOOK
,weblink
, The Science of Clays: Applications in Industry, Engineering, and Environment
, Mukherjee, Swapna, 2013, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-94-007-6683-9
, File:Moldavite Besednice.jpg|Moldavite, a natural glass formed by meteorite impact, from Besednice, BohemiaFile:Fulgurites-algeria.jpg|Tube fulguritesFile:Piasek kwarcowy.jpg|Quartz sand (silica) is the main raw material in commercial glass productionFile:Trinitite from Trinity Site.jpg|Trinitite, a glass made by the Trinity nuclear-weapon testFile:Crystal glass.jpg|Lead glass, a glass made by adding lead oxide to glassFile:GlassGuitarSlide.jpg|A borosilicate glass guitar slide

Physical properties

{{See also|List of physical properties of glass}}

Optical properties

Glass is in widespread use largely due to the production of glass compositions that are transparent to visible light. In contrast, polycrystalline materials do not generally transmit visible light.BOOK, Barsoum, Michel W., Fundamentals of ceramics, 2003, IOP, Bristol, 978-0-7503-0902-8, 2, The individual crystallites may be transparent, but their facets (grain boundaries) reflect or scatter light resulting in diffuse reflection. Glass does not contain the internal subdivisions associated with grain boundaries in polycrystals and hence does not scatter light in the same manner as a polycrystalline material. The surface of a glass is often smooth since during glass formation the molecules of the supercooled liquid are not forced to dispose in rigid crystal geometries and can follow surface tension, which imposes a microscopically smooth surface. These properties, which give glass its clearness, can be retained even if glass is partially light-absorbing, i.e., colored.BOOK, Optical properties of glass, American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH, 978-0-944904-35-0, Donald R. Uhlmann, Norbert J. Kreidl, 1991, Glass has the ability to refract, reflect, and transmit light following geometrical optics,BOOK,weblink Howdunit Forensics, Lyle, D. P., 2008, Writer's Digest Books, 978-1-58297-474-3, without scattering it (due to the absence of grain boundaries).BOOK,weblink Sustainability of Construction Materials, Khatib, Jamal, 2016-08-12, Woodhead Publishing, 978-0-08-100391-6, It is used in the manufacture of lenses and windows.BOOK,weblink Goyal's I I T Foundation Course Chemistry: For Class- 7, Ramakrishna, A., 2014, Goyal Brothers Prakashan, Common glass has a refraction index around 1.5.BOOK,weblink Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures, Apodaca, Anthony A., Gritz, Larry, Barzel, Ronen, 2000, Morgan Kaufmann, 978-1-55860-618-0, This may be modified by adding low-density materialsBOOK,weblink Physical Properties of Materials, Second Edition, White, Mary Anne, 2011, CRC Press, 978-1-4398-9532-0, such as boron, which lowers the index of refraction (see crown glass),BOOK,weblink Optical Fiber Sensor Technology: Advanced Applications – Bragg Gratings and Distributed Sensors, Grattan, L.S., Meggitt, B.T., 2013, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-1-4757-6079-8, or increased (to as much as 1.8) with high-density materials such as (classically) lead oxide (see flint glass and lead glass), or in modern uses, less toxic oxides of zirconium, titanium, or barium. These high-index glasses (inaccurately known as "crystal" when used in glass vessels) cause more chromatic dispersion of light, and are prized for their diamond-like optical properties.According to Fresnel equations, the reflectivity of a sheet of glass is about 4% per surface (at normal incidence in air),BOOK,weblink Handbook of Camera Monitor Systems: The Automotive Mirror-Replacement Technology based on ISO 16505, Terzis, Anestis, 2016, Springer, 978-3-319-29611-1, and the transmissivity of one element (two surfaces) is about 90%.BOOK,weblink Sustainability of Construction Materials, Khatib, Jamal, 2016, Woodhead Publishing, 978-0-08-100391-6, Glass with high germanium oxide content also finds application in optoelectronicsBOOK,weblink Cambridge Illustrated Handbook of Optoelectronics and Photonics, Kasap, Safa, Ruda, Harry, Boucher, Yann, 2009, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-139-64372-6, —e.g., for light-transmitting optical fibers.BOOK,weblink Lasers for Medical Applications: Diagnostics, Therapy and Surgery, Jelínková, Helena, 2013, Elsevier, 978-0-85709-754-5, File:Mag glass request.jpg|Simple optical device: the magnifying glassFile:Single strand of a Optical fiber network cable, stripped clean to the (fragile) glass fiber core.png|Strand of optical glass fiber

Other properties

In the manufacturing process, silicate glass can be poured, formed, extruded and molded into forms ranging from flat sheets to highly intricate shapes.BOOK,weblink Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processing, Mattox, D.M., 2014, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-08-094658-0, The finished product is brittleBOOK,weblink Glasses and the Vitreous State, Zarzycki, Jerzy, 1991, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-35582-7, and will fracture, unless laminated or specially treated,BOOK,weblink Forensic Science: An Encyclopedia of History, Methods, and Techniques, Tilstone, William J., Savage, Kathleen A., Clark, Leigh A., 2006, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-57607-194-6, but is extremely durable under most conditions.BOOK,weblink Olin's Construction: Principles, Materials, and Methods, Simmons, H. Leslie, 2011, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-118-06705-5, It erodes very slowlyBOOK,weblink Stained glass in South Africa, Oxley, John, 1994, William Waterman Publications, 978-1-874959-09-0, and can mostly withstand the action of water.BOOK,weblink Fundamental Building Materials, Ward-Harvey, K., 2009, Universal-Publishers, 978-1-59942-954-0, It is mostly resistant to chemical attack,BOOK,weblink Research and Development in Applied Optics and Optical Glass at the National Bureau of Standards: A Review and Bibliography, Gardner, Irvine Clifton, Hahner, Clarence H., 1949, U.S. Government Printing Office, does not react with foods, and is an ideal material for the manufacture of containers for foodstuffs and most chemicals.BOOK,weblink Food Safety in the 21st Century: Public Health Perspective, Dudeja, Puja, Gupta, Rajul K., Minhas, Amarjeet Singh, 2016, Academic Press, 978-0-12-801846-0, Glass is also a fairly inert substance.BOOK,weblink Aulton's Pharmaceutics: The Design and Manufacture of Medicines, Aulton, Michael E., Taylor, Kevin, 2013, Elsevier Health Sciences, 978-0-7020-4290-4,

Corrosion

Although glass is generally corrosion-resistantBOOK,weblink Engineering Ceramics, Bengisu, M., 2013, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-3-662-04350-9, and more corrosion resistant than other materials, it still can be corroded. The materials that make up a particular glass composition have an effect on how quickly the glass corrodes. A glass containing a high proportion of alkalisBOOK,weblink Materials Degradation and Its Control by Surface Engineering, Batchelor, Andrew W., Loh, Nee Lam, Chandrasekaran, Margam, 2011, World Scientific, 978-1-908978-14-1, or alkali earths is less corrosion-resistant than other kinds of glasses.BOOK,weblink Materials Selection for Corrosion Control, Chawla, Sohan L., 1993, ASM International, 978-1-61503-728-5, Glass flakes have applications as anti-corrosive coating.BOOK,weblink SPI/CI International Conference and Exposition 1998, Technomic, 1998, CRC Press, 978-1-56676-642-5,

Strength

Glass typically has a tensile strength of {{Convert|7|MPa|psi|lk=in}},BOOK,weblink Optomechanical Systems Engineering, Kasunic, Keith J., 2015, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-118-80990-7, however theoretically it can have a strength of {{Convert|17|GPa|psi}} due to glass's strong chemical bonds. Several factors such as imperfections like scratches and bubblesWEB,weblink The Mechanical Properties of Glass, Lehman, Richard, November 24, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171201040439weblink">weblink 1 December 2017, live, November 24, 2017, dmy-all, and the glass's chemical composition impact the tensile strength of glass.BOOK,weblink The Glass Industry, 1923, Ashlee Publishing Company, Incorporated, Several processes such as toughening can increase the strength of glass.WEB,weblink Glass Strength, www.pilkington.com, 2017-11-24, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170726123604weblink">weblink 26 July 2017, dmy-all,

Contemporary production

Following the glass batch preparation and mixing, the raw materials are transported to the furnace. Soda-lime glass for mass production is melted in gas fired units. Smaller scale furnaces for specialty glasses include electric melters, pot furnaces, and day tanks.After melting, homogenization and refining (removal of bubbles), the glass is . Flat glass for windows and similar applications is formed by the float glass process, developed between 1953 and 1957 by Sir Alastair Pilkington and Kenneth Bickerstaff of the UK's Pilkington Brothers, who created a continuous ribbon of glass using a molten tin bath on which the molten glass flows unhindered under the influence of gravity. The top surface of the glass is subjected to nitrogen under pressure to obtain a polished finish.WEB,weblink PFG Glass, Pfg.co.za, 24 October 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091106210357weblink">weblink 6 November 2009, dmy, Container glass for common bottles and jars is formed by blowing and pressing methods.BOOK,weblink Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40,: Protection of Environment, Part 60 (Sections 60.1-end), Revised As of July 1, 2011, Office, U.S. Government Printing, October 2011, Government Printing Office, 978-0-16-088907-3, This glass is often slightly modified chemically (with more alumina and calcium oxide) for greater water resistance. Further glass forming techniques are summarized in the table .Once the desired form is obtained, glass is usually annealed for the removal of stresses and to increase the glass's hardness and durability.BOOK,weblink Scratching the Surface – An Introduction to Photonics – Part 1 Optics, Thin Films, Lasers and Crystals, Richling, Jeffrey, 2017, Lulu.com, 978-1-312-65170-8, Surface treatments, coatings or lamination may follow to improve the chemical durability (glass container coatings, glass container internal treatment), strength (toughened glass, bulletproof glass, windshieldsWEB,weblink windshields how they are made, autoglassguru, 2018-02-09, ), or optical properties (insulated glazing, anti-reflective coating).WEB,weblink Glass Surface Treatments: Commercial Processes Used in Glass Manufacture, Pantano, Carlo, File:10 green bottles.jpeg|Impurities give the glass its colorFile:JM marbles 01.jpg|Transparent and opaque examplesFile:Swan of Glass.jpg|Glass can be blown into an infinite number of shapes

Color

(File:Cups2.png|thumb|Some of the many color possibilities of glass)Color in glass may be obtained by addition of electrically charged ions (or color centers) that are homogeneously distributed, and by precipitation of finely dispersed particles (such as in photochromic glasses).BOOK, Vogel, Werner, Glass Chemistry, Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K, 2, 1994, 978-3-540-57572-6, Ordinary soda-lime glass appears colorless to the naked eye when it is thin, although iron(II) oxide (FeO) impurities of up to 0.1 wt%BOOK, High temperature glass melt property database for process modeling, 2005, American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 978-1-57498-225-1, Thomas P. Seward, produce a green tint, which can be viewed in thick pieces or with the aid of scientific instruments. Further FeO and chromium(III) oxide (Cr2O3) additions may be used for the production of green bottles. Sulfur, together with carbon and iron salts, is used to form iron polysulfides and produce amber glass ranging from yellowish to almost black.David M Issitt. weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070305020112weblink">Substances Used in the Making of Coloured Glass 1st.glassman.com. A glass melt can also acquire an amber color from a reducing combustion atmosphere.BOOK,weblink Introduction to Glass Science and Technology, Shelby, James E., 2007, Royal Society of Chemistry, 978-1-84755-116-0, Manganese dioxide can be added in small amounts to remove the green tint given by iron.BOOK,weblink A World From Dust: How the Periodic Table Shaped Life, McFarland, Ben, 2016-03-07, Oxford University Press, 9780190275037, en, Art glass and studio glass pieces are colored using closely guarded recipes that involve specific combinations of metal oxides, melting temperatures and "cook" times. Most colored glass used in the art market is manufactured in volume by vendors who serve this market, although there are some glassmakers with the ability to make their own color from raw materials.

History of silicate glass

{{See also|Architectural glass|Stained glass|Glass art|Art glass|Studio glass}}File:Pitcher LACMA 33.2.1.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Bohemian flashed and engraved ruby glass (19th-century)]]File:Wine Goblet, mid-19th century.jpg|thumb|upright|Wine goblet, mid-19th century. Qajar dynasty. Brooklyn MuseumBrooklyn MuseumFile:Roman diatretglas.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Roman cage cupcage cupFile:Foglio - David Patchen 9416.jpg|right|thumb|upright|Studio glassStudio glassNaturally occurring glass, especially the volcanic glass obsidian, was used by many Stone Age societies across the globe for the production of sharp cutting tools and, due to its limited source areas, was extensively traded. Archaeological evidence suggests that the first true glass was made in coastal north Syria, Mesopotamia or ancient Egypt.WEB,weblink Glass Online: The History of Glass, 29 October 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111024000436weblink">weblink 24 October 2011, The earliest known glass objects, of the mid third millennium BCE, were beads, perhaps initially created as accidental by-products of metal-working (slags) or during the production of faience, a pre-glass vitreous material made by a process similar to glazing.True glazing over a ceramic body was not used until many centuries after the production of the first glass.Glass remained a luxury material, and the disasters that overtook Late Bronze Age civilizations seem to have brought glass-making to a halt. Indigenous development of glass technology in South Asia may have begun in 1730 BCE.BOOK, Gowlett, J.A.J.,weblink High Definition Archaeology: Threads Through the Past, Routledge, 1997, 978-0-415-18429-8, live,weblink 17 January 2017, dmy-all, In ancient China, though, glassmaking seems to have a late start, compared to ceramics and metal work. The term glass developed in the late Roman Empire. It was in the Roman glassmaking center at Trier, now in modern Germany, that the late-Latin term glesum originated, probably from a Germanic word for a transparent, lustrous substance.BOOK, Douglas, R.W., A history of glassmaking, G T Foulis & Co Ltd, Henley-on-Thames, 1972, 978-0-85429-117-5, Glass objects have been recovered across the Roman EmpireBOOK,weblink Roman Glass in the Corning Museum of Glass, Whitehouse, David, Glass, Corning Museum of, 2003, Hudson Hills, 978-0-87290-155-1, live,weblink 24 April 2017, dmy-all, in domestic, funerary,BOOK,weblink The Art Journal, 1888, Virtue and Company, and industrial contexts.BOOK,weblink The Glass Industry, 1920, Ashlee Publishing Company, Examples of Roman glass have been found outside of the former Roman Empire in China,BOOK,weblink Six Dynasties Civilization, Dien, Albert E., 2007, Yale University Press, 978-0-300-07404-8, live,weblink 24 April 2017, dmy-all, the Baltics, the Middle East and India.BOOK,weblink The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, Silberman, Neil Asher, Bauer, Alexander A., 2012, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-973578-5, live,weblink 24 April 2017, dmy-all, Glass was used extensively during the Middle Ages. Anglo-Saxon glass has been found across England during archaeological excavations of both settlement and cemetery sites.BOOK,weblink Fundamentals of Amorphous Solids: Structure and Properties, Stachurski, Zbigniew H., 2015, John Wiley & Sons, 978-3-527-68219-5, Glass in the Anglo-Saxon period was used in the manufacture of a range of objects including vessels, windows,BOOK,weblink The Antiquary: A Magazine Devoted to the Study of the Past, Walford, Edward, Apperson, George Latimer, 1887, E. Stock, beads,BOOK,weblink Neighbours and Successors of Rome: Traditions of Glass Production and use in Europe and the Middle East in the Later 1st Millennium AD, Keller, Daniel, Price, Jennifer, Jackson, Caroline, 2014, Oxbow Books, 978-1-78297-398-0, and was also used in jewelry.BOOK,weblink The Anglo-Saxon Review, Churchill, Lady Randolph Spencer, 1900, John Lane, From the 10th-century onwards, glass was employed in stained glass windows of churches and cathedrals, with famous examples at Chartres Cathedral and the Basilica of Saint Denis. By the 14th-century, architects were designing buildings with walls of stained glass such as Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, (1203–1248)Rene Hughe, Byzantine and Medieval Art, Paul Hamlyn, (1963) and the East end of Gloucester Cathedral.John Harvey, English Cathedrals, Batsford, (1961) Stained glass had a major revival with Gothic Revival architecture in the 19th century.BOOK,weblink Encyclopedia of American architecture, Packard, Robert T., Korab, Balthazar, Hunt, William Dudley, 1980, McGraw-Hill, 978-0-07-048010-0, With the Renaissance, and a change in architectural style, the use of large stained glass windows became less prevalent.BOOK,weblink Discovering Stained Glass in Detroit, Tutag, Nola Huse, Hamilton, Lucy, 1987, Wayne State University Press, 978-0-8143-1875-1, live,weblink 14 February 2017, dmy-all, The use of domestic stained glass increasedBOOK,weblink Glass-painters, Brown, Sarah, O'Connor, David, 1991, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-6917-7, until most substantial houses had glass windows. These were initially small panes leaded together, but with the changes in technology, glass could be manufactured relatively cheaply in increasingly larger sheets. This led to larger window panes, and, in the 20th-century, to much larger windows in ordinary domestic and commercial buildings.In the 20th century, new types of glass such as laminated glass, reinforced glass and glass bricksBOOK,weblink The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1983, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 978-0-85229-400-0, increased the use of glass as a building material and resulted in new applications of glass.BOOK,weblink Global Roadmap for Ceramic and Glass Technology, Freiman, Stephen, 2007, John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-470-10491-0, Multi-story buildings are frequently constructed with curtain walls made almost entirely of glass.BOOK,weblink Sustainable Renovation: Strategies for Commercial Building Systems and Envelope, Gelfand, Lisa, Duncan, Chris, 2011, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-118-10217-6, Similarly, laminated glass has been widely applied to vehicles for windscreens.BOOK,weblink Photodermatology, Lim, Henry W., Honigsmann, Herbert, Hawk, John L.M., 2007, CRC Press, 978-1-4200-1996-4, Optical glass for spectacles has been used since the Middle Ages.BOOK,weblink The Properties of Optical Glass, Bach, Hans, Neuroth, Norbert, 2012, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-3-642-57769-7, The production of lenses has become increasingly proficient, aiding astronomersBOOK, Ian S., McLean, Electronic Imaging in Astronomy: Detectors and Instrumentation,weblink Springer Science & Business Media, 2008, 978-3-540-76582-0, Google Books, as well as having other application in medicine and science.BOOK,weblink Happy Accidents: Serendipity in Major Medical Breakthroughs in the Twentieth Century, Meyers, Morton A., 2011, Skyhorse Publishing, 978-1-61145-162-7, Glass is also employed as the aperture cover in many solar energy collectors.BOOK,weblink Solar Energy Sciences and Engineering Applications, Enteria, Napoleon, Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar, 2013, CRC Press, 978-0-203-76205-9, From the 19th century, there was a revival in many ancient glass-making techniques including cameo glass, achieved for the first time since the Roman Empire and initially mostly used for pieces in a neo-classical style.BOOK,weblink Decorative Arts, Miller, Judith, 2006, DK Publishing, 978-0-7566-2349-4, The Art Nouveau movement made great use of glass,BOOK,weblink Graphic with Materials Technology, Cresswell, Lesley, 2004, Heinemann, 978-0-435-75768-7, with René Lalique, Émile Gallé, and Daum of Nancy producing colored vases and similar pieces, often in cameo glass, and also using luster techniques. Louis Comfort Tiffany in America specialized in stained glass, both secular and religious, and his famous lamps. The early 20th-century saw the large-scale factory production of glass art by firms such as Waterford and Lalique. From about 1960 onwards, there have been an increasing number of small studios hand-producing glass artworks, and glass artists began to class themselves as in effect sculptors working in glass, and their works as part fine arts.In the 21st century, scientists observe the properties of ancient stained glass windows, in which suspended nanoparticles prevent UV light from causing chemical reactions that change image colors, are developing photographic techniques that use similar stained glass to capture true color images of Mars for the 2019 ESA Mars Rover mission.NEWS, Zolfagharifard, Ellie,weblink How medieval stained-glass is creating the ultimate SPACE camera: Nanoparticles used in church windows will help scientists see Mars' true colours under extreme UV light, 15 October 2013, London, Daily Mail, live,weblink" title="archive.is/20131228213901weblink">weblink 28 December 2013, dmy-all,

Chronology of advances in architectural glass

  • 1226: "Broad Sheet" first produced in Sussex.BOOK,weblink Tudor Monastery Farm: Life in rural England 500 years ago, Ginn, Peter, Goodman, Ruth, 2013, Random House, 978-1-4481-4172-2,
  • 1330: "Crown glass" for art work and vessels first produced in Rouen, France.BOOK,weblink History, Performance and Conservation, Bridgwood, Barry, Lennie, Lindsay, 2013, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-134-07899-8, "Broad Sheet" also produced. Both were also supplied for export.
  • 1500s: A method of making mirrors out of plate glass was developed by Venetian glassmakers on the island of Murano, who covered the back of the glass with a mercury-tin amalgam, obtaining near-perfect and undistorted reflection.
  • 1620s: "Blown plate" first produced in London.BOOK,weblink Tudor Monastery Farm: Life in rural England 500 years ago, Ginn, Peter, Goodman, Ruth, 2013, Random House, 978-1-4481-4172-2, Used for mirrors and coach plates.BOOK,weblink The World of Science, Art, and Industry: Illustrated from Examples in the New-York Exhibition, 1853–54, Silliman, Benjamin, Goodrich, Charles Rush, 1854, G.P. Putnam,
  • 1678: "Crown glass" first produced in London.BOOK,weblink Prodigy Houses of Virginia: Architecture and the Native Elite, Mooney, Barbara Burlison, 2008, University of Virginia Press, 978-0-8139-2673-5, This process dominated until the 19th century.
  • 1843: An early form of "float glass" invented by Henry Bessemer, pouring glass onto liquid tin. Expensive and not a commercial success.
  • 1874: Tempered glass is developed by Francois Barthelemy Alfred Royer de la Bastie (1830–1901) of Paris, France by quenching almost molten glass in a heated bath of oil or grease.
  • 1888: Machine-rolled glass introduced, allowing patterns.BOOK,weblink Materials and Skills for Historic Building Conservation, Forsyth, Michael, 2013, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-118-65866-6,
  • 1898: Wired-cast glass first commercially produced by PilkingtonBOOK,weblink Practical Building Conservation: Glass and glazing, 2011, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 978-0-7546-4557-3, for use where safety or security was an issue.BOOK,weblink The Cambridge World History: Volume 7, Production, Destruction and Connection, 1750–Present, Part 1, Structures, Spaces, and Boundary Making, McNeill, John, Pomeranz, Kenneth, 2015, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-316-29812-1,
  • 1959: Float glass launched in UK. Invented by Sir Alastair Pilkington.History of Glass Manufacture: London Crown Glass co.BOOK,weblink Notes on Science and Technology in Britain, April 1967, The Office,
File:Kosta-window.jpg|Mouth-blown window-glass in Sweden Kosta Glasbruk, (1742) with a pontil mark from the glassblower's pipeFile:Canterbury 001 Queen Elizabeths guestchamber.jpg|A building in Canterbury, England, which displays its long history in different building styles and glazing of every century from the 16th to the 20th included.File:Vitrail-Passion.jpg|Windows in the choir of the Basilica of Saint Denis, one of the earliest uses of extensive areas of glass. (early 13th-century architecture with restored glass of the 19th century)File:Hardwick Hall 3 (7027835143).jpg|"Hardwick Hall, more glass than wall". (late 16th century)File:Österreichische Postsparkasse Vienna Oct. 2006 003.jpg|Windows at Österreichische Postsparkasse, Vienna, (early 20th century)File:Westin Bonaventure Hotel.jpg|Westin Bonaventure Hotel, Los Angeles, show the extensive use of glass as a building material in the 20th–21st centuries

Other types

New chemical glass compositions or new treatment techniques can be initially investigated in small-scale laboratory experiments. The raw materials for laboratory-scale glass melts are often different from those used in mass production because the cost factor has a low priority. In the laboratory mostly pure chemicals are used. Care must be taken that the raw materials have not reacted with moisture or other chemicals in the environment (such as alkali or alkaline earth metal oxides and hydroxides, or boron oxide), or that the impurities are quantified (loss on ignition).WEB,weblink Glass melting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Depts.washington.edu, 24 October 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100505144629weblink">weblink 5 May 2010, dmy, Evaporation losses during glass melting should be considered during the selection of the raw materials, e.g., sodium selenite may be preferred over easily evaporating selenium dioxide (SeO2). Also, more readily reacting raw materials may be preferred over relatively inert ones, such as aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) over alumina (Al2O3). Usually, the melts are carried out in platinum crucibles to reduce contamination from the crucible material. Glass homogeneity is achieved by homogenizing the raw materials mixture (glass batch), by stirring the melt, and by crushing and re-melting the first melt. The obtained glass is usually annealed to prevent breakage during processing.WEB, Fluegel, Alexander,weblink Glass melting in the laboratory, Glassproperties.com, 24 October 2009, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090213120553weblink">weblink 13 February 2009, dmy-all, To make glass from materials with poor glass forming tendencies, novel techniques are used to increase cooling rate, or reduce crystal nucleation triggers. Examples of these techniques include aerodynamic levitation (cooling the melt whilst it floats on a gas stream), splat quenching (pressing the melt between two metal anvils) and roller quenching (pouring the melt through rollers).File:Glasfaser Roving.jpg|thumb|Some glass fiberglass fiber

Fiberglass

{{See also|Glass wool|Fiber-reinforced plastic}}Fiberglass (also called glass-reinforced-plasticBOOK,weblink Sea Kayaking: A Guide for Sea Canoeists, Woodhouse, Philip, 2013, Balboa Press, 978-1-4525-0849-8, live,weblink 26 April 2017, dmy-all, BOOK,weblink How to Fabricate Automotive Fiberglass & Carbon Fiber Parts, Burrill, Daniel, Zurschmeide, Jeffery, 2012, CarTech Inc, 978-1-934709-98-6, ) is a composite material made up of glass fibers (also called fiberglassBOOK,weblink Fractography of Glass, Bradt, R. C., Richard C. Bradt, Tressler, R.E., 2013, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-1-4899-1325-8, or glass frillerBOOK,weblink Plastic Injection Molding: Material Selection and Product Design Fundamentals, Bryce, Douglas M., 1997, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 978-0-87263-488-6, ) embedded in a plastic resin.BOOK,weblink Foundations of Exercise Science, Kamen, Gary, 2001, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 978-0-683-04498-0, live,weblink 24 April 2017, dmy-all, BOOK,weblink The Complete Guide to Auto Body Repair, MotorBooks International, 978-1-61059-206-2, live,weblink 24 April 2017, dmy-all, It is made by melting glass and stretching the glass into fibers. These fibers are woven together into a cloth and left to set in a plastic resin.WEB,weblink Properties of Matter Reading Selection: Perfect Teamwork, www.propertiesofmatter.si.edu, 2017-04-25, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160512174222weblink">weblink 12 May 2016, dmy-all, Fiberglass filaments are made through a pultrusion process in which the raw materials (sand, limestone, kaolin clay, fluorspar, colemanite, dolomite and other minerals) are melted in a large furnace into a liquid which is extruded through very small orifices (5–25 micrometres in diameter if the glass is E-glass and 9 micrometers if the glass is S-glass).BOOK,weblink Lightweight Ballistic Composites: Military and Law-Enforcement Applications, Bhatnagar, Ashok, 2016, Woodhead Publishing, 978-0-08-100425-8, Fiberglass has the properties of being lightweight and corrosion resistant.BOOK,weblink Certain Steel Grating from China, Invs. 701-TA-465 and 731-TA-1161 (Preliminary), DIANE Publishing, 978-1-4578-1677-2, live,weblink 26 April 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Fiberglass and Composite Material Design Guide, www.performancecomposites.com, 2017-04-26, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161126113524weblink">weblink 26 November 2016, dmy-all, Fiberglass is also a good insulator,BOOK,weblink Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Infrastructure Applications: Focusing on Innovation, Technology Implementation and Sustainability, Jain, Ravi, Lee, Luke, 2012, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-94-007-2356-6, allowing it to be used to insulate buildings.BOOK,weblink Principles of Heat Transfer, Kaviany, Massoud, 2002, John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-471-43463-4, Most fiberglasses are not alkali resistant.BOOK,weblink Industrial Minerals & Rocks: Commodities, Markets, and Uses, Kogel, Jessica Elzea, 2006, SME, 978-0-87335-233-8, Fiberglass also has the property of becoming stronger as the glass ages.BOOK,weblink Fiberglass Boat Restoration: The Project Planning Guide, Canning, Captain Wayne, 2017, Skyhorse Publishing Inc., 978-1-944824-27-3,

Network glasses

File:CD-RW bottom.jpg|thumb|right|A CD-RW (CD). (Chalcogenide glass]] form the basis of rewritable CD and DVD solid-state memory technology.JOURNAL, Greer, A. Lindsay, 10.1038/4371246a, Nature, 437, 1246–1247, 2005, Materials science: Changing Face of the Chameleon, 16251941, Mathur, N, 7063, 2005Natur.437.1246G, )Some types of glass that do not include silica as a major constituent may have physico-chemical properties useful for their application in fiber optics and other specialized technical applications.BOOK,weblink Technological Advances in Tellurite Glasses: Properties, Processing, and Applications, Rivera, V. A. G., Manzani, Danilo, 2017, Springer, 978-3-319-53038-3, These include fluoride glass, aluminate and aluminosilicate glass, phosphate glass, borate glass, and chalcogenide glass.There are three classes of components for oxide glass: network formers, intermediates, and modifiers.BOOK,weblink Glass Nanocomposites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications, Karmakar, Basudeb, Rademann, Klaus, Stepanov, Andrey, 2016, William Andrew, 978-0-323-39312-6, The network formers (silicon, boron, germanium) form a highly cross-linked network of chemical bonds. The intermediates (titanium, aluminium, zirconium, beryllium, magnesium, zinc) can act as both network formers and modifiers, according to the glass composition.BOOK,weblink Fuel Cell Science and Engineering: Materials, Processes, Systems and Technology, Stolten, Detlef, Emonts, Bernd, 2012, John Wiley & Sons, 978-3-527-65026-2, The modifiers (calcium, lead, lithium, sodium, potassium) alter the network structure; they are usually present as ions, compensated by nearby non-bridging oxygen atoms, bound by one covalent bond to the glass network and holding one negative charge to compensate for the positive ion nearby.BOOK,weblink Radionuclide Source Term for HLW Glass, Spent Nuclear Fuel, and Compacted Hulls and End Pieces (CSD-C Waste), Bernhard, Kienzler, Marcus, Altmaier, Christiane, Bube, Volker, Metz, 2012, KIT Scientific Publishing, 978-3-86644-907-7, Some elements can play multiple roles; e.g. lead can act both as a network former (Pb4+ replacing Si4+), or as a modifier.WEB,weblink MSE200 Lecture 19 (CH. 11.6, 11.8) Ceramics, Zhu, Yuntian, October 15, 2017, The presence of non-bridging oxygens lowers the relative number of strong bonds in the material and disrupts the network, decreasing the viscosity of the melt and lowering the melting temperature.The alkali metal ions are small and mobile; their presence in glass allows a degree of electrical conductivity, especially in molten state or at high temperature. Their mobility decreases the chemical resistance of the glass, allowing leaching by water and facilitating corrosion. Alkaline earth ions, with their two positive charges and requirement for two non-bridging oxygen ions to compensate for their charge, are much less mobile themselves and also hinder diffusion of other ions, especially the alkalis. The most common commercial glass types contain both alkali and alkaline earth ions (usually sodium and calcium), for easier processing and satisfying corrosion resistance.BOOK, Bourhis, Eric Le,weblink Glass: Mechanics and Technology, 74, Wiley-VCH, 2007, 978-3-527-31549-9, live,weblink 17 January 2017, dmy-all, Corrosion resistance of glass can be increased by dealkalization, removal of the alkali ions from the glass surfaceBOOK,weblink Advances in Porcelain Enamel Technology, Baldwin, Charles, Evele, Holger, Pershinsky, Renee, 2010, John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-470-64089-0, by reaction with sulfur or fluorine compounds.BOOK,weblink Glass Surfaces: Proceedings of the Fourth Rolla Ceramic Materials Conference on Glass Surfaces, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, 15–19 June, 1975, Day, D.E., 2013, Elsevier, 978-1-4831-6522-6, Presence of alkaline metal ions has also detrimental effect to the loss tangent of the glass,BOOK,weblink Electri-onics, 1985, Lake Publishing Corporation, and to its electrical resistance; glass manufactured for electronics (sealing, vacuum tubes, lamps ...) have to take this in account.Addition of lead(II) oxide lowers melting point, lowers viscosity of the melt, and increases refractive index. Lead oxide also facilitates solubility of other metal oxides and is used in colored glass. The viscosity decrease of lead glass melt is very significant (roughly 100 times in comparison with soda glass); this allows easier removal of bubbles and working at lower temperatures, hence its frequent use as an additive in vitreous enamels and glass solders. The high ionic radius of the Pb2+ ion renders it highly immobile in the matrix and hinders the movement of other ions; lead glasses therefore have high electrical resistance, about two orders of magnitude higher than soda-lime glass (108.5 vs 106.5 Î©â‹…cm, DC at 250 Â°C). For more details, see lead glass.BOOK, Shackelford, James F., Doremus, Robert H.,weblink Ceramic and Glass Materials: Structure, Properties and Processing, 158, Springer, 2008, 978-0-387-73361-6, live,weblink 17 January 2017, dmy-all, Addition of fluorine lowers the dielectric constant of glass. Fluorine is highly electronegative and attracts the electrons in the lattice, lowering the polarizability of the material. Such silicon dioxide-fluoride is used in manufacture of integrated circuits as an insulator. High levels of fluorine doping lead to formation of volatile SiF2O and such glass is then thermally unstable. Stable layers were achieved with dielectric constant down to about 3.5–3.7.BOOK, Doering, Robert, Nishi, Yoshio,weblink Handbook of semiconductor manufacturing technology, 12–3, CRC Press, 2007, 978-1-57444-675-3, live,weblink 17 January 2017, dmy-all,

Amorphous metals

(File:Bulk Metallic Glass Sample.jpg|thumb|Samples of amorphous metal, with millimeter scale)In the past, small batches of amorphous metals with high surface area configurations (ribbons, wires, films, etc.) have been produced through the implementation of extremely rapid rates of cooling. This was initially termed "splat cooling" by doctoral student W. Klement at Caltech, who showed that cooling rates on the order of millions of degrees per second is sufficient to impede the formation of crystals, and the metallic atoms become "locked into" a glassy state. Amorphous metal wires have been produced by sputtering molten metal onto a spinning metal disk. More recently a number of alloys have been produced in layers with thickness exceeding 1 millimeter. These are known as bulk metallic glasses (BMG). Liquidmetal Technologies sell a number of zirconium-based BMGs. Batches of amorphous steel have also been produced that demonstrate mechanical properties far exceeding those found in conventional steel alloys.JOURNAL, Klement, Jr., W., Willens, R.H., Duwez, Pol, 10.1038/187869b0, 1960Natur.187..869K, Non-crystalline Structure in Solidified Gold-Silicon Alloys, 1960, Nature, 187, 4740, 869, JOURNAL, Liebermann, H., Graham, C., 10.1109/TMAG.1976.1059201, Production of Amorphous Alloy Ribbons and Effects of Apparatus Parameters on Ribbon Dimensions, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 1976, 12, 6, 921, 1976ITM....12..921L, JOURNAL, Ponnambalam, V., Poon, S. Joseph, Shiflet, Gary J., Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with diameter thickness larger than one centimeter, Journal of Materials Research, 2004, 19, 5, 1320, 10.1557/JMR.2004.0176, 2004JMatR..19.1320P, In 2004, NIST researchers presented evidence that an isotropic non-crystalline metallic phase (dubbed "q-glass") could be grown from the melt. This phase is the first phase, or "primary phase", to form in the Al-Fe-Si system during rapid cooling. Experimental evidence indicates that this phase forms by a first-order transition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the q-glass nucleates from the melt as discrete particles, which grow spherically with a uniform growth rate in all directions. The diffraction pattern shows it to be an isotropic glassy phase. Yet there is a nucleation barrier, which implies an interfacial discontinuity (or internal surface) between the glass and the melt.WEB,weblink Metallurgy Division Publications, NIST Interagency Report 7127, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080916063500weblink">weblink 16 September 2008, dmy-all, JOURNAL, Mendelev, M.I., Schmalian, J., Wang, C.Z., Morris, J.R., K.M. Ho, 10.1103/PhysRevB.74.104206, 2006PhRvB..74j4206M, Interface Mobility and the Liquid-Glass Transition in a One-Component System, 2006, Physical Review B, 74, 10, 104206,weblink

Electrolytes

Electrolytes or molten salts are mixtures of different ions. In a mixture of three or more ionic species of dissimilar size and shape, crystallization can be so difficult that the liquid can easily be supercooled into a glass.The best-studied example is Ca0.4K0.6(NO3)1.4. Glass electrolytes in the form of Ba-doped Li-glass and Ba-doped Na-glass have been proposed as solutions to problems identified with organic liquid electrolytes used in modern lithium-ion battery cells.WEB,weblink Lithium-Ion Pioneer Introduces New Battery That's Three Times Better, Fortune, 2017-05-06, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170409193506weblink">weblink 9 April 2017, dmy-all,

Aqueous solutions

Some aqueous solutions can be supercooled into a glassy state,BOOK,weblink Mössbauer Effect Methodology: Volume 6 Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Mössbauer Effect Methodology New York City, January 25, 1970, Gruverman, Irwin J., 2013, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-1-4684-3159-9, BOOK,weblink Water Relationships in Foods: Advances in the 1980s and Trends for the 1990s, Levine, Harry, Slade, Louise, 2013, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-1-4899-0664-9, for instance LiCl:RH2O (a solution of lithium chloride salt and water molecules) in the composition range 4

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