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formylation reaction

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formylation reaction
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{{about|formylation in organic synthesis|the role of formylation in biochemistry|formylation}}
missing image!
- Aldehyde2.png -
The formyl group
A formylation reaction in organic chemistry refers to organic reactions in which an organic compound is functionalized with a formyl group (-CH=O). The reaction is a route to aldehydes (C-CH=O), formamides (N-CH=O), and formate esters (O-CH=O). A reagent that delivers the formyl group is called a formylating agent.JOURNAL, George Olah, Olah, G. A.; Ohannesian, L.; Arvanaghi, M., Formylating agents, Chem. Rev., 1987, 87, 671–686, 10.1021/cr00080a001, A particularly important formylation process is hydroformylation which converts alkenes to the homologated aldehyde. The conversion of benzene to benzaldehyde is the basis of the Gattermann–Koch reaction:(File:Gattermann Koch Synthese 1 Überblick.svg|center)

Aromatic formylation

Formylation reactions are a form of electrophilic aromatic substitution and therefore work best when the aromatic starting materials are electron-rich. Phenols are very commonly encountered as they can be readily deprotonated to form phenoxides which are excellent nucleophiles, other electron rich substrates such as mesitylene, pyrrole, or fused aromatic rings can also be expected to react. Benzene will react under aggressive conditions but deactivated rings such as pyridine are difficult to formylate effectively.

Selective ortho-formylation of phenols

Phenol would normally be expected to react to give a mixture of ortho and para products, however many formylation reactions will selectively give only the otho product (e.g. 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde). This can be explained by strong attractive interactions between the phenoxide and the formylating reagent during the reaction, for example ionic interactions with cationic nitrogen centres in the Vilsmeier–Haack reaction and Duff reaction or coordination to high oxidation metals in the Casiraghi formylation and Rieche formylation (c.f. Kolbe–Schmitt reaction).The direct reaction between phenol and paraformaldehyde is possible via the Casiraghi formylation,JOURNAL, Casiraghi, Giovanni, Casnati, Giuseppe, Puglia, Giuseppe, Sartori, Giovanni, Terenghi, Giuliana, Selective reactions between phenols and formaldehyde. A novel route to salicylaldehydes, Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1, 1980, 1862, 10.1039/P19800001862, all other methods used masked forms of formaldehyde, in part to limit the formation of phenol formaldehyde resins. Aldehydes are strongly deactivating and as such phenols typically only react once, however certain reactions, such as the Duff reaction, can give double addition.JOURNAL, Lindoy, Leonard F., Mono- and Diformylation of 4-Substituted Phenols: A New Application of the Duff Reaction, Synthesis, July 1998, 1998, 07, 1029–1032, 10.1055/s-1998-2110,

Other substrates

Formylation reactions benzene rings can be achieved via the Gattermann reaction and Gattermann-Koch reaction. These involve strong acid catalysis and proceed in a manner similar to the Friedel–Crafts reaction.

List of reactions

Aliphatic formylation

Hydroformylation is the perhaps the most important method for the formylation of aliphatic compounds, however it can also be achieved by the Sommelet reaction, Bouveault aldehyde synthesis or Bodroux–Chichibabin aldehyde synthesis.

See also

References



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