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{{short description|Substance added to soils to supply plant nutrients for a better growth}}{{redirects|Plant food|the drug term|Bath salts (drug)}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2014}}(File:Kunstmestpendelstrooier.jpg|thumb|A large, modern fertilizer spreader)File:Lite-trac Spreader.jpg|thumb|A Lite-Trac Agri-Spread lime and fertilizer spreader at an agricultural show]]A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants. Many sources of fertilizer exist, both natural and industrially produced.


File:Instalaciones MIRAT S.A. Salamanca.JPG|thumb|Founded in 1812, Mirat, producer of manures and fertilizers, is claimed to be the oldest industrial business in SalamancaSalamancaManagement of soil fertility has been the preoccupation of farmers for thousands of years. Egyptians, Romans, Babylonians, and early Germans are all recorded as using minerals and or manure to enhance the productivity of their farms. The modern science of plant nutrition started in the 19th century and the work of German chemist Justus von Liebig, among others. John Bennet Lawes, an English entrepreneur, began to experiment on the effects of various manures on plants growing in pots in 1837, and a year or two later the experiments were extended to crops in the field. One immediate consequence was that in 1842 he patented a manure formed by treating phosphates with sulfuric acid, and thus was the first to create the artificial manure industry. In the succeeding year he enlisted the services of Joseph Henry Gilbert, with whom he carried on for more than half a century on experiments in raising crops at the Institute of Arable Crops Research.{{EB1911|wstitle=Lawes, Sir John Bennet}}The Birkeland–Eyde process was one of the competing industrial processes in the beginning of nitrogen based fertilizer production.BOOK, The development of modern chemistry, Aaron John Ihde, Courier Dover Publications, 1984, 978-0-486-64235-2, 678, This process was used to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into nitric acid (HNO3), one of several chemical processes generally referred to as nitrogen fixation. The resultant nitric acid was then used as a source of nitrate (NO3−). A factory based on the process was built in Rjukan and Notodden in Norway, combined with the building of large hydroelectric power facilities.BOOK, The world's greatest fix: a history of nitrogen and agriculture, G. J. Leigh, Oxford University Press US, 2004, 978-0-19-516582-1, 134–139, The 1910s and 1920s witnessed the rise of the Haber process and the Ostwald process. The Haber process produces ammonia (NH3) from methane (CH4) gas and molecular nitrogen (N2). The ammonia from the Haber process is then converted into nitric acid (HNO3) in the Ostwald process.BOOK, A short history of twentieth-century technology c. 1900-c. 1950, Trevor Illtyd Williams, Thomas Kingston Derry, Oxford University Press, 1982, 978-0-19-858159-8, 134–135, The development of synthetic fertilizer has significantly supported global population growth â€” it has been estimated that almost half the people on the Earth are currently fed as a result of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use.JOURNAL, Erisman, Jan Willem, MA Sutton, J Galloway, Z Klimont, W Winiwarter, How a century of ammonia synthesis changed the world, Nature Geoscience, 636–639, October 2008, 1, 10.1038/ngeo325,weblink 22 October 2010, 10, 2008NatGe...1..636E, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 July 2010, dmy-all, The use of commercial fertilizers has increased steadily in the last 50 years, rising almost 20-fold to the current rate of 100 million tonnes of nitrogen per year.JOURNAL, Glass, Anthony, September 2003, Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Crop Plants: Physiological Constraints upon Nitrogen Absorption, Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 22, 5, 10.1080/713989757, 453–470, Without commercial fertilizers it is estimated that about one-third of the food produced now could not be produced.Commercial fertilizers increase crop yields weblink. Accessed 9 April 2012. The use of phosphate fertilizers has also increased from 9 million tonnes per year in 1960 to 40 million tonnes per year in 2000. A maize crop yielding 6–9 tonnes of grain per hectare ({{cvt|1|ha|acre |1|disp=out}}) requires {{convert|31|–|50|kg}} of phosphate fertilizer to be applied; soybean crops require about half, as 20–25 kg per hectare.JOURNAL, Uhde-Stone & Allan, 2003, Phosphorus acquisition and use: critical adaptations by plants for securing a non renewable resource, New Phytologist, 157, 423–447, 1514050, Vance, Carroll P, 3, 10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00695.x, Yara International is the world's largest producer of nitrogen-based fertilizers.NEWS,weblink Mergers in the fertiliser industry, 18 February 2010, The Economist, 21 February 2010, Controlled-nitrogen-release technologies based on polymers derived from combining urea and formaldehyde were first produced in 1936 and commercialized in 1955.JOURNAL,weblink style="vertical-align:bottom"! Country! Total N use(Mt pa)! Amt. used forfeed/pasture(Mt pa)| China| 18.7| 3.0| India| 11.9| U.S.| 9.1| 4.7| France| 2.5| 1.3| Germany| 2.0| 1.2| Brazil| 1.7| 0.7| Canada| 1.6| 0.9| Turkey| 1.5| 0.3| UK| 1.3| 0.9| Mexico| 1.3| 0.3| Spain| 1.2| 0.5| Argentina| 0.4| 0.1
author= J. B. Sartain, University of Floridayear=2011, The early product had 60 percent of the total nitrogen cold-water-insoluble, and the unreacted (quick-release) less than 15%. Methylene ureas were commercialized in the 1960s and 1970s, having 25% and 60% of the nitrogen as cold-water-insoluble, and unreacted urea nitrogen in the range of 15% to 30%.In the 1960s, the Tennessee Valley Authority National Fertilizer Development Center began developing sulfur-coated urea; sulfur was used as the principal coating material because of its low cost and its value as a secondary nutrient. Usually there is another wax or polymer which seals the sulfur; the slow-release properties depend on the degradation of the secondary sealant by soil microbes as well as mechanical imperfections (cracks, etc.) in the sulfur. They typically provide 6 to 16 weeks of delayed release in turf applications. When a hard polymer is used as the secondary coating, the properties are a cross between diffusion-controlled particles and traditional sulfur-coated.


(File:Reuse of urine demonstration - fertilised and not fertilised tomato plant experiment (3617543234).jpg|thumb|Six tomato plants grown with and without nitrate fertilizer on nutrient-poor sand/clay soil. One of the plants in the nutrient-poor soil has died.)Fertilizers enhance the growth of plants. This goal is met in two ways, the traditional one being additives that provide nutrients. The second mode by which some fertilizers act is to enhance the effectiveness of the soil by modifying its water retention and aeration. This article, like many on fertilizers, emphasises the nutritional aspect.Fertilizers typically provide, in varying proportions: The nutrients required for healthy plant life are classified according to the elements, but the elements are not used as fertilizers. Instead compounds containing these elements are the basis of fertilizers. The macro-nutrients are consumed in larger quantities and are present in plant tissue in quantities from 0.15% to 6.0% on a dry matter (DM) (0% moisture) basis. Plants are made up of four main elements: hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are widely available as water and carbon dioxide. Although nitrogen makes up most of the atmosphere, it is in a form that is unavailable to plants. Nitrogen is the most important fertilizer since nitrogen is present in proteins, DNA and other components (e.g., chlorophyll). To be nutritious to plants, nitrogen must be made available in a "fixed" form. Only some bacteria and their host plants (notably legumes) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) by converting it to ammonia. Phosphate is required for the production of DNA and ATP, the main energy carrier in cells, as well as certain lipids.Micronutrients are consumed in smaller quantities and are present in plant tissue on the order of parts-per-million (ppm), ranging from 0.15 to 400 ppm DM, or less than 0.04% DM.WEB,weblink AESL Plant Analysis Handbook â€“ Nutrient Content of Plant,, 11 September 2015, BOOK, H.A. Mills, J.B. Jones Jr., 1996, Plant Analysis Handbook II: A practical Sampling, Preparation, Analysis, and Interpretation Guide, 978-1-878148-05-6, These elements are often present at the active sites of enzymes that carry out the plant's metabolism. Because these elements enable catalysts (enzymes) their impact far exceeds their weight percentage.


Fertilizers are classified in several ways. They are classified according to whether they provide a single nutrient (e.g., K, P, or N), in which case they are classified as "straight fertilizers." "Multinutrient fertilizers" (or "complex fertilizers") provide two or more nutrients, for example N and P. Fertilizers are also sometimes classified as inorganic (the topic of most of this article) versus organic. Inorganic fertilizers exclude carbon-containing materials except ureas. Organic fertilizers are usually (recycled) plant- or animal-derived matter. Inorganic are sometimes called synthetic fertilizers since various chemical treatments are required for their manufacture.J. Benton Jones, Jr. "Inorganic Chemical Fertilisers and Their Properties" in Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility Manual, Second Edition. CRC Press, 2012. {{ISBN|978-1-4398-1609-7}}. eBook {{ISBN|978-1-4398-1610-3}}.

Single nutrient ("straight") fertilizers

The main nitrogen-based straight fertilizer is ammonia or its solutions. Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is also widely used. Urea is another popular source of nitrogen, having the advantage that it is solid and non-explosive, unlike ammonia and ammonium nitrate, respectively. A few percent of the nitrogen fertilizer market (4% in 2007)BOOK, Smil, Vaclav, Enriching the Earth, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 135,weblink 978-0-262-69313-4, 2004, has been met by calcium ammonium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2 • NH4{{Hydrate|10}}).The main straight phosphate fertilizers are the superphosphates. "Single superphosphate" (SSP) consists of 14–18% P2O5, again in the form of Ca(H2PO4)2, but also phosphogypsum (Ca{{Sulfate}}{{Hydrate|2|nolink=yes}}). Triple superphosphate (TSP) typically consists of 44-48% of P2O5 and no gypsum. A mixture of single superphosphate and triple superphosphate is called double superphosphate. More than 90% of a typical superphosphate fertilizer is water-soluble.The main potassium-based straight fertilizer is Muriate of Potash (MOP). Muriate of Potash consists of 95-99% KCl, and is typically available as 0-0-60 or 0-0-62 fertilizer.

Multinutrient fertilizers

These fertilizers are common. They consist of two or more nutrient components.

Binary (NP, NK, PK) fertilizers

Major two-component fertilizers provide both nitrogen and phosphorus to the plants. These are called NP fertilizers. The main NP fertilizers are monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP). The active ingredient in MAP is NH4H2PO4. The active ingredient in DAP is (NH4)2HPO4. About 85% of MAP and DAP fertilizers are soluble in water.

NPK fertilizers

NPK fertilizers are three-component fertilizers providing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.NPK rating is a rating system describing the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in a fertilizer. NPK ratings consist of three numbers separated by dashes (e.g., 10-10-10 or 16-4-8) describing the chemical content of fertilizers.WEB, Summary of State Fertilizer Laws,weblink EPA, 14 March 2013, WEB, Label Requirements of specialty and other bagged fertilizers,weblink Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, 14 March 2013, The first number represents the percentage of nitrogen in the product; the second number, P2O5; the third, K2O. Fertilizers do not actually contain P2O5 or K2O, but the system is a conventional shorthand for the amount of the phosphorus (P) or potassium (K) in a fertilizer. A {{convert|50|lb|adj=on}} bag of fertilizer labeled 16-4-8 contains {{cvt|8|lb}} of nitrogen (16% of the 50 pounds), an amount of phosphorus equivalent to that in 2 pounds of P2O5 (4% of 50 pounds), and 4 pounds of K2O (8% of 50 pounds). Most fertilizers are labeled according to this N-P-K convention, although Australian convention, following an N-P-K-S system, adds a fourth number for sulfur, and uses elemental values for all values including P and K.WEB, National Code of Practice for Fertilizer Description & Labelling,weblink Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, 14 March 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 28 February 2015,


The main micronutrients are molybdenum, zinc, boron, and copper. These elements are provided as water-soluble salts. Iron presents special problems because it converts to insoluble (bio-unavailable) compounds at moderate soil pH and phosphate concentrations. For this reason, iron is often administered as a chelate complex, e.g., the EDTA derivative. The micronutrient needs depend on the plant and the environment. For example, sugar beets appear to require boron, and legumes require cobalt,Heinrich W. Scherer. "Fertilizers" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. 2000, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. {{DOI|10.1002/14356007.a10_323.pub3}} while environmental conditions such as heat or drought make boron less available for plants.WEB,weblink Boron Deficiency,


Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options, Table 3.3. Retrieved 29 June 2009. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.">

Nitrogen fertilizers{| class"wikitable" style"float:right; margin:10px; text-align:right;"|+ Top users of nitrogen-based fertilizer Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options, Table 3.3. Retrieved 29 June 2009. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

Nitrogen fertilizers are made from ammonia (NH3), which is sometimes injected into the ground directly. The ammonia is produced by the Haber-Bosch process. In this energy-intensive process, natural gas (CH4) usually supplies the hydrogen, and the nitrogen (N2) is derived from the air. This ammonia is used as a feedstock for all other nitrogen fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and urea (CO(NH2)2).Deposits of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) (Chilean saltpeter) are also found in the Atacama desert in Chile and was one of the original (1830) nitrogen-rich fertilizers used.WEB, Supplemental technical report for sodium nitrate (crops),weblink, 6 July 2014, It is still mined for fertilizer.WEB, Caliche Ore,weblink, 6 July 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 14 July 2014, dead, dmy-all, Nitrates are also produced from ammonia by the Ostwald process.

Phosphate fertilizers

{{More citations needed section|date=September 2015}}All phosphate fertilizers are obtained by extraction from minerals containing the anion PO43−. In rare cases, fields are treated with the crushed mineral, but most often more soluble salts are produced by chemical treatment of phosphate minerals. The most popular phosphate-containing minerals are referred to collectively as phosphate rock. The main minerals are fluorapatite Ca5(PO4)3F (CFA) and hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO4)3OH. These minerals are converted to water-soluble phosphate salts by treatment with sulfuric (H2SO4) or phosphoric acids (H3PO4). The large production of sulfuric acid as an industrial chemical is primarily due to its use as cheap acid in processing phosphate rock into phosphate fertilizer. The global primary uses for both sulfur and phosphorus compounds relate to this basic process.In the nitrophosphate process or Odda process (invented in 1927), phosphate rock with up to a 20% phosphorus (P) content is dissolved with nitric acid (HNO3) to produce a mixture of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2). This mixture can be combined with a potassium fertilizer to produce a compound fertilizer with the three macronutrients N, P and K in easily dissolved form.WEB, EFMA, Best available techniques for pollution prevention and control in the European fertilizer industry. Booklet No. 7 of 8: Production of NPK fertilizers by the nitrophosphate route.,weblink, European Fertilizer Manufacturers’ Association, 28 June 2014, 2000,

Potassium fertilizers

Potash is a mixture of potassium minerals used to make potassium (chemical symbol: K) fertilizers. Potash is soluble in water, so the main effort in producing this nutrient from the ore involves some purification steps; e.g., to remove sodium chloride (NaCl) (common salt). Sometimes potash is referred to as K2O, as a matter of convenience to those describing the potassium content. In fact, potash fertilizers are usually potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, potassium carbonate, or potassium nitrate.

Compound fertilizers

Compound fertilizers, which contain N, P, and K, can often be produced by mixing straight fertilizers. In some cases, chemical reactions occur between the two or more components. For example, monoammonium and diammonium phosphates, which provide plants with both N and P, are produced by neutralizing phosphoric acid (from phosphate rock) and ammonia :
NH3 + H3PO4 → (NH4)H2PO4 2 NH3 + H3PO4 → (NH4)2HPO4

Organic fertilizers

(File:HomeComposting Roubaix Fr59.JPG|thumb|Compost bin for small-scale production of organic fertilizer)(File:Krechty kompostarna.jpg|thumb|A large commercial compost operation)“Organic fertilizers” can describe those fertilizers with an organic — biologic — origin—that is, fertilizers derived from living or formerly living materials. Organic fertilizers can also describe commercially available and frequently packaged products that strive to follow the expectations and restrictions adopted by “organic agriculture” and ”environmentally friendly" gardening — related systems of food and plant production that significantly limit or strictly avoid the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. The “organic fertilizer” products typically contain both some organic materials as well as acceptable additives such as nutritive rock powders, ground sea shells (crab, oyster, etc.), other prepared products such as seed meal or kelp, and cultivated microorganisms and derivatives.Fertilizers of an organic origin (the first definition) include animal wastes, plant wastes from agriculture, compost, and treated sewage sludge (biosolids). Beyond manures, animal sources can include products from the slaughter of animals — bloodmeal, bone meal, feather meal, hides, hoofs, and horns all are typical components.ENCYCLOPEDIA, 10.1002/14356007.n10_n01, Fertilizers, 2. Types, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2009, Dittmar, Heinrich, Drach, Manfred, Vosskamp, Ralf, Trenkel, Martin E., Gutser, Reinhold, Steffens, Günter, 978-3-527-30673-2, Organically derived materials available to industry such as sewage sludge may not be acceptable components of organic farming and gardening, because of factors ranging from residual contaminants to public perception. On the other hand, marketed “organic fertilizers” may include, and promote, processed organics because the materials have consumer appeal. No matter the definition nor composition, most of these products contain less concentrated nutrients, and the nutrients are not as easily quantified. They can offer soil-building advantages as well as be appealing to those who are trying to farm / garden more “naturally”.JOURNAL, Haynes, R.J, R. Naidu, 1998, Influence of lime, fertilizer and manure applications on soil organic matter content and soil physical conditions: a review., Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems., 51, 2, 123–137, Springer Link, 10.1023/A:1009738307837, In terms of volume, peat is the most widely used packaged organic soil amendment. It is an immature form of coal and improves the soil by aeration and absorbing water but confers no nutritional value to the plants. It is therefore not a fertilizer as defined in the beginning of the article, but rather an amendment. Coir, (derived from coconut husks), bark, and sawdust when added to soil all act similarly (but not identically) to peat and are also considered organic soil amendments - or texturizers - because of their limited nutritive inputs. Some organic additives can have a reverse effect on nutrients — fresh sawdust can consume soil nutrients as it breaks down, and may lower soil pH — but these same organic texturizers (as well as compost, etc.) may increase the availability of nutrients through improved cation exchange, or through increased growth of microorganisms that in turn increase availability of certain plant nutrients. Organic fertilizers such as composts and manures may be distributed locally without going into industry production, making actual consumption more difficult to quantify.


Fertilizers are commonly used for growing all crops, with application rates depending on the soil fertility, usually as measured by a soil test and according to the particular crop. Legumes, for example, fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and generally do not require nitrogen fertilizer.

Liquid vs solid

Fertilizers are applied to crops both as solids and as liquid. About 90% of fertilizers are applied as solids. The most widely used solid inorganic fertilizers are urea, diammonium phosphate and potassium chloride.WEB, About Fertilizers Home Page,weblink, International Fertilizer Association, 19 December 2017, Solid fertilizer is typically granulated or powdered. Often solids are available as prills, a solid globule. Liquid fertilizers comprise anhydrous ammonia, aqueous solutions of ammonia, aqueous solutions of ammonium nitrate or urea. These concentrated products may be diluted with water to form a concentrated liquid fertilizer (e.g., UAN). Advantages of liquid fertilizer are its more rapid effect and easier coverage. The addition of fertilizer to irrigation water is called "fertigation".

Slow- and controlled-release fertilizers

Slow- and controlled-release involve only 0.15% (562,000 tons) of the fertilizer market (1995). Their utility stems from the fact that fertilizers are subject to antagonistic processes. In addition to their providing the nutrition to plants, excess fertilizers can be poisonous to the same plant. Competitive with the uptake by plants is the degradation or loss of the fertilizer. Microbes degrade many fertilizers, e.g., by immobilization or oxidation. Furthermore, fertilizers are lost by evaporation or leaching. Most slow-release fertilizers are derivatives of urea, a straight fertilizer providing nitrogen. Isobutylidenediurea ("IBDU") and urea-formaldehyde slowly convert in the soil to free urea, which is rapidly uptaken by plants. IBDU is a single compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH(NHC(O)NH2)2 whereas the urea-formaldehydes consist of mixtures of the approximate formula (HOCH2NHC(O)NH)nCH2.Besides being more efficient in the utilization of the applied nutrients, slow-release technologies also reduce the impact on the environment and the contamination of the subsurface water. Slow-release fertilizers (various forms including fertilizer spikes, tabs, etc.) which reduce the problem of "burning" the plants due to excess nitrogen. Polymer coating of fertilizer ingredients gives tablets and spikes a 'true time-release' or 'staged nutrient release' (SNR) of fertilizer nutrients.Controlled release fertilizers are traditional fertilizers encapsulated in a shell that degrades at a specified rate. Sulfur is a typical encapsulation material. Other coated products use thermoplastics (and sometimes ethylene-vinyl acetate and surfactants, etc.) to produce diffusion-controlled release of urea or other fertilizers. "Reactive Layer Coating" can produce thinner, hence cheaper, membrane coatings by applying reactive monomers simultaneously to the soluble particles. "Multicote" is a process applying layers of low-cost fatty acid salts with a paraffin topcoat.

Foliar application

Foliar fertilizers are applied directly to leaves. The method is almost invariably used to apply water-soluble straight nitrogen fertilizers and used especially for high value crops such as fruits.(File:Fertilizer-Burn.jpg|upright|thumb|Fertilizer burn)

Chemicals that affect nitrogen uptake

Various chemicals are used to enhance the efficiency of nitrogen-based fertilizers. In this way farmers can limit the polluting effects of nitrogen run-off. Nitrification inhibitors (also known as nitrogen stabilizers) suppress the conversion of ammonia into nitrate, an anion that is more prone to leaching. 1-Carbamoyl-3-methylpyrazole (CMP), dicyandiamide, nitrapyrin (2-chloro-6-trichloromethylpyridine) and 3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) are popular.JOURNAL, Yang, Ming, Fang, Yunting, Sun, Di, Shi, Yuanliang, Efficiency of two nitrification inhibitors (dicyandiamide and 3, 4-dimethypyrazole phosphate) on soil nitrogen transformations and plant productivity: a meta-analysis, Scientific Reports, 6, 1, 22075, 2016, 2045-2322, 10.1038/srep22075, 26902689, 2016NatSR...622075Y, 4763264, Urease inhibitors are used to slow the hydrolytic conversion of urea into ammonia, which is prone to evaporation as well as nitrification. The conversion of urea to ammonia catalyzed by enzymes called ureases. A popular inhibitor of ureases is N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT).


Careful fertilization technologies are important because excess nutrients can be detrimental.WEB,weblink Nitrogen Fertilization: General Information,, 17 June 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 June 2012, dmy-all, Fertilizer burn can occur when too much fertilizer is applied, resulting in damage or even death of the plant. Fertilizers vary in their tendency to burn roughly in accordance with their salt index.BOOK, Garrett, Howard, Organic Lawn Care: Growing Grass the Natural Way, 2014, University of Texas Press, 978-0-292-72849-3, 55–56,weblink WEB,weblink Understanding Salt index of fertilizers, 22 July 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 28 May 2013, dmy,


Recently nitrogen fertilizers have plateaued in most developed countries. China although has become the largest producer and consumer of nitrogen fertilizers.BOOK, Making the Modern World: Materials and Dematerialization., Smil, Vaclav, John Wiley & Sons, 2015, 978-1-119-94253-5, United Kingdom, Africa has little reliance on nitrogen fertilizers.BOOK, Harvesting the Biosphere: What We Have Taken From Nature., Smil, Vaclav, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2012, 978-0-262-01856-2, Agricultural and chemical minerals are very important in industrial use of fertilizers, which is valued at approximately $200 billion.BOOK, Mineral Resources, Economics and the Environment., Kesler and Simon, Stephen and Simon, Cambridge, 2015, 978-1-107-07491-0, Nitrogen has a significant impact in the global mineral use, followed by potash and phosphate. The production of nitrogen has drastically increased since the 1960s. Phosphate and potash have increased in price since the 1960s, which is larger than the consumer price index. Potash is produced in Canada, Russia and Belarus, together making up over half of the world production. Potash production in Canada rose in 2017 and 2018 by 18.6%.NEWS,weblink Industry Stats - Fertilizer Canada, Fertilizer Canada, 2018-03-28, en-US, Conservative estimates report 30 to 50% of crop yields are attributed to natural or synthetic commercial fertilizer.Vasant Gowariker, V. N. Krishnamurthy, Sudha Gowariker, Manik Dhanorkar, Kalyani Paranjape "The Fertilizer Encyclopedia" 2009, John Wiley & Sons. {{ISBN|978-0-470-41034-9}}. Online {{ISBN|978-0-470-43177-1}}. {{DOI|10.1002/9780470431771}}JOURNAL, Stewart, W.M., Dibb, D.W., Johnston, A.E., Smyth, T.J., 2005, The Contribution of Commercial Fertilizer Nutrients to Food Production, Agronomy Journal, 97, 1–6, 10.2134/agronj2005.0001, Fertilizer consumption has surpassed the amount of farmland in the United States. Global market value is likely to rise to more than US$185 billion until 2019.Ceresana, Market Study Fertilizers - World, May 2013,weblink The European fertilizer market will grow to earn revenues of approx. €15.3 billion in 2018.WEB,weblink Market Study Fertilizers - Europe,, Data on the fertilizer consumption per hectare arable land in 2012 are published by The World Bankweblink For the diagram below values of the European Union (EU) countries have been extracted and are presented as kilograms per hectare (pounds per acre). The total consumption of fertilizer in the EU is 15.9 million tons for 105 million hectare arable land areaWEB,weblink Archived copy, 2011-10-19, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 October 2014, dmy, (or 107 million hectare arable land according to another estimateArable land). This figure equates to 151 kg of fertilizers consumed per ha arable land on average for the EU countries.(File:Fertilizer consumption in Europe.png|frameless|upright=3.4|The diagram displays the statistics of fertilizer consumption in western and central European counties from data published by The World Bank for 2012.)

Environmental effects

File:Runoff of soil & fertilizer.jpg|thumb|right|Runoff of soilsoilUse of fertilizers are beneficial in providing nutrients to plants although they have some negative environmental effects. The large growing consumption of fertilizers can affect soil, surface water, and groundwater due to dispersion of mineral use. {{See also|Environmental impact of agriculture|Human impact on the nitrogen cycle|Nitrogen fertilizer#Problems with inorganic fertilizer|Nitrogen Cycle}}


Phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers when commonly used have major environmental effects. This is due to high rainfalls causing the fertilizers to be washed into waterways.WEB,weblink Environmental impact of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisers in high rainfall areas,, en, 2018-04-09, Agricultural run-off is a major contributor to the eutrophication of fresh water bodies. For example, in the US, about half of all the lakes are eutrophic. The main contributor to eutrophication is phosphate, which is normally a limiting nutrient; high concentrations promote the growth of cyanobacteria and algae, the demise of which consumes oxygen. Cyanobacteria blooms ('algal blooms') can also produce harmful toxins that can accumulate in the food chain, and can be harmful to humans.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 5 August 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 5 August 2014, dead, dmy-all, JOURNAL, 3709275, 10.3390/toxins5050992, 23676698, 5, 5, Variations in the microcystin content of different fish species collected from a eutrophic lake, 2013, Toxins (Basel), 992–1009, Schmidt, JR, Shaskus, M, Estenik, JF, Oesch, C, Khidekel, R, Boyer, GL, The nitrogen-rich compounds found in fertilizer runoff are the primary cause of serious oxygen depletion in many parts of oceans, especially in coastal zones, lakes and rivers. The resulting lack of dissolved oxygen greatly reduces the ability of these areas to sustain oceanic fauna."Rapid Growth Found in Oxygen-Starved Ocean ‘Dead Zones’", NY Times, 14 August 2008 The number of oceanic dead zones near inhabited coastlines are increasing.WEB, John Heilprin, Associated Press,weblink Discovery Channel :: News â€“ Animals :: U.N.: Ocean 'Dead Zones' Growing,, 25 August 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 June 2010, dmy-all, As of 2006, the application of nitrogen fertilizer is being increasingly controlled in northwestern EuropeJOURNAL, Van Grinsven, H. J. M., Ten Berge, H. F. M.; Dalgaard, T.; Fraters, B.; Durand, P.; Hart, A.; ... & Willems, W. J., Management, regulation and environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilization in northwestern Europe under the Nitrates Directive; a benchmark study, Biogeosciences, 2012, 9, 12, 5143–5160, 10.5194/bg-9-5143-2012, 2012BGeo....9.5143V, and the United States.WEB, A Farmer's Guide To Agriculture and Water Quality Issues: 3. Environmental Requirements & Incentive Programs For Nutrient Management,weblink, 3 July 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 September 2015, dmy-all, WEB, State-EPA Nutrient Innovations Task Group, An Urgent Call to Action – Report of the State-EPA Nutrient Innovations Task Group,weblink, 3 July 2014, 2009, If eutrophication can be reversed, it may take decades{{Citation needed|date=April 2009}} before the accumulated nitrates in groundwater can be broken down by natural processes.

Nitrate pollution

Only a fraction of the nitrogen-based fertilizers is converted to plant matter. The remainder accumulates in the soil or is lost as run-off.BOOK, 10.1007/978-94-007-7814-6_5, Eutrophication of Lakes, Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences and Control, 55–71, 2014, Callisto, Marcos, Molozzi, Joseline, Barbosa, José Lucena Etham, 978-94-007-7813-9, High application rates of nitrogen-containing fertilizers combined with the high water solubility of nitrate leads to increased runoff into surface water as well as leaching into groundwater, thereby causing groundwater pollution.WEB, C. J. Rosen, B. P. Horgan,weblink Preventing Pollution Problems from Lawn and Garden Fertilizers,, 9 January 2009, 25 August 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 10 March 2014, dead, dmy-all, JOURNAL, Fertilizer-N use efficiency and nitrate pollution of groundwater in developing countries, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 10.1016/0169-7722(95)00067-4, 20, 3–4, 167–184, 1995JCHyd..20..167S, 1995, Bijay-Singh, Yadvinder-Singh, Sekhon, G.S., WEB,weblink NOFA Interstate Council: The Natural Farmer. Ecologically Sound Nitrogen Management. Mark Schonbeck,, 25 February 2004, 25 August 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 March 2004, dmy-all, The excessive use of nitrogen-containing fertilizers (be they synthetic or natural) is particularly damaging, as much of the nitrogen that is not taken up by plants is transformed into nitrate which is easily leached.JOURNAL, 2008, Roots, Nitrogen Transformations, and Ecosystem Services, Annual Review of Plant Biology, 59, 341–363, 10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092932, 18444903, Jackson, Louise E., Burger, Martin, Cavagnaro, Timothy R., Nitrate levels above 10 mg/L (10 ppm) in groundwater can cause 'blue baby syndrome' (acquired methemoglobinemia).JOURNAL, 1638204, Blue Babies and Nitrate-Contaminated Well Water, 10903623, 108, 7, 2000, Environ. Health Perspect., 675–8, Knobeloch, L, Salna, B, Hogan, A, Postle, J, Anderson, H, 10.1289/ehp.00108675, The nutrients, especially nitrates, in fertilizers can cause problems for natural habitats and for human health if they are washed off soil into watercourses or leached through soil into groundwater.{{citation needed|date=March 2015}}



{{See also|Soil pH|Soil acidification}}Nitrogen-containing fertilizers can cause soil acidification when added.JOURNAL, 10.1126/science.324_721b, 19423798, 2009Sci...324..721S, 324, 5928, Eutrophication: More Nitrogen Data Needed, Science, 721–722, 2009, Schindler, D. W., Hecky, R. E., JOURNAL, 10.2136/sssaj2007.0071N, 72, 1, Phosphorus Solubility in Response to Acidification of Dairy Manure Amended Soils, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 238, 2008SSASJ..72..238P, 2008, Penn, C. J., Bryant, R. B., This may lead to decrease in nutrient availability which may be offset by liming.

Accumulation of toxic elements


The concentration of cadmium in phosphorus-containing fertilizers varies considerably and can be problematic.JOURNAL, McLaughlin, M. J., Tiller, K. G., Naidu, R., Stevens, D. P., Review: the behaviour and environmental impact of contaminants in fertilizers, Soil Research, 1996, 34, 1–54, 10.1071/sr9960001, For example, mono-ammonium phosphate fertilizer may have a cadmium content of as low as 0.14 mg/kg or as high as 50.9 mg/kg.JOURNAL, Lugon-Moulin, N., Ryan, L., Donini, P., Rossi, L., Cadmium content of phosphate fertilizers used for tobacco production, Agron. Sustain. Dev., 2006, 26, 3, 151–155,weblink 27 June 2014, 10.1051/agro:2006010, The phosphate rock used in their manufacture can contain as much as 188 mg/kg cadmiumWEB, Zapata, F., Roy, R.N., Use of Phosphate Rocks for Sustainable Agriculture: Secondary nutrients, micronutrients, liming effect and hazardous elements associated with phosphate rock use,weblink, FAO, 27 June 2014, 2004, (examples are deposits on NauruJOURNAL, Syers JK, Mackay AD, Brown MW, Currie CD, Chemical and physical characteristics of phosphate rock materials of varying reactivity, J Sci Food Agric, 1986, 37, 1057–1064, 10.1002/jsfa.2740371102, 11, and the Christmas islandsJOURNAL, Trueman NA, The phosphate, volcanic and carbonate rocks of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), J Geol Soc Aust, 1965, 12, 2, 261–286, 10.1080/00167616508728596, 1965AuJES..12..261T, ). Continuous use of high-cadmium fertilizer can contaminate soil (as shown in New Zealand)JOURNAL, Taylor MD, Accumulation of Cadmium derived from fertilizers in New Zealand soils, Science of the Total Environment, 1997, 208, 1–2, 123–126, 10.1016/S0048-9697(97)00273-8, 1997ScTEn.208..123T, and plants.BOOK, Chaney, R.L., Food safety issues for mineral and organic fertilizers, Advances in Agronomy, 2012, 117, 51–99, 10.1016/b978-0-12-394278-4.00002-7, 9780123942784, Limits to the cadmium content of phosphate fertilizers has been considered by the European Commission.WEB, Oosterhuis, F.H., Brouwer, F.M., Wijnants, H.J., A possible EU wide charge on cadmium in phosphate fertilisers: Economic and environmental implications.,weblink, 27 June 2014, 2000, WEB, Fertilizers Europe, Putting all the cards on the table,weblink, 27 June 2014, 2014, WEB, Wates, J., Revision of the EU fertilizer regulation and cadmium content of fertilisers,weblink, 27 June 2014, 2014, Producers of phosphorus-containing fertilizers now select phosphate rock based on the cadmium content.Wilfried Werner "Fertilizers, 6. Environmental Aspects" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.{{DOI|10.1002/14356007.n10_n05}}


Phosphate rocks contain high levels of fluoride. Consequently, the widespread use of phosphate fertilizers has increased soil fluoride concentrations. It has been found that food contamination from fertilizer is of little concern as plants accumulate little fluoride from the soil; of greater concern is the possibility of fluoride toxicity to livestock that ingest contaminated soils.BOOK, Loganathan, P., Hedley, M.J., Grace, N.D., Pasture soils contaminated with fertilizer-derived cadmium and fluorine: livestock effects., Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2008, 192, 29–66, 10.1007/978-0-387-71724-1_2, 18020303, 978-0-387-71723-4, JOURNAL, Cronin, S. J., Manoharan, V., Hedley, M. J., Loganathan, P., Fluoride: A review of its fate, bioavailability, and risks of fluorosis in grazed‐pasture systems in New Zealand, New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 2000, 43, 3, 295–3214, 10.1080/00288233.2000.9513430, Also of possible concern are the effects of fluoride on soil microorganisms.JOURNAL, Wilke, B.M., Fluoride-induced changes in chemical properties and microbial activity of mull, moder and mor soils, Biology and Fertility of Soils, 1987, 5, 49–55, 10.1007/BF00264346,

Radioactive elements

The radioactive content of the fertilizers varies considerably and depends both on their concentrations in the parent mineral and on the fertilizer production process.WEB, Mortvedt, JJ, Beaton, JD, Heavy Metal and Radionuclide Contaminants in Phosphate Fertilizers,weblink 16 July 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 July 2014, dmy-all, Uranium-238 concentrations can range from 7 to 100 pCi/g in phosphate rockWEB,weblink TENORM: Fertilizer and Fertilizer Production Wastes, 2016, US EPA, 30 August 2017, and from 1 to 67 pCi/g in phosphate fertilizers.WEB, Khater, A. E. M., Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers,weblink, 17 July 2014, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 24 July 2014, dead, dmy-all, BOOK, NCRP, Radiation Exposure of the U.S. Population from Consumer Products and Miscellaneous Sources, 1987, National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 29–32,weblink 17 July 2014, {{dead link|date=January 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}JOURNAL, Hussein EM, Radioactivity of phosphate ore, superphosphate, and phosphogypsum in Abu-zaabal phosphate, Health Physics, 1994, 67, 280–282, 10.1097/00004032-199409000-00010, 8056596, 3, Where high annual rates of phosphorus fertilizer are used, this can result in uranium-238 concentrations in soils and drainage waters that are several times greater than are normally present.JOURNAL, Barisic D, Lulic S, Miletic P, Radium and uranium in phosphate fertilizers and their impact on the radioactivity of waters, Water Research, 1992, 26, 607–611, 10.1016/0043-1354(92)90234-U, 5, However, the impact of these increases on the risk to human health from radinuclide contamination of foods is very small (less than 0.05 mSv/y).WEB, Hanlon, E. A., Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Agricultural Products,weblink, University of Florida, 17 July 2014, 2012, BOOK, Sharpley, A. N., Menzel, R. G., The impact of soil and fertilizer phosphorus on the environment, Advances in Agronomy, 1987, 41, 297–324, 10.1016/s0065-2113(08)60807-x, 9780120007417,

Other metals

Steel industry wastes, recycled into fertilizers for their high levels of zinc (essential to plant growth), wastes can include the following toxic metals: leadWEB, Wilson, Duff,weblink Business | Fear In The Fields â€“ How Hazardous Wastes Become Fertilizer â€“ Spreading Heavy Metals On Farmland Is Perfectly Legal, But Little Research Has Been Done To Find Out Whether It's Safe | Seattle Times Newspaper,, 3 July 1997, 25 August 2010, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and nickel. The most common toxic elements in this type of fertilizer are mercury, lead, and arsenic.WEB,weblink Waste Lands: The Threat Of Toxic Fertilizer,, 3 July 1997, 25 August 2010, WEB,,weblink Waste Lands: The Threat of Toxic Fertilizer Released by PIRG Toxic Wastes Found in Fertilizers Cat Lazaroff / ENS 7may01,, 25 August 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2002, dmy-all, BOOK, Zapata, F, Roy, RN, Use of phosphate rocks for sustainable agriculture, 2004, FAO, Rome, 82,weblink 16 July 2014, {{Dead link|date=August 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} These potentially harmful impurities can be removed; however, this significantly increases cost. Highly pure fertilizers are widely available and perhaps best known as the highly water-soluble fertilizers containing blue dyes used around households, such as Miracle-Gro. These highly water-soluble fertilizers are used in the plant nursery business and are available in larger packages at significantly less cost than retail quantities. Some inexpensive retail granular garden fertilizers are made with high purity ingredients.

Trace mineral depletion

Attention has been addressed to the decreasing concentrations of elements such as iron, zinc, copper and magnesium in many foods over the last 50–60 years.JOURNAL, Davis, D.R., Epp, M.D., Riordan, H.D., Changes in USDA Food Composition Data for 43 Garden Crops, 1950 to 1999, Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2004, 23, 6, 669–682, 10.1080/07315724.2004.10719409, JOURNAL, Thomas, D., The mineral depletion of foods available to us as a nation (1940–2002) – A Review of the 6th Edition of McCance and Widdowson, Nutrition and Health, 2007, 19, 1–2, 21–55, 10.1177/026010600701900205, Intensive farming practices, including the use of synthetic fertilizers are frequently suggested as reasons for these declines and organic farming is often suggested as a solution. Although improved crop yields resulting from NPK fertilizers are known to dilute the concentrations of other nutrients in plants,BOOK, Jarrell, W.M., Beverly, R.B., The Dilution Effect in Plant Nutrition Studies, Advances in Agronomy, 1981, 34, 197–224, 10.1016/s0065-2113(08)60887-1, 9780120007349, much of the measured decline can be attributed to the use of progressively higher-yielding crop varieties which produce foods with lower mineral concentrations than their less productive ancestors.JOURNAL, Fan, M. S., Zhao, F. J., Fairweather-Tait, S. J., Poulton, P. R., Dunham, S. J., McGrath, S. P., Evidence of decreasing mineral density in wheat grain over the last 160 years., Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 2008, 22, 4, 315–324, 10.1016/j.jtemb.2008.07.002, 19013359, JOURNAL, Zhao, F. J., Su, Y. H., Dunham, S. J., Rakszegi, M., Bedo, Z., McGrath, S. P., Shewry, P. R., Variation in mineral micronutrient concentrations in grain of wheat lines of diverse origin., Journal of Cereal Science, 2009, 49, 2, 290–295, 10.1016/j.jcs.2008.11.007, It is, therefore, unlikely that organic farming or reduced use of fertilizers will solve the problem; foods with high nutrient density are posited to be achieved using older, lower-yielding varieties or the development of new high-yield, nutrient-dense varieties.JOURNAL, Saltzman, A., Birol, E., Bouis, H. E., Boy, E., De Moura, F.F., Islam, Y., Pfeiffer, W. H., Biofortification: progress toward a more nourishing future, Global Food Security, 2013, 2, 9–17, 10.1016/j.gfs.2012.12.003, Fertilizers are, in fact, more likely to solve trace mineral deficiency problems than cause them: In Western Australia deficiencies of zinc, copper, manganese, iron and molybdenum were identified as limiting the growth of broad-acre crops and pastures in the 1940s and 1950s.BOOK, Moore, Geoff, Soilguide - A handbook for understanding and managing agricultural soils, 2001, Agriculture Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, 978-0-7307-0057-9, 161–207,weblink Soils in Western Australia are very old, highly weathered and deficient in many of the major nutrients and trace elements. Since this time these trace elements are routinely added to fertilizers used in agriculture in this state. Many other soils around the world are deficient in zinc, leading to deficiency in both plants and humans, and zinc fertilizers are widely used to solve this problem.WEB,weblink Zinc in Soils and Crop Nutrition,, 25 August 2010, 17 June 2012,

Changes in soil biology

{{see|soil biology}}High levels of fertilizer may cause the breakdown of the symbiotic relationships between plant roots and mycorrhizal fungi.BOOK, Carroll and Salt, Steven B. and Steven D., Ecology for Gardeners, 2004, Timber Press, Cambridge, 978-0-88192-611-8,

Energy consumption and sustainability

In the US in 2004, 317 billion cubic feet of natural gas were consumed in the industrial production of ammonia, less than 1.5% of total U.S. annual consumption of natural gas.JOURNAL, A Primer on Ammonia, Nitrogen Fertilizers, and Natural Gas Markets, Aleksander Abram, D. Lynn Forster, Department of Agricultural, Environmental, and Development Economics, Ohio State University, 2005, 38, A 2002 report suggested that the production of ammonia consumes about 5% of global natural gas consumption, which is somewhat under 2% of world energy production.IFA â€“ Statistics â€“ Fertilizer Indicators â€“ Details â€“ Raw material reserves, (2002–10) {{webarchive|url= |date=24 April 2008 }}Ammonia is produced from natural gas and air.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Appl, Max, Ammonia, 2. Production Processes, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2000, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 978-3-527-30673-2, 139–225, 10.1002/14356007.o02_o11, The cost of natural gas makes up about 90% of the cost of producing ammonia.JOURNAL, Sawyer JE, Natural gas prices affect nitrogen fertilizer costs, IC-486, 1, 8, 2001,weblink The increase in price of natural gases over the past decade, along with other factors such as increasing demand, have contributed to an increase in fertilizer price.NEWS,weblink Table 8—Fertilizer price indexes, 1960–2007., dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 March 2010, dmy-all,

Contribution to climate change

The greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are produced during the manufacture of nitrogen fertilizer. The effects can be combined into an equivalent amount of carbon dioxide. The amount varies according to the efficiency of the process. The figure for the United Kingdom is over 2 kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalent for each kilogram of ammonium nitrate.JOURNAL, A Review of Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for Fertiliser Production, Sam Wood, Annette Cowie, IEA Bioenergy IEA Bioenergy, 2004, Nitrogen fertilizer can be converted by soil bacteria to nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas.


File:AtmosphericMethane.png|thumb|Global methanemethaneThrough the increasing use of nitrogen fertilizer, which was used at a rate of about 110 million tons (of N) per year in 2012,BOOK, FAO, Current world fertilizer trends and outlook to 2016, 2012, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 13,weblink 3 July 2014, {{Dead link|date=July 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}JOURNAL, 10.1038/nature06592, 2008Natur.451..293G, 451, 7176, An Earth-system perspective of the global nitrogen cycle, Nature, 293–296, 18202647, Gruber, N, Galloway, JN, 2008, adding to the already existing amount of reactive nitrogen, nitrous oxide (N2O) has become the third most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane. It has a global warming potential 296 times larger than an equal mass of carbon dioxide and it also contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion."Human alteration of the nitrogen cycle, threats, benefits and opportunities" {{webarchive|url= |date=14 January 2009 }} UNESCO â€“ SCOPE Policy briefs, April 2007By changing processes and procedures, it is possible to mitigate some, but not all, of these effects on anthropogenic climate change.JOURNAL, Roy, R. N., Misra, R. V., Montanez, A., Decreasing reliance on mineral nitrogen-yet more food, AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 2002, 31, 2, 177–183, 10.1579/0044-7447-31.2.177,weblink 3 July 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 September 2015, dmy-all, Methane emissions from crop fields (notably rice paddy fields) are increased by the application of ammonium-based fertilizers. These emissions contribute to global climate change as methane is a potent greenhouse gas.JOURNAL, Bodelier, Paul, L.E., Peter Roslev3, Thilo Henckel1 & Peter Frenzel1, November 1999, Stimulation by ammonium-based fertilizers of methane oxidation in soil around rice roots, Nature, 403, 421–424, 10667792, 6768, 10.1038/35000193, 2000Natur.403..421B, JOURNAL, Banger, K., Tian, H., Lu, C., Do nitrogen fertilizers stimulate or inhibit methane emissions from rice fields?, Global Change Biology, 2012, 18, 10, 3259–3267, 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02762.x, 28741830, 2012GCBio..18.3259B,


In Europe problems with high nitrate concentrations in run-off are being addressed by the European Union's Nitrates Directive.WEB, European Union, Nitrates Directive,weblink Within Britain, farmers are encouraged to manage their land more sustainably in 'catchment-sensitive farming'.WEB, Defra, Catchment-Sensitive Farming,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 June 2011, dmy-all, In the US, high concentrations of nitrate and phosphorus in runoff and drainage water are classified as non-point source pollutants due to their diffuse origin; this pollution is regulated at state level.WEB, Polluted Runoff: Nonpoint Source Pollution,weblink EPA, 23 July 2014, Oregon and Washington, both in the United States, have fertilizer registration programs with on-line databases listing chemical analyses of fertilizers.WEB,weblink Washington State Dept. of Agriculture Fertilizer Product Database,, 23 May 2012, 17 June 2012,weblink Washington and Oregon linksIn China, there have been regulations implemented by the government that want to control N fertilizers being used in farming. In 2008, Chinese governments have started to partially withdraw fertilizer subsidies, which also include contributions to fertilizer transportation, electricity and natural gas use in the industry. Because of this, professional farmers who run large-scale farms have already used less fertilizers since then under the fertilizer prices went up. If large-scale farms keep reducing their use of fertilizer subsidies, they have no choice but to optimize the fertilizer they have which would therefore gain an increase in both grain yield and profit.JOURNAL, Ju, Xiaotang, B.Gu, Y. Wu, J.N.Galloway., 2016, Reducing China's fertilizer use by increasing farm size, Global Environmental Change, 41, 26–32, Science Direct, 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.08.005, Two types of agricultural management practices include organic agriculture and conventional agriculture. The former encourages soil fertility using local resources to maximize efficiency. Organic agriculture avoids synthetic agrochemicals. Conventional agriculture uses all the components that organic agriculture does not use.JOURNAL, Gomiero, T., D. Pimental & M.G Paoletti, 2011, Environmental Impact of Different Agricultural Management Practices: Conventional vs. Organic Agriculture., Critical Reviews in Plant Science, 30, 1–2, 95–124, Taylor & Francis Online, 10.1080/07352689.2011.554355,

See also



External links

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