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fake news
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{{About|the type of hoax|the online type and the websites that specialize in it|Fake news website|other uses}}{{pp-vandalism|expiry=17:47, 5 June 2019|small=yes}}{{short description|Hoax or deliberate spread of misinformation}}{{Use mdy dates|date=March 2018}}File:The fin de siècle newspaper proprietor (cropped).jpg|thumb|275px|alt=Three running men carrying papers with the labels "Humbug News", "Fake News", and "Cheap Sensation".|Reporters with various forms of "fake news" from an 1894 illustration by Frederick Burr OpperFrederick Burr OpperFake news, also known as junk news or pseudo-news, is a type of yellow journalism or propaganda that consists of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional news media (print and broadcast) or online social media.WEB,weblink It's the (Democracy-Poisoning) Golden Age of Free Speech, Wired (magazine), Wired, Tufekci, Zeynep, January 16, 2018, The false information is often caused by reporters paying sources for stories, an unethical practice called checkbook journalism. Digital news has brought back and increased the usage of fake news, or yellow journalism.WEB,weblink The Long and Brutal History of Fake News, Soll, Jacob, POLITICO Magazine, en, 2019-03-25, 2016-12-18, The news is then often reverberated as misinformation in social media but occasionally finds its way to the mainstream media as well.JOURNAL, Himma-Kadakas, Marju, July 2017, Alternative facts and fake news entering journalistic content production cycle, Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 9, 2, 25–41, 10.5130/ccs.v9i2.5469, Fake news is written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically,NEWS,weblink What is fake news? How to spot it and what you can do to stop it, Hunt, Elle, December 17, 2016, The Guardian, January 15, 2017, Schlesinger, Robert (April 14, 2017). "Fake News in Reality". U.S. News & World Report."The Real Story of 'Fake News': The term seems to have emerged around the end of the 19th century". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved October 13, 2017. often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership. Similarly, clickbait stories and headlines earn advertising revenue from this activity.The relevance of fake news has increased in post-truth politics. For media outlets, the ability to attract viewers to their websites is necessary to generate online advertising revenue. Publishing a story with false content that attracts users benefits advertisers and improves ratings. Easy access to online advertisement revenue, increased political polarization, and the popularity of social media, primarily the Facebook News Feed, have all been implicated in the spread of fake news,NEWS,weblink How to solve Facebook's fake news problem: experts pitch their ideas, Woolf, Nicky, November 11, 2016, The Guardian, January 15, 2017, which competes with legitimate news stories. Hostile government actors have also been implicated in generating and propagating fake news, particularly during elections.WEB,weblink Fake news busters, September 14, 2017, POLITICO, en-US, September 15, 2017, File:Facebook Logo (2015) light.svg|right|200px|alt=Facebook logo, blue letters on white background|thumb|Confirmation bias and social media algorithms like those used on Facebook and Twitter further advance the spread of fake news. Modern impact is felt for example in vaccine hesitancyvaccine hesitancyFake news undermines serious media coverage and makes it more difficult for journalists to cover significant news stories.{{citation |url=http://www.univision.com/noticias/america-latina/el-millonario-negocio-detras-de-los-sitios-de-fake-news-en-mexico |title=Millonario negocio FAKE NEWS |author=Carlos Merlo |journal=Univision Noticias |year=2017}} An analysis by BuzzFeed found that the top 20 fake news stories about the 2016 U.S. presidential election received more engagement on Facebook than the top 20 election stories from 19 major media outlets.Chang, Juju; Lefferman, Jake; Pedersen, Claire; Martz, Geoff (November 29, 2016). "When Fake News Stories Make Real News Headlines". Nightline. ABC News. Anonymously-hosted fake news websites lacking known publishers have also been criticized, because they make it difficult to prosecute sources of fake news for libel.NEWS,weblink Sue over fake news? Not so fast, Callan, Paul, CNN, January 15, 2017, The term is also at times used to cast doubt upon legitimate news from an opposing political standpoint, a tactic known as the lying press.JOURNAL, Mihailidis, Paul, Viotty, Samantha, 2017-03-27, Spreadable Spectacle in Digital Culture: Civic Expression, Fake News, and the Role of Media Literacies in "Post-Fact" Society, American Behavioral Scientist, en, 61, 4, 441–454, 10.1177/0002764217701217, 0002-7642, JOURNAL, Habgood-Coote, Joshua, 2018-08-11, Stop talking about fake news!, Inquiry, en, 1–33, 10.1080/0020174x.2018.1508363, 0020-174X, During and after his presidential campaign and election, Donald Trump popularized the term "fake news" in this sense when he used it to describe the negative press coverage of himself.WEB,weblink Library Guides: Evaluating Information: Fake news in the 2016 US Elections, Murphy, Jennifer, libraryguides.vu.edu.au, en, 2018-08-12, In part as a result of Trump's use of the term, the term has come under increasing criticism, and in October 2018 the British government decided that it will no longer use the term because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes."{{TOC Limit|3}}

Definition

Fake news is a neologismWEB,weblink This Is Not Fake News (but Don't Go by the Headline), April 3, 2017, The New York Times, Fake news – a neologism to describe stories that are just not true, like Pizzagate, and a term now co-opted to characterize unfavorable news – has given new urgency to the teaching of media literacy, {{refn|On September 13, 2016, First Draft News announced "a partner network of over thirty major news and technology organisations to tackle issues of trust and truth in reporting information".WEB,weblink Social networks unite with global newsrooms to take action against misinformation online, First Draft News, Sargent, Jenni, September 13, 2016, Today, malicious hoaxes and fake news reports are published in increasingly convincing and sophisticated ways., November 23, 2018, }} often used to refer to fabricated news. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate.JOURNAL, H. Allcott, M.Gentzkow, 2017, Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 election, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31, 2, 211–236, May 3, 2017,weblink 10.1257/jep.31.2.211, Michael Radutzky, a producer of CBS 60 Minutes, said his show considers fake news to be "stories that are probably false, have enormous traction [popular appeal] in the culture, and are consumed by millions of people." These stories are not only found in politics, but also in areas like vaccination, stock values and nutrition.JOURNAL, Lazer, David M. J., Baum, Matthew A., Benkler, Yochai, Berinsky, Adam J., Greenhill, Kelly M., Menczer, Filippo, Metzger, Miriam J., Nyhan, Brendan, Pennycook, Gordon, 2018-03-09, The science of fake news,weblink Science, en, 359, 6380, 1094–1096, 10.1126/science.aao2998, 0036-8075, 29590025, He did not include news that is "invoked by politicians against the media for stories that they don't like or for comments that they don't like" as fake news. Guy Campanile, also a 60 Minutes producer said, "What we are talking about are stories that are fabricated out of thin air. By most measures, deliberately, and by any definition, that's a lie."VIDEO,weblink 60 Minutes Overtime: What's "Fake News"? 60 Minutes Producers Investigate, CBS News, March 26, 2017, March 27, 2017, The intent and purpose of fake news is important. In some cases, what appears to be fake news may be news satire, which uses exaggeration and introduces non-factual elements that are intended to amuse or make a point, rather than to deceive. Propaganda can also be fake news. Some researchers have highlighted that "fake news" may be distinguished not just by the falsity of its content, but also the "character of [its] online circulation and reception".BOOK, Bounegru, Liliana, Gray, Jonathan, Venturini, Tommaso, Mauri, Michele, January 8, 2018, A Field Guide to "Fake News" and Other Information Disorders,weblink Amsterdam, Public Data Lab, 8, Claire Wardle of First Draft News identifies seven types of fake news:WEB, Wardle, Claire, Fake news. It's complicated,weblink firstdraftnews.org, February 16, 2017, April 22, 2017,
  1. satire or parody ("no intention to cause harm but has potential to fool")
  2. false connection ("when headlines, visuals or captions don't support the content")
  3. misleading content ("misleading use of information to frame an issue or an individual")
  4. false context ("when genuine content is shared with false contextual information")
  5. impostor content ("when genuine sources are impersonated" with false, made-up sources)
  6. manipulated content ("when genuine information or imagery is manipulated to deceive", as with a "doctored" photo)
  7. fabricated content ("new content is 100% false, designed to deceive and do harm")
In the context of the United States of America and its election processes in the 2010s, fake news generated considerable controversy and argument, with some commentators defining concern over it as moral panic or mass hysteria and others worried about damage done to public trust.NEWS, Shafer, Jack, The Cure for Fake News Is Worse Than the Disease,weblink February 19, 2017, Politico, November 22, 2016, NEWS, Gobry, Pascal-Emmanuel, The crushing anxiety behind the media's fake news hysteria,weblink February 19, 2017, The Week, December 12, 2016, WEB, Morrissey, Edward, The Snarling Contempt of the Media's Fake News Hysteria,weblink RealClearPolitics, February 19, 2017, In January 2017, the United Kingdom House of Commons conducted a parliamentary inquiry into the "growing phenomenon of fake news".NEWS,weblink Fake news inquiry by MPs examines threat to democracy
BBC News>date= January 30, 2017, Some, most notably United States President Donald Trump, have broadened the meaning of "fake news" to include news that was negative of his presidency.WEB,weblink Cognitive Ability and Vulnerability to Fake News, David Z. Hambrick,Madeline, Marquardt, April 24, 2018, WEB,weblink Donald Trump's Fake News Mistake, April 24, 2018, In November 2017, Claire Wardle (mentioned above) announced she has rejected the phrase "fake news" and "censors it in conversation", finding it "woefully inadequate" to describe the issues. She now speaks of "information pollution" and distinguishes between three types of problems: 'mis-information', 'dis-information', and 'mal-information':
  1. Mis-information: false information disseminated without harmful intent.
  2. Dis-information: created and shared by people with harmful intent.
  3. Mal-information: the sharing of "genuine" information with the intent to cause harm.NEWS, Giuliani-Hoffman, Francesca, November 3, 2017, 'F News' should be replaced by these words, Claire Wardle says,weblink Money.CNN, November 24, 2018,

Types of fake news

Here are a few examples of fake news and how they are viewed:
  • Clickbait
  • Propaganda
  • Satire/parody
  • Sloppy journalism
  • Misleading headings
  • Biased or slanted news
These are features of fake news and may help to identify and avoid instances of fake news.WEB,weblink Explained: What is Fake news? {{!, Social Media and Filter Bubbles|date=2018-06-21|website=Webwise.ie|language=en-GB|access-date=2019-03-25}}

Identifying

File:How to Spot Fake News.jpg|right|thumb|Infographic How to spot fake news published by the International Federation of Library Associations and InstitutionsInternational Federation of Library Associations and InstitutionsThe International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) published a summary in diagram form (pictured at right) to assist people in recognizing fake news.WEB,weblink How to Spot Fake News, January 27, 2017, IFLA blogs, February 16, 2017, Its main points are:
  1. Consider the source (to understand its mission and purpose)
  2. Read beyond the headline (to understand the whole story)
  3. Check the authors (to see if they are real and credible)
  4. Assess the supporting sources (to ensure they support the claims)
  5. Check the date of publication (to see if the story is relevant and up to date)
  6. Ask if it is a joke (to determine if it is meant to be satire)
  7. Review your own biases (to see if they are affecting your judgement)
  8. Ask experts (to get confirmation from independent people with knowledge).
The International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN), launched in 2015, supports international collaborative efforts in fact-checking, provides training, and has published a code of principles.NEWS,weblink International Fact-Checking Network fact-checkers' code of principles, September 15, 2016, Poynter, March 25, 2017, In 2017 it introduced an application and vetting process for journalistic organisations.NEWS,weblink About the International Fact-Checking Network, December 8, 2016, Poynter, March 25, 2017, One of IFCN's verified signatories, the independent, not-for-profit media journal The Conversation, created a short animation explaining its fact checking process, which involves "extra checks and balances, including blind peer review by a second academic expert, additional scrutiny and editorial oversight".WEB,weblink How we do Fact Checks at The Conversation, Creagh, Sunanda, Mountain, Wes, February 17, 2017, The Conversation, March 2, 2017, Beginning in the 2017 school year, children in Taiwan study a new curriculum designed to teach critical reading of propaganda and the evaluation of sources. Called "media literacy", the course provides training in journalism in the new information society.NEWS,weblink Smith, Nicola, April 6, 2017, April 17, 2017, Time (magazine), Time, Schoolkids in Taiwan Will Now Be Taught How to Identify Fake News, {{Tone|section|date=April 2019}}

Detecting fake news online

(File:How to Spot Fake News.pdf|thumb|Infographic based on FactCheck.org’s 2016 article "How to Spot Fake News")Fake news has become increasingly prevalent over the last few years, with over 100 incorrect articles and rumors spread incessantly just with regard to the 2016 United States presidential election.JOURNAL, Allcott, Hunt, 2017, Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31, 211–235, JSTOR, These fake news articles tend to come from satirical news websites or individual websites with an incentive to propagate false information, either as clickbait or to serve a purpose. Since they typically hope to intentionally promote incorrect information, such articles are quite difficult to detect.JOURNAL, Liu, Huan, Tang, Jiliang, Wang, Suhang, Sliva, Amy, Shu, Kai, 2017-08-07, Fake News Detection on Social Media: A Data Mining Perspective,weblink en, When identifying a source of information, one must look at many attributes, including but not limited to the content of the email and social media engagements. specifically, the language is typically more inflammatory in fake news than real articles, in part because the purpose is to confuse and generate clicks. Furthermore, modeling techniques such as n-gram encodings and bag of words have served as other linguistic techniques to determine the legitimacy of a news source. On top of that, researchers have determined that visual-based cues also play a factor in categorizing an article, specifically some features can be designed to assess if a picture was legitimate, and provides more clarity on the news. There is also many social context features that can play a role, as well as the model of spreading the news. Websites such as “Snopes” try to detect this information manually, while certain universities are trying to build mathematical models to do this themselves.

Historical examples

Ancient

File:Marcus Antonius marble bust in the Vatican Museums.jpg|thumb|alt=stone sculpture of a man's head and neck|Roman politician and general Mark AntonyMark AntonyIn the 13th century BC, Rameses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians; he depicted scenes of himself smiting his foes during the battle on the walls of nearly all his temples. The treaty between the Egyptians and the Hittites, however, reveals that the battle was actually a stalemate.BOOK, Weir, William, History's Greatest Lies, 2009, Fair Winds Press, Beverly, Massachusetts, 978-1-59233-336-3, 28–41, During the first century BC, Octavian ran a campaign of misinformation against his rival Mark Antony, portraying him as a drunkard, a womanizer, and a mere puppet of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII.NEWS, Kaminska, Izabella, A lesson in fake news from the info-wars of ancient Rome,weblink July 4, 2017, Financial Times, Financial Times, January 17, 2017, He published a document purporting to be Mark Antony's will, which claimed that Mark Antony, upon his death, wished to be entombed in the mausoleum of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Although the document may have been forged, it invoked outrage from the Roman populace.NEWS, MacDonald, Eve, The fake news that sealed the fate of Atony and Cleopatra,weblink July 4, 2017, The Conversation, The Conversation, January 13, 2017, Mark Antony ultimately killed himself after his defeat in the Battle of Actium upon hearing false rumors propagated by Cleopatra herself claiming that she had committed suicide.WEB, Marc Antony and Cleopatra,weblink biography.com, A&E Television Networks, July 4, 2017, During the second and third centuries AD, false rumors were spread about Christians claiming that they engaged in ritual cannibalism and incest.BOOK, Ferguson, Everett, Backgrounds of Early Christianity, 1993, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 978-0-8028-0669-7, 556–564, second, JOURNAL, Sherwin-White, A. N., Why Were the Early Christians Persecuted? – An Amendment, Past and Present, April 1964, 27, 23–27, 649759, In the late third century AD, the Christian apologist Lactantius invented and exaggerated stories about pagans engaging in acts of immorality and cruelty,BOOK, Gwynn, David M., Christianity in the Later Roman Empire, 2015, Bloomsbury Sources in Ancient History, London, England, 978-1-44112-255-1, 16,weblink July 2, 2017, while the anti-Christian writer Porphyry invented similar stories about Christians.BOOK, Clark, Gillian, Christianity and Roman Society, 2004, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 978-0-521-63310-9, 36,weblink July 2, 2017,

Medieval

In 1475, a fake news story in Trent claimed that the Jewish community had murdered a two-and-a-half-year-old Christian infant named Simonino.NEWS,weblink The Long and Brutal History of Fake News, Politico Magazine, February 19, 2017, The story resulted in all the Jews in the city being arrested and tortured; fifteen of them were burned at the stake. Pope Sixtus IV himself attempted to stamp out the story; however, by that point, it had already spread beyond anyone's control. Stories of this kind were known as "blood libel"; they claimed that Jews purposely killed Christians, especially Christian children, and used their blood for religious or ritual purposes.WEB,weblink Blood Libel: A False, Incendiary Claim Against Jews, Anti-Defamation League,

Early modern period

After the invention of the printing press in 1439, publications became widespread but there was no standard of journalistic ethics to follow. By the 17th century, historians began the practice of citing their sources in footnotes. In 1610 when Galileo went on trial, the demand for verifiable news increased.During the 18th century publishers of fake news were fined and banned in the Netherlands; one man, Gerard Lodewijk van der Macht, was banned four times by Dutch authorities—and four times he moved and restarted his press. In the American colonies, Benjamin Franklin wrote fake news about murderous "scalping" Indians working with King George III in an effort to sway public opinion in favor of the American Revolution.(wikt:canard|Canards), the successors of the 16th century (wikt:pasquinade|pasquinade), were sold in Paris on the street for two centuries, starting in the 17th century. In 1793, Marie Antoinette was executed in part because of popular hatred engendered by a canard on which her face had been printed.NEWS, The True History of Fake News, Darnton, Robert, February 13, 2017, New York Review of Books, March 8, 2017,weblink During the era of slave-owning in the United States, supporters of slavery propagated fake news stories about African Americans, whom white people considered to have lower status.NEWS,weblink Thomas Jefferson: Radical and Racist, O'Brien, Conor Cruise, The Atlantic, June 29, 2017, en-US, Violence occurred in reaction to the spread of some fake news events. In one instance, stories of African Americans spontaneously turning white spread through the south and struck fear into the hearts of many people.NEWS,weblink The Long and Brutal History of Fake News, POLITICO Magazine, June 29, 2017, Rumors and anxieties about slave rebellions were common in Virginia from the beginning of the colonial period, despite the only major uprising occurring in the 19th century. One particular instance of fake news regarding revolts occurred in 1730. The serving governor of Virginia at the time, Governor William Gooch, reported that a slave rebellion had occurred but was effectively put down – although this never happened. After Gooch discovered the falsehood, he ordered slaves found off plantations to be punished, tortured, and made prisoners.WEB,weblink Slave Conspiracies in Colonial Virginia, history.org, June 29, 2017,

19th century

File:1836 the-great-moon-hoax-new-inhabitants-of-the-moon.png|left|upright=.8|thumb|alt=b&w drawing of a man with large bat-wings reaching from over his head to mid-thigh|A "lunar animal" said to have been discovered by John Herschel on the MoonMoonOne instance of fake news was the Great Moon Hoax of 1835. The New York Sun published articles about a real-life astronomer and a made-up colleague who, according to the hoax, had observed bizarre life on the moon. The fictionalized articles successfully attracted new subscribers, and the penny paper suffered very little backlash after it admitted the next month that the series had been a hoax.NEWS,weblink The Great Moon Hoax, August 25, 1835, history.com, February 19, 2017, Such stories were intended to entertain readers, and not to mislead them.NEWS, Fact-Checking Won't Save Us From Fake News,weblink Borel, Brooke, January 4, 2017, March 8, 2017, FiveThirtyEight, From 1800 to 1810, James Cheetham made use of fictional stories to advocate politically against Aaron Burrweblink$b310395 His stories were often defamatory, and he was frequently sued for libelweblink the late 19th century, Joseph Pulitzer and other yellow journalism publishers goaded the United States into the Spanish–American War, which was precipitated when the U.S.S. Maine exploded in the harbor of Havana, Cuba.WEB,weblink Milestones: 1866–1898, Office of the Historian, February 19, 2017, File:PulitzerHearstWarYellowKids.jpg|thumb|right|alt=two men dressed as the Yellow Kid pushing on opposite sides of oversize building blocks bearing the letters W A R"|Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst caricatured as they urged the U.S. into the Spanish–American WarSpanish–American War

20th century

Fake news became popular and spread quickly in the 1900s. Media like newspapers, articles, and magazines were in high demand because of technology.WEB,weblink Techniques of 19th-century fake news reporter teach us why we fall for it today, McGillen, Petra S., The Conversation, en, 2019-03-25, During the First World War, an example of anti-German atrocity propaganda was that of an alleged "German Corpse Factory" in which the German battlefield dead were rendered down for fats used to make nitroglycerine, candles, lubricants, human soap, and boot dubbing. Unfounded rumors regarding such a factory circulated in the Allied press starting in 1915, and by 1917 the English-language publication North China Daily News presented these allegations as true at a time when Britain was trying to convince China to join the Allied war effort; this was based on new, allegedly true stories from The Times and The Daily Mail that turned out to be forgeries. These false allegations became known as such after the war, and in the Second World War Joseph Goebbels used the story in order to deny the ongoing massacre of Jews as British propaganda. According to Joachim Neander and Randal Marlin, the story also "encouraged later disbelief" when reports about the Holocaust surfaced after the liberation of Auschwitz and Dachau concentration camps.NEWS, The corpse factory and the birth of fake news,weblink March 5, 2017, BBC News, February 17, 2017, After Hitler and the Nazi Party rose to power in Germany in 1933, they established the Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda under the control of Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels.NEWS,weblink American Experience . The Man Behind Hitler . {{!, PBS |publisher=PBS |accessdate=February 19, 2017 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170212092119weblink |archivedate=February 12, 2017 |df= }} The Nazis used both print and broadcast journalism to promote their agendas, either by obtaining ownership of those media or exerting political influence.WEB,weblink The Press in the Third Reich, ushmm.org, en, June 29, 2017, Throughout World War II, both the Axis and the Allies employed fake news in the form of propaganda to persuade the public at home and in enemy countries.NEWS,weblink The Real 007 Used Fake News to Get the U.S. into World War II, Wortman, Marc, January 29, 2017, The Daily Beast, February 19, 2017, NEWS,weblink Inside America's Shocking WWII Propaganda Machine, December 19, 2016, February 19, 2017, The British Political Warfare Executive used radio broadcasts and distributed leaflets to discourage German troops.The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace has published that The New York Times printed fake news "depicting Russia as a socialist paradise."NEWS, Judy Asks: Can Fake News Be Beaten?,weblink February 14, 2017, Carnegie Europe, January 25, 2017, Stalin fed fake news to New York Times correspondent Walter Duranty, who won a Pulitzer Prize for depicting Russia as a socialist paradise., During 1932–1933, The New York Times published numerous articles by its Moscow bureau chief, Walter Duranty, who won a Pulitzer prize for a series of reports about the Soviet Union.File:Orson Welles War of the Worlds 1938.jpg|thumb|right|Orson Welles explaining to reporters about his radio drama "War of the Worlds" on Sunday, October 30, 1938, the day after the broadcast]]"The War of the Worlds" is a 1938 episode of the American radio drama anthology series The Mercury Theatre on the Air. Directed and narrated by actor and filmmaker Orson Welles, the episode was an adaptation of H. G. Wells' novel The War of the Worlds (1898), presented as a series of simulated news bulletins. Although preceded by a clear introduction that the show was a drama, it became famous for allegedly causing mass panic, although the reality of the panic is disputed as the program had relatively few listeners. An investigation was run by The Federal Communications Commission to examine the mass hysteria produced by this radio programming; no law was found broken.WEB,weblink Welles scares nation, history.com, This event was an example the early stages of society's dependency on information from print to radio and other media. Fake news can even be found within this example, the true extent of the "hysteria" from the radio broadcast has also been falsely recorded. The most extreme case and reaction after the radio broadcast was a group of Grover Mill locals attacking a water tower because they falsely identified it as an alien.NEWS,weblink The War of the Worlds panic was a myth, Chilton, Martin, May 6, 2016, The Daily Telegraph,

21st century

In the 21st century, the impact of fake news became widespread, as well as the usage of the term. The opening of the Internet to the people in the 90s was a movement meant to allow them access to information. Over time, the Internet has grown to unimaginable heights with tons of information coming in all the time which allows the Internet to be a host for plenty of unwanted, untruthful and misleading information that can be made by anyone.WEB,weblink How to Spot Fake News, Kiely, Eugene, Robertson, Lori, 2016-11-18, FactCheck.org, en-US, 2019-02-25, WEB,weblink Combating fake news in the digital age, Burkhardt, Johanna, Fake news has grown from being sent via emails to attacking social media.WEB,weblink How to Spot Fake News, Kiely, Eugene, Robertson, Lori, 2016-11-18, FactCheck.org, en-US, 2019-03-03, Besides referring to made-up stories designed to deceive readers into clicking on links, maximizing traffic and profit, the term has also referred to satirical news, whose purpose is not to mislead but rather to inform viewers and share humorous commentary about real news and the mainstream media.NEWS,weblink Wielding Claims of 'Fake News,' Conservatives Take Aim at Mainstream Media, The New York Times, Jeremy W. Peters, December 25, 2016, NEWS,weblink A look at "Daily Show" host Jon Stewart's legacy, CBS News, United States examples of satire (as opposed to fake news) include the television show Saturday Night Live's Weekend Update, The Daily Show, The Colbert Report, The Late Show with Stephen Colbert and The Onion newspaper.NEWS,weblink Why SNL's 'Weekend Update' Change Is Brilliant, September 12, 2014, Esquire (magazine), Esquire, February 19, 2017, NEWS,weblink Area Man Realizes He's Been Reading Fake News For 25 Years, NPR, February 19, 2017, NEWS,weblink 'The Daily Show (The Book)' is a reminder of when fake news was funny, The News & Observer, Raleigh, N.C., February 19, 2017, 21st century fake news is often intended to increase the financial profits of the news outlet. In an interview with NPR, Jestin Coler, former CEO of the fake media conglomerate Disinfomedia, said who writes fake news articles, who funds these articles, and why fake news creators create and distribute false information. Coler, who has since left his role as a fake news creator, said that his company employed 20 to 25 writers at a time and made $10,000 to $30,000 monthly from advertisements. Coler began his career in journalism as a magazine salesman before working as a freelance writer. He said he entered the fake news industry to prove to himself and others just how rapidly fake news can spread.NEWS,weblink We Tracked Down A Fake-News Creator in the Suburbs. Here's What We Learned, Sydell, Laura, November 23, 2016, NPR, Disinfomedia is not the only outlet responsible for the distribution of fake news; Facebook users play a major role in feeding into fake news stories by making sensationalized stories "trend", according to BuzzFeed media editor Craig Silverman, and the individuals behind Google AdSense basically fund fake news websites and their content.NEWS,weblink Fake News Expert on How False Stories Spread And Why People Believe Them, Davies, Dave, December 14, 2016, NPR, Mark Zuckerberg, CEO of Facebook, said, "I think the idea that fake news on Facebook influenced the election in any way, I think is a pretty crazy idea", and then a few days later he blogged that Facebook was looking for ways to flag fake news stories.NEWS, Probe reveals stunning stats about fake election headlines on Facebook, November 17, 2016, CBS News, May 5, 2017,weblink Many online pro-Trump fake news stories are being sourced out of a city of Veles in Macedonia, where approximately seven different fake news organizations are employing hundreds of teenagers to rapidly produce and plagiarize sensationalist stories for different U.S. based companies and parties.NEWS,weblink The city getting rich from fake news, Kirby, Emma Jane, December 5, 2016, BBC News, One fake news writer, Paul Horner, was behind the widespread hoax that he was the graffiti artist Banksy and had been arrested;NEWS, LaCapria, Kim, Snopes' Field Guide to Fake News Sites and Hoax Purveyors,weblink Snopes.com, November 2, 2016, NEWS, Hathaway, Jay, Banksy Has Not Been Arrested, And His Name Isn't Paul Horner,weblink Gawker, October 20, 2014, that a man stopped a robbery in a diner by quoting Pulp Fiction;WEB, Man quotes PULP FICTION – stops robbery,weblink Miramax, December 5, 2013, April 28, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170401062418weblink">weblink April 1, 2017, yes, mdy-all, and that he had an "enormous impact" on the 2016 U.S. presidential election, according to CBS News.NEWS, Gunaratna, Shanika, Facebook fake news creator claims he put Trump in White House,weblink CBS News, November 17, 2016, These stories consistently appeared in Google's top news search results, were shared widely on Facebook, were taken seriously, and shared by third parties such as Trump presidential campaign manager Corey Lewandowski, Eric Trump, ABC News, and the Fox News Channel.NEWS, Jacobson, Louis, No, someone wasn't paid $3,500 to protest Donald Trump,weblink PolitiFact.com, November 17, 2016, NEWS, Daro, Ishmael N., How A Prankster Convinced People The Amish Would Win Trump The Election,weblink BuzzFeed, October 28, 2016, NEWS, French, Sally, This person makes $10,000 a month writing fake news,weblink MarketWatch, November 18, 2016, Horner later claimed that his work during this period was intended "to make Trump's supporters look like idiots for sharing my stories".NEWS, Bratu, etal, Becky, Tall Tale or Satire? Authors of So-Called 'Fake News' Feel Misjudged,weblink NBC News, December 15, 2016, In a November 2016 interview with The Washington Post, Horner expressed regret for the role his fake news stories played in the election and surprise at how gullible people were in treating his stories as news.MAGAZINE, Rolling Stone,weblink How a Fake Newsman Accidentally Helped Trump Win the White House – Paul Horner thought he was trolling Trump supporters – but after the election, the joke was on him, Erik, Hedegaard, November 29, 2016, November 29, 2016, NEWS, Genzlinger, Neil, 'Duck Dynasty' Legacy: Real, Fake and Upfront About It,weblink The New York Times, November 17, 2016, NEWS, Madigan, Charles M., The danger of a leader who believes what 'people are saying ...',weblink Chicago Tribune, November 21, 2016, NEWS, Comedian Who Writes Fake News Claims: Trump Won The Election Because Of Me,weblink Inside Edition, November 18, 2016, In February 2017 Horner said, "I truly regret my comment about saying that I think Donald Trump is in the White House because of me. I know all I did was attack him and his supporters and got people not to vote for him. When I said that comment it was because I was confused how this evil got elected President and I thought maybe instead of hurting his campaign, maybe I had helped it. My intention was to get his supporters NOT to vote for him and I know for a fact that I accomplished that goal. The far right, a lot of the Bible thumpers and alt-right were going to vote him regardless, but I know I swayed so many that were on the fence."Welch, Dennis (February 16, 2017). "Fake news writer 'regrets' taking credit for Trump victory". KTVK.In December 2016, while speaking on Anderson Cooper 360, Horner said that all news is fake news and said CNN "spread misinformation", which was one month before Trump leveled the same criticism at that network."Fake news writer: It's satire".Anderson Cooper 360. CNN.Collinson, Stephen (February 16, 2017). "An amazing moment in history: Donald Trump's press conference". CNN.Horner spoke at the European Parliament in March, speaking about fake news and the importance of fact checking."Fake news in social media as reality shapers". Streamovations. March 8, 2017. According to a 2017 BuzzFeed article, Horner stated that a story of his about a rape festival in India helped generate over $250,000 in donations to GiveIndia, a site that helps rape victims in India.Daro, Ishmael N. (March 9, 2017). "A Live TV Debate About Fake News Went Completely Off The Rails And It Was Amazing To Watch". BuzzFeed.Nashrulla, Tasneem (November 8, 2013). "An American Website Wrote A Satirical Article About An Indian Rape Festival And Many People Thought It Was Real". BuzzFeed.Madan, Karuna (November 21, 2013). "US website’s ‘rape festival’ report sparks uproar". Gulf News India. Horner said he dislikes being grouped with people who write fake news solely to be misleading. "They just write it just to write fake news, like there's no purpose, there's no satire, there's nothing clever. All the stories I wrote were to make Trump's supporters look like idiots for sharing my stories." The Huffington Post called Horner a "Performance Artist".Frank, Priscilla (April 19, 2017). "Alex Jones Says He’s A Performance Artist. Surprisingly, Actual Performance Artists Agree.". The Huffington Post. Horner has been referred to as a "hoax artist" by outlets such as the Associated Press and the Chicago Tribune."NOT REAL NEWS: A look at what didn't happen this week"{{dead link|date=January 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}. Associated Press/Chicago Tribune. May 26, 2017.Kim LaCapria of the fact checking website Snopes.com has stated that, in America, fake news is a bipartisan phenomenon, saying that "[t]here has always been a sincerely held yet erroneous belief misinformation is more red than blue in America, and that has never been true."NEWS, Tait, Amelia, February 9, 2016, The May Doctrine, . published online February 11, 2017 as "Fake news is a problem for the left, too"., New Statesman,weblink March 7, 2017, Jeff Green of Trade Desk agrees the phenomenon affects both sides. Green's company found that affluent and well-educated persons in their 40s and 50s are the primary consumers of fake news. He told Scott Pelley of 60 Minutes that this audience tends to live in an "echo chamber" and that these are the people who vote.In 2014, the Russian Government used disinformation via networks such as RT to create a counter-narrative after Russian-backed Ukrainian rebels shot down Malaysia Airlines Flight 17.NEWS,weblink A Powerful Russian Weapon: The Spread of False Stories, Macfarquhar, Neil, August 28, 2016, The New York Times, February 19, 2017, In 2016, NATO claimed it had seen a significant rise in Russian propaganda and fake news stories since the invasion of Crimea in 2014.NEWS,weblink NATO says it sees sharp rise in Russian disinformation since Crimea seizure, February 11, 2017, Reuters, February 19, 2017, Fake news stories originating from Russian government officials were also circulated internationally by Reuters news agency and published in the most popular news websites in the United States.JOURNAL, Watanabe, Kohei, February 8, 2017, The spread of the Kremlin's narratives by a western news agency during the Ukraine crisis, The Journal of International Communication, 23, 1, 138–158, 10.1080/13216597.2017.1287750, 1321-6597, A 2018 study at Oxford UniversityWEB, Polarization, Partisanship and Junk News Consumption over Social Media in the US, Vidya Narayanan, Vlad Barash, John Kelly, Bence Kollanyi, Lisa-Maria Neudert, and Philip N. Howard, Oxford: The Computational Propaganda Project, February 8, 2018,weblink March 31, 2018, found that Trump's supporters consumed the "largest volume of 'junk news' on Facebook and Twitter":}}In 2018,WEB, Guess, Andrew, Nyhan, Brendan, Reifler, Jason, January 9, 2018, Selective Exposure to Misinformation: Evidence from the consumption of fake news during the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign, Dartmouth College,weblink February 4, 2018, researchers from Princeton University, Dartmouth College, and the University of Exeter examined the consumption of fake news during the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign. Their findings showed that Trump supporters and older Americans (over 60) were far more likely to consume fake news than Clinton supporters. Those most likely to visit fake news websites were the 10% of Americans who consumed the most conservative information. There was a very large difference (800%) in the consumption of fake news stories as related to total news consumption between Trump supporters (6.2%) and Clinton supporters (0.8%).WEB, Sarlin, Benjy, 'Fake news' went viral in 2016. This professor studied who clicked, NBC News, January 14, 2018,weblink February 4, 2018, The study also showed that fake pro-Trump and fake pro-Clinton news stories were read by their supporters, but with a significant difference: Trump supporters consumed far more (40%) than Clinton supporters (15%). Facebook was by far the key "gateway" website where these fake stories were spread, and which led people to then go to the fake news websites. Fact checks of fake news were rarely seen by consumers, with none of those who saw a fake news story being reached by a related fact check.WEB, Fake news and fact-checking websites both reach about a quarter of the population – but not the same quarter, Poynter Institute, January 3, 2018,weblink February 5, 2018, Brendan Nyhan, one of the researchers, emphatically stated in an interview on NBC News: "People got vastly more misinformation from Donald Trump than they did from fake news websites – full stop."A 2019 study by researchers at Princeton and New York University found that a person's likelihood of sharing fake-news articles correlated more strongly with age than it did education, sex, or political views. 11% of users older than 65 shared an article consistent with the study's definition of fake news. Just 3% of users ages 18 to 29 did the same.JOURNAL, Tucker, Joshua, Nagler, Jonathan, Guess, Andrew, 2019-01-01, Less than you think: Prevalence and predictors of fake news dissemination on Facebook,weblink Science Advances, en, 5, 1, eaau4586, 10.1126/sciadv.aau4586, 2375-2548, Another issue in mainstream media is the usage of the filter bubble, a "bubble" that has been created that gives the viewer, on social media platforms, a specific piece of the information knowing they will like it. Thus creating fake news and biased news because only half the story is being shared, the portion the viewer liked. "In 1996, Nicolas Negroponte predicted a world where information technologies become increasingly customizable."JOURNAL, Spohr, Dominic, Fake news and ideological polarization, Business Information Review, 34, 3, 150–160, 10.1177/0266382117722446, 2017, Decades ago people predicted that customized news would become a reality. This becomes a problem in today's society because people are seeing only bits and pieces and not the whole issues making it much harder to solve the issues or talk about it worldwide.

On the Internet

{{See also|Internet manipulation}}

The roots of fake news

(File:The_roots_of_'fake_news'.png|thumb|314x314px|The roots of "fake news", UNESCO's World Trends Report)The term "fake news" gained importance with the electoral context in Western Europe and North America. It is determined by fraudulent content in news format and its velocity.BOOK, World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development Global Report 2017/2018, UNESCO, 2018,weblink 202, According to Bounegru, Gray, Venturini and Mauri, fake news is when a deliberate lie "is picked up by dozens of other blogs, retransmitted by hundreds of websites, cross-posted over thousands of social media accounts and read by hundreds of thousands" that it then effectively becomes "fake news".Bounegru, Liliana, Jonathan Gray, Tommaso Venturini, and Michele Mauri. 2017. A Field Guide to Fake News. Public Data Lab. On January 10, 2019 Fox Nation ran a documentary called Black Eye: Dan Rather and the Birth of Fake News.The evolving nature of online business models encourages the production of information that is "click-worthy" and independent of its accuracy.Byrne, Andrew. 2016. Macedonia’s fake news industry sets sights on Europe. Financial Times. Available atweblink Accessed 17 March 2017.The nature of trust depends on the assumptions that non-institutional forms of communication are freer from power and more able to report information that mainstream media are perceived as unable or unwilling to reveal. Declines in confidence in much traditional mediaEdelman. 2016. 2016 Edelman Trust Barometer Global Results. Edelman. Available atweblink Accessed 22 January 2017. and expert knowledgeMorozov, Evgeny. 2017. Moral panic over fake news hides the real enemy – the digital giants. The Guardian, sec. Opinion. Available atweblink Accessed 26 May 2017. have created fertile grounds for alternative, and often obscure sources of information to appear as authoritative and credible. This ultimately leaves users confused about basic facts.Barthel, Michael, Amy Mitchell, and Jesse Holcomb. 2016. Many Americans Believe Fake News Is Sowing Confusion. Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project. Available atweblink Accessed 26 May 2017.Internet companies with threatened credibility tend to develop new responses to limit fake news and reduce financial incentives for its proliferation.Kuchler. 2016. Facebook begins testing ways to flag fake news. Financial Times. Available atweblink Accessed 26 May 2017Wingfield, Nick, Mike Isaac, and Katie Benner. 2016. Google and Facebook Take Aim at Fake News Sites. The New York Times. Available atweblink Accessed 26 May 2017.

In websites

When the Internet was first made accessible for public use in the 1990s, its main purpose was for the seeking and accessing of information.JOURNAL, Burkhardt, Joanna, November–December 2017, Combating Fake News in the Digital Age,weblink Library Technology Reports, 53, 5–33, Ebscohost, As fake news was introduced to the Internet, this made it difficult for some people to find truthful information. The impact of fake news has become a worldwide phenomenon.NEWS,weblink Fake news: an insidious trend that's fast becoming a global problem, Connolly, Kate, December 2, 2016, Chrisafis, Angelique, The Guardian, McPherson, Poppy, Kirchgaessner, Stephanie, Haas, Benjamin, Phillips, Dominic, Hunt, Elle, Safi, Michael, January 17, 2017, Fake news is often spread through the use of fake news websites, which, in order to gain credibility, specialize in creating attention-grabbing news, which often impersonate well-known news sources.NEWS,weblink The Agency, Chen, Adrian, June 2, 2015, The New York Times, December 25, 2016, WEB, LaCapria, Kim, Snopes' Field Guide to Fake News Sites and Hoax Purveyors – Snopes.com's updated guide to the Internet's clickbaiting, news-faking, social media exploiting dark side, November 2, 2016,weblink Snopes.com, November 19, 2016, NEWS, Fed up with fake news, Facebook users are solving the problem with a simple list, November 15, 2016,weblink Some of these sites are intended to look like real publications (there are false versions of major outlets like ABC and MSNBC) but share only fake news; others are straight-up propaganda created by foreign nations (Russia and Macedonia, among others), Ben Gilbert, Business Insider, November 16, 2016, Jestin Coler, who said he does it for "fun", has indicated that he earned US$10,000 per month from advertising on his fake news websites. In 2017, the inventor of the World Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee claimed that fake news was one of the three most significant new disturbing Internet trends that must first be resolved, if the Internet is to be capable of truly "serving humanity." The other two new disturbing trends that Berners-Lee described as threatening the Internet were the recent surge in the use of the Internet by governments for both citizen-surveillance purposes, and for cyber-warfare purposes.The World Wide Web's inventor warns it's in peril on 28th anniversary By Jon Swartz, USA Today. March 11, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017. Research has shown that fake news hurts social media and online based outlets far worse than traditional print and TV outlets. After a survey was conducted, it was found that 58% of people had less trust in social media news stories as opposed to 24% of people in mainstream media after learning about fake news.NEWS,weblink Fake news hurts trust in media, mainstream outlets fare better: poll, Editorial, Reuters, 2017-10-31, Reuters, en, 2018-04-10,

How fake news spreads and goes viral

Fake news has the tendency to become viral among the public. With the presence of social media platforms like Twitter, it becomes easier for false information to diffuse quickly. Research has found that false political information tends to spread “3 times” faster than other false news.WEB,weblink THE SPREAD OF TRUE AND FALSE NEWS ONLINE, Vosoughi, Soroush, MIT Digital, 5 March 2019, On Twitter, false tweets have a much higher chance of being retweeted than truthful tweets. More so, it is humans who are responsible in disseminating false news and information as opposed to bots and click-farms. The tendency for humans to spread false information has to do with human behavior; according to research, humans are attracted to events and information that are surprising and new, and, as a result, causes high-arousal in the brain.WEB,weblink What Makes online Content Viral?, Berger, Jonah, 5 March 2019, American Marketing Association, 5 March 2019, WEB,weblink Bayesian Surprise Attracts Human Attention, Itti, Laurent, 2005, 5 March 2019, This ultimately leads humans to retweet or share false information, which are usually characterized with clickbait and eye-catching titles. This prevents people from stopping to verify the information. As a result, massive online communities form around a piece of false news without any prior fact checking or verification of the veracity of the information.

Popularity of fake news

Fake news has gained lots of popularity with various media outlets and platforms. Researchers at Pew Research Center discovered that over 60% of Americans access news through social media compared to traditional newspaper and magazines.WEB,weblink News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2016 {{!, Pew Research Center|date=2016-05-26|language=en-US|access-date=2019-03-06}} With the popularity of social media, individuals can easily access fake news or similar content. One study looks at the number of fake news articles being accessed by viewers in 2016 and found that each individual was exposed to at least one or more fake news articles daily.{{better source|date=May 2019}} As a result, fake news is extremely omnipresent among the viewer population and results in its ability to spread across the internet.  {{multiple image
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Bots on social media

In the mid 1990s, Nicolas Negroponte anticipated a world where news through technology become progressively personalized. In his 1996 book Being Digital he predicted a digital life where news consumption becomes an extremely personalized experience and newspapers adapted content to reader preferences. This prediction has since been reflected in news and social media feeds of modern day.JOURNAL, Spohr, Dominic, August 23, 2017, Fake news and ideological polarization, Business Information Review, 34, 3, 150–160, 10.1177/0266382117722446, Bots have the potential to increase the spread of fake news, as they use algorithms to decide what articles and information specific users like, without taking into account the authenticity of an article. Bots mass-produce and spread articles, regardless of the credibility of the sources, allowing them to play an essential role in the mass spread of fake news, as bots are capable of creating fake accounts and personalities on the web that are then gaining followers, recognition, and authority. Additionally, almost 30% of the spam and content spread on the Internet originates from these software bots.JOURNAL, Burkhardt, Joanna M., 2017, Can Technology Save Us?,weblink Library Technology Reports, 53, 14, ProQuest, In the 21st century, the capacity to mislead was enhanced by the widespread use of social media. For example, one 21st century website that enabled fake news' proliferation was the Facebook newsfeed.NEWS,weblink Facebook, in Cross Hairs After Election, Is Said to Question Its Influence, Isaac, Mike, December 12, 2016, The New York Times, January 15, 2017, NEWS,weblink Harsh truths about fake news for Facebook, Google and Twitter, Matthew Garrahan and Tim Bradshaw, Richard Waters,, November 21, 2016, Financial Times, January 17, 2017, In late 2016 fake news gained notoriety following the uptick in news content by this means,NEWS,weblink The Long and Brutal History of Fake News, Politico Magazine, January 15, 2017, and its prevalence on the micro-blogging site Twitter. In the United States, 62% of Americans use social media to receive news.WEB,weblink News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2016, Gottfried, Jeffrey, Shearer, Elisa, May 26, 2016, Pew Research Center's Journalism Project, January 15, 2017, Many people use their Facebook news feed to get news, despite Facebook not being considered a news site.JOURNAL, Goldsborough, Reid, June 2017, Understanding Facebook's News Feed,weblink Teacher Librarian, 44, 5, Ebscohost, According to Craig McClain, over 66% of Facebook users obtain news from the site.JOURNAL, McClain, Craig, June 2017, Practices and Promises of Facebook for Science Outreach: Becoming a "Nerd of Trust",weblink PLoS Biology, 15, 1–9, Ebscohost, This, in combination with increased political polarization and filter bubbles, led to a tendency for readers to mainly read headlines.NEWS,weblink Facebook's failure: did fake news and polarized politics get Trump elected?, Solon, Olivia, November 10, 2016, The Guardian, January 15, 2017, Numerous individuals and news outlets have stated that fake news may have influenced the outcome of the 2016 American Presidential Election.NEWS,weblink Forget Facebook and Google, burst your own filter bubble, December 6, 2016, Digital Trends, January 15, 2017, NEWS, Parkinson, Hannah Jane, Click and elect: how fake news helped Donald Trump win a real election,weblink July 4, 2017, The Guardian, The Guardian, Fake news saw higher sharing on Facebook than legitimate news stories,NEWS,weblink This Analysis Shows How Fake Election News Stories Outperformed Real News on Facebook, BuzzFeed, January 15, 2017, NEWS,weblink Just how partisan is Facebook's fake news? We tested it, PC World, January 15, 2017, NEWS,weblink Fake news is dominating Facebook, November 23, 2016, 6abc Philadelphia, January 15, 2017, which analysts explained was because fake news often panders to expectations or is otherwise more exciting than legitimate news.NEWS,weblink Where fake news came from – and why some readers believe it, Agrawal, Nina, Los Angeles Times, January 15, 2017, Facebook itself initially denied this characterization.NEWS,weblink Facebook, in Cross Hairs After Election, Is Said to Question Its Influence, Isaac, Mike, November 12, 2016, The New York Times, January 15, 2017, A Pew Research poll conducted in December 2016 found that 64% of U.S. adults believed completely made-up news had caused "a great deal of confusion" about the basic facts of current events, while 24% claimed it had caused "some confusion" and 11% said it had caused "not much or no confusion".WEB,weblink Many Americans Believe Fake News Is Sowing Confusion, Barthel, Michael, Mitchell, Amy, December 15, 2016, Pew Research Center's Journalism Project, January 27, 2017, Holcomb, Jesse, Additionally, 23% of those polled admitted they had personally shared fake news, whether knowingly or not. Researchers from Stanford assessed that only 8% of readers of fake news recalled and believed in the content they were reading, though the same share of readers also recalled and believed in "placebos" – stories they did not actually read, but that were produced by the authors of the study. In comparison, over 50% of the participants recalled reading and believed in true news stories.By August 2017 Facebook stopped using the term "fake news" and used "false news" in its place instead. Will Oremus of Slate wrote that because supporters of U.S. President Donald Trump had redefined the word "fake news" to refer to mainstream media opposed to them, "it makes sense for Facebook—and others—to cede the term to the right-wing trolls who have claimed it as their own."WEB, Oremus, Will,weblink Facebook Has Stopped Saying "Fake News", Slate (magazine), Slate, August 8, 2017, August 11, 2017, Research from Northwestern University concluded that 30% of all fake news traffic, as opposed to only 8% of real news traffic, could be linked back to Facebook. The research concluded fake news consumers do not exist in a filter bubble; many of them also consume real news from established news sources. The fake news audience is only 10 percent of the real news audience, and most fake news consumers spent a relatively similar amount of time on fake news compared with real news consumers—with the exception of Drudge Report readers, who spent more than 11 times longer reading the website than other users.NEWS,weblink Is 'fake news' a fake problem?, Columbia Journalism Review, February 19, 2017, In the wake of western events, China's Ren Xianling of the Cyberspace Administration of China suggested a "reward and punish" system be implemented to avoid fake news.NEWS,weblink China says terrorism, fake news impel greater global internet curbs, November 20, 2016, Reuters, January 17, 2017,

Internet trolls

In Internet slang, a troll is a person who sows discord on the Internet by starting arguments or upsetting people, by posting inflammatory, (wikt:Extraneous#Adjective|extraneous), or off-topic messages in an online community (such as a newsgroup, forum, chat room, or blog) with the intent of provoking readers into an emotional response or off-topic discussion, often for the troll's amusement. Internet trolls also feed on attention.JOURNAL, Stein, Joel, August 2016, How Trolls Are Ruining the Internet,weblink Time.com, 106, Ebscohost, The idea of internet trolls gained popularity in the 1990s, though its meaning shifted in 2011. Whereas it once denoted provocation, it is a term now widely used to signify the abuse and misuse of the Internet. Trolling comes in various forms, and can be dissected into abuse trolling, entertainment trolling, classical trolling, flame trolling, anonymous trolling, and kudos trolling. It is closely linked to fake news, as internet trolls are now largely interpreted as perpetrators of false information, information that can often be passed along unwittingly by reporters and the public alike.JOURNAL, Binns, Amy, August 2012, Don't Feed the Trolls!,weblink Journalism Practice, 6, 4, 547–562, EBSCOhost, 10.1080/17512786.2011.648988, WEB,weblink The Twitter Paradox: How A Platform Designed For Free Speech Enables Internet Trolls, Gross, Terry, October 2016, NPR, 30 May 2018, When interacting with each other, trolls often share misleading information that contributes to the fake news circulated on sites like Twitter and Facebook.NEWS,weblink How Trolls Are Ruining the Internet, Steain, Joel, August 18, 2016, Time (magazine), Time, In the 2016 American election, Russia paid over 1,000 internet trolls to circulate fake news and disinformation about Hillary Clinton; they also created social media accounts that resembled voters in important swing states, spreading influential political standpoints.NEWS,weblink Russian bots still interfering in U.S. politics after election, says expert witness, Watson, Kathryn, March 30, 2017, CBS News, September 20, 2017, In February 2019, Glenn Greenwald wrote that a cybersecurity company New Knowledge "was caught just six weeks ago engaging in a massive scam to create fictitious Russian troll accounts on Facebook and Twitter in order to claim that the Kremlin was working to defeat Democratic Senate nominee Doug Jones in Alabama."NEWS, NBC News, to Claim Russia Supports Tulsi Gabbard, Relies on Firm Just Caught Fabricating Russia Data for the Democratic Party,weblink The Intercept, February 3, 2019,

Response

During the 2016 United States presidential election, the creation and coverage of fake news increased substantially.WEB,weblink 2016 Lie of the Year: Fake news, Holan, Angie Drobnic, December 13, 2016, PolitiFact.com, This resulted in a widespread response to combat the spread of fake news.JOURNAL, van der Linden, S., Maibach, E., Cook, J., Leiserowitz, A., Lewandowsky, S., Inoculating Against Misinformation, 10.1126/science.aar4533, 29191898, Science, 358, 6367, 1141–1142, 2017, WEB,weblink Snopes' Field Guide to Fake News Sites and Hoax Purveyors, LaCapria, Kim, March 2, 2017, Snopes.com, NEWS,weblink Fake News: How Big Data And AI Can Help, Marr, Bernard, March 1, 2017, Forbes, NEWS,weblink In Race Against Fake News, Google and Facebook Stroll to the Starting Line, Wakabayashi, Isaac, January 25, 2017, The New York Times, The volume and reluctance of fake news websites to respond to fact-checking organizations has posed a problem to inhibiting the spread of fake news through fact checking alone.WEB,weblink Fact-checking fake news reveals how hard it is to kill pervasive 'nasty weed' online, Gillin, Joshua, January 27, 2017, PolitiFact.com, In an effort to reduce the effects of fake news, fact-checking websites, including Snopes.com and FactCheck.org, have posted guides to spotting and avoiding fake news websites.WEB,weblink How To Spot Fake News, Kiely, Eugene, Robertson, Lori, November 18, 2016, FactCheck.org, New critical readings of media events and news with an emphasis on literalism and logic have also emerged.WEB,weblink The Fake News Dispatch, May 7, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170720142735weblink">weblink July 20, 2017, yes, mdy-all, Social media sites and search engines, such as Facebook and Google, received criticism for facilitating the spread of fake news. Both of these corporations have taken measures to explicitly prevent the spread of fake news; critics, however, believe more action is needed.After the 2016 American election and the run-up to the German election, Facebook began labeling and warning of inaccurate newsWEB,weblink Facebook to begin warning users of fake news before German election, Stelter, Brian, January 15, 2017, CNNMoney, January 17, 2017, NEWS,weblink Clamping down on viral fake news, Facebook partners with sites like Snopes and adds new user reporting, Nieman Foundation for Journalism, January 17, 2017, and partnered with independent fact-checkers to label inaccurate news, warning readers before sharing it. After a story is flagged as disputed, it will be reviewed by the third-party fact-checkers. Then, if it has been proven to be a fake news story, the post cannot be turned into an ad or promoted.NEWS, Chowdhry, Amit, Facebook Launches A New Tool That Combats Fake News,weblink Forbes, Artificial intelligence is one of the more recent technologies being developed in the United States and Europe to recognize and eliminate fake news through algorithms. In 2017, Facebook targeted 30,000 accounts related to the spread of misinformation regarding the French presidential election.NEWS,weblink Facebook targets 30,000 fake France accounts before election, ABC News, April 14, 2017, In March 2018, Google launched Google News Initiative (GNI) to fight the spread of fake news. It launched GNI under the belief that quality journalism and identifying truth online is crucial. GNI has three goals: “to elevate and strengthen quality journalism, evolve business models to drive sustainable growth and empower news organizations through technological innovation.”NEWS,weblink" title="www.engadget.com/2018/03/20/google-300-million-towards-fighting-fake-news/%2weblink">weblink Google puts $300 million towards fighting fake news, Engadget, 2018-05-30, en-US, To achieve the first goal, Google created the Disinfo Lab, which combats the spread of fake news during crucial times such as elections or breaking news. The company is also working to adjust its systems to display more trustworthy content during times of breaking news. To make it easier for users to subscribe to media publishers, Google created Subscribe with Google. Additionally, they have created a dashboard, News Consumer Insights that allows news organizations to better understand their audiences using data and analytics. Google will spend $300 million through 2021 on these efforts, among others, to combat fake news.

Usage of the term by Jair Bolsonaro

President of Brazil, Jair Bolsonaro has claimed that he will not allow his government to use any of its 1.8 billion reais (US$487 million) media budget on purchases from fake news media.NEWS, Anthony Boadle, Gram Slattery, Brazil's next president declares war on 'fake news' media,weblink 5 November 2018, Reuters, 4 November 2018, "That newspaper is done", Bolsonaro said in a tense TV Globo interview. "As far as I'm concerned with government advertising — press that acts like that, lying shamelessly, won't have any support from the federal government.", The BBC reported that Bolsonaro's campaign declared media associating his campaign to the "extreme right" were themselves fake news.NEWS, Ricardo Senra, In tour in the U.S., Bolsonaro to say that to associate him to the extreme right is "fake news",weblink 5 November 2018, BBC, 6 September 2018, Portuguese, Muitos jornalistas internacionais repetem bordões falsos, como este da extrema-direita, e o Jair vai mostrar que isso não é verdade. Não gosto muito do termo, mas vamos mostrar que isso é fake news (ou notícia falsa, em tradução literal).,

Usage of the term by Donald Trump

(File:Donald Trump by Gage Skidmore 2.jpg|thumb|Donald Trump smirking to audience)President Trump has claimed that the mainstream American media regularly reports fake news. His usage of the term has increased distrust of the American media globally, particularly in Russia. His claims have given credibility to the stories in the Russian media that label American news, especially news about atrocities committed by the Syrian regime against its own people, where it was quoted that "munitions at the air base had as much to do with chemical weapons as the test tube in the hands of Colin Powell had to do with weapons of mass destruction in Iraq", as just more fake American news.NEWS,weblink A Lesson in Moscow About Trump-Style 'Alternative Truth', Rutenberg, Jim, April 16, 2017, The New York Times, April 19, 2017, Trump has carried on a war against the mainstream media, often attacking it as "fake news" and "the "enemy of the people".WEB, Pak, Nataly, Seyler, Matt, Trump derides news media as 'enemy of the people' over Putin summit coverage, ABC News, July 19, 2018,weblink July 23, 2018, WEB, Atkins, Larry, Facts still matter in the age of Trump and fake news, The Hill, February 27, 2017,weblink March 9, 2017, WEB, Felsenthal, Julia, How the Women of the White House Press Corps Are Navigating "Fake News" and "Alternative Facts", Vogue, March 3, 2017,weblink March 3, 2017, WEB, Massie, Chris, WH official: We'll say 'fake news' until media realizes attitude of attacking the President is wrong, CNN, February 7, 2017,weblink March 27, 2017, WEB, Page, Clarence, February 7, 2017, Trump's obsession with (his own) 'fake news', Chicago Tribune,weblink February 9, 2017, {{POV statement|date=May 2019}}According to Jeff Hemsley, a Syracuse University professor who studies social media, Trump uses this term for any news that is not favorable to him or which he simply dislikes.WEB, Gendreau, Henri, February 25, 2017, The Internet Made 'Fake News' a Thing—Then Made It Nothing, Wired (magazine), Wired,weblink May 9, 2018, Trump provided a widely cited example of this interpretation in a tweet on May 9, 2018:{{tweet|block=yes|text=The Fake News is working overtime. Just reported that, despite the tremendous success we are having with the economy & all things else, 91% of the Network News about me is negative (Fake). Why do we work so hard in working with the media when it is corrupt? Take away credentials? |date=May 9, 2018 |name=Donald J. Trump |username=realDonaldTrump |id=994179864436596736 | access-date=May 9, 2018}}Chris Cillizza described the tweet on CNN as an "accidental" revelation about Trump's "'fake news' attacks", and wrote: "The point can be summed up in these two words from Trump: 'negative (Fake).' To Trump, those words mean the same thing. Negative news coverage is fake news. Fake news is negative news coverage."WEB, Cillizza, Chris, Donald Trump just accidentally revealed something very important about his 'fake news' attacks, CNN, May 9, 2018,weblink May 10, 2018, Other writers made similar comments about the tweet. Dara Lind wrote in Vox: "It's nice of Trump to admit, explicitly, what many skeptics have suspected all along: When he complains about 'fake news,' he doesn't actually mean 'news that is untrue'; he means news that is personally inconvenient to Donald Trump."WEB, Lind, Dara, Trump finally admits that "fake news" just means news he doesn't like, Vox (website), Vox, May 9, 2018,weblink May 10, 2018, Jonathan Chait wrote in New York magazine: "Trump admits he calls all negative news 'fake'.": "In a tweet this morning, Trump casually opened a window into the source code for his method of identifying liberal media bias. Anything that's negative is, by definition, fake."WEB, Chait, Jonathan, Trump Admits He Calls All Negative News 'Fake', New York (magazine), New York magazine, May 9, 2018,weblink May 10, 2018, Philip Bump wrote in The Washington Post: "The important thing in that tweet....is that he makes explicit his view of what constitutes fake news. It's negative news. Negative. (Fake.)"WEB, Bump, Philip, Trump makes it explicit: Negative coverage of him is fake coverage, The Washington Post, May 9, 2018,weblink May 10, 2018, In an interview with Lesley Stahl, before the cameras were turned on, Trump explained why he attacks the press: "You know why I do it? I do it to discredit you all and demean you all so that when you write negative stories about me no one will believe you."WEB, Mangan, Dan, Trump told Lesley Stahl he bashes press so 'no one will believe' negative stories about him, CNBC, May 22, 2018,weblink May 30, 2018, Author and literary critic Michiko Kakutani has described developments in the right-wing media and websites:}}In September 2018, National Public Radio noted that Trump has expanded his use of the terms "fake" and "phony" to "an increasingly wide variety of things he doesn't like": "The range of things Trump is declaring fake is growing too. Last month he tweeted about "fake books," "the fake dossier," "fake CNN," and he added a new claim – that Google search results are "RIGGED" to mostly show only negative stories about him." They graphed his expanding use in columns labeled: "Fake news", "Fake (other), and "Phony".WEB, Keith, Tamara, President Trump's Description of What's 'Fake' Is Expanding, NPR, September 2, 2018,weblink September 4, 2018,

Criticism of the term

Because of the manner in which Trump has co-opted the term, Washington Post media columnist Margaret Sullivan has warned fellow journalists that "It's time to retire the tainted term 'fake news'. Though the term hasn't been around long, its meaning already is lost." By late 2018, the term "fake news" had become verboten and U.S. journalists, including the Poynter Institute were asking for apologies and for product retirements from companies using the term.NEWS, Keith McMillan, Cleve R. Wootson Jr., Newseum pulls ‘fake news’ shirts after outcry from journalists,weblink 16 February 2019, The Washington Post, 4 August 2018, reporters reacted to the disclosure of the shirts for sale at the Newseum. Most were not amused., NEWS, Daniel Funke, Bloomingdale’s has discontinued a ‘fake news’ shirt. But there are still hundreds of them on Amazon.,weblink 14 February 2019, Poynter, 11 February 2019, Both Bloomingdale’s and the Newseum stopped selling their fake news shirts after an outcry from journalists that said the merch perpetuated the same anti-press rhetoric that has been used as a threat against them. But on shopping platforms like Amazon, fake news merch is alive and well.,weblink October 2018, the British government decided that the term "fake news" will no longer be used in official documents because it is "a poorly-defined and misleading term that conflates a variety of false information, from genuine error through to foreign interference in democratic processes." This followed a recommendation by the House of Commons' Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee to avoid the term.WEB,weblink Government bans phrase 'fake news', Margi, Murphy, October 23, 2018, www.telegraph.co.uk,

Fake news by country

Australia

A well-known case of fabricated news in Australia happened in 2009 when a report Deception Detection Across Australian Populations of a "Levitt Institute" was widely cited on the news websites all over the country, claiming that Sydney was the most naive city, despite the fact that the report itself contained a clue: amidst the mathematical gibberish, there was a statement: "These results were completely made up to be fictitious material through a process of modified truth and credibility nodes.""Deception Detection Deficiency", Media Watch, episode 34, September 28, 2009, ABC TVThe Australian Parliament initiated investigation into "fake news" regarding issues surrounding fake news that occurred during the 2016 United States election. The inquiry looks at a few major areas in Australia to find audiences most vulnerable to fake news, by considering the impact on traditional journalism, and by evaluating the liability of online advertisers and by regulating the spreading the hoaxes. This act of parliament is meant to combat the threat of social media power on spreading fakes news as concluded negative results to the public.Remeikis, A. (2017). "Parliament to launch inquiry into 'fake news' in Australia", The Sydney Morning Herald.

Austria

Politicians in Austria dealt with the impact of fake news and its spread on social media after the 2016 presidential campaign in the country. In December 2016, a court in Austria issued an injunction on Facebook Europe, mandating it block negative postings related to Eva Glawischnig-Piesczek, Austrian Green Party Chairwoman. According to The Washington Post the postings to Facebook about her "appeared to have been spread via a fake profile" and directed derogatory epithets towards the Austrian politician.Kirchner, Stephanie (December 14, 2016), "Menace of fake news is rattling politicians in Austria and Germany", The Washington Post, retrieved December 14, 2016. The derogatory postings were likely created by the identical fake profile that had previously been utilized to attack Alexander van der Bellen, who won the election for President of Austria.

Brazil

Brazil faced increasing influence from fake news after the 2014 re-election of President Dilma Rousseff and Rousseff's subsequent impeachment in August 2016. BBC Brazil reported in April 2016 that in the week surrounding one of the impeachment votes, three out of the five most-shared articles on Facebook in Brazil were fake. In 2015, reporter Tai Nalon resigned from her position at Brazilian newspaper Folha de S Paulo in order to start the first fact-checking website in Brazil, called Aos Fatos (To The Facts). Nalon told The Guardian there was a great deal of fake news, and hesitated to compare the problem to that experienced in the U.S.Kate Connolly; Angelique Chrisafis; Poppy McPherson; Stephanie Kirchgaessner; Benjamin Haas; Dominic Phillips; Elle Hunt (December 2, 2016). "Fake news: an insidious trend that's fast becoming a global problem – With fake online 1news dominating discussions after the US election, Guardian correspondents explain how it is distorting politics around the world". The Guardian. Retrieved December 2, 2016. In fact, Brazil also have problems with fake news and according to a survey have a greater number of people that believe fake news influenced the outcome of their elections (69%) than the United States (47%).

Canada

Fake news online was brought to the attention of Canadian politicians in November 2016, as they debated helping assist local newspapers. Member of Parliament for Vancouver Centre Hedy Fry specifically discussed fake news as an example of ways in which publishers on the Internet are less accountable than print media. Discussion in parliament contrasted increase of fake news online with downsizing of Canadian newspapers and the impact for democracy in Canada. Representatives from Facebook Canada attended the meeting and told members of Parliament they felt it was their duty to assist individuals gather data online.Cheadle, Bruce (November 17, 2016), "As fake news spreads, MPs consider importance of Canada's local papers", CTV News, The Canadian Press, retrieved December 11, 2016.In January 2017, the Conservative leadership campaign of Kellie Leitch admitted to spreading fake news, including false claims that Justin Trudeau was financing Hamas. The campaign manager claimed he spread the news in order to provoke negative reactions so that he could determine those who "aren't real Conservatives"."Inside Nick Kouvalis's fake news strategy".

China

{{See also|Internet censorship in China|50 Cent Party}}Fake news during the 2016 U.S. election spread to China. Articles popularized within the United States were translated into Chinese and spread within China. The government of China used the growing problem of fake news as a rationale for increasing Internet censorship in China in November 2016.Orlowski, Andrew (November 21, 2016), "China cites Trump to justify 'fake news' media clampdown. Surprised?", The Register, retrieved November 28, 2016. China then published an editorial in its Communist Party newspaper The Global Times called: "Western Media's Crusade Against Facebook", and criticized "unpredictable" political problems posed by freedoms enjoyed by users of Twitter, Google, and Facebook. China government leaders meeting in Wuzhen at the third World Internet Conference in November 2016 said fake news in the U.S. election justified adding more curbs to free and open use of the Internet. China Deputy Minister Ren Xianliang, official at the Cyberspace Administration of China, said increasing online participation led to "harmful information" and fraud.Pascaline, Mary (November 20, 2016), "Facebook Fake News Stories: China Calls For More Censorship On Internet Following Social Media's Alleged Role In US Election", International Business Times, retrieved November 28, 2016. Kam Chow Wong, a former Hong Kong law enforcement official and criminal justice professor at Xavier University, praised attempts in the U.S. to patrol social media."After Trump, Americans want Facebook and Google to vet news. So does China.", The Washington Post, retrieved November 28, 2016.The Wall Street Journal noted China's themes of Internet censorship became more relevant at the World Internet Conference due to the outgrowth of fake news.Dou, Eva (November 18, 2016), "China Presses Tech Firms to Police the Internet – Third-annual World Internet Conference aimed at proselytizing China's view to global audience", The Wall Street Journal, retrieved November 28, 2016.The issue of fake news in the 2016 United States election has given the Chinese Government a reason to further criticize Western democracy and press freedom. The Chinese government has also accused Western media organisations of bias, in a move apparently inspired by President Trump.NEWS,weblink China's Response to Reports of Torture: 'Fake News', Hernández, Javier C., March 3, 2017, The New York Times, July 13, 2017, Trump's attacks on the media will offer a good excuse for Chinese officials to step up their criticism of Western democracy and press freedom ... The Chinese government has long denounced Western news organizations as biased and dishonest – and in Mr. Trump, Beijing has found an American president who often does the same., In March 2017, the People's Daily, a newspaper run by the ruling Communist Party of China, denounced news coverage of the torture of Chinese lawyer and human rights advocate Xie Yang, claiming it to be fake news. The newspaper published a Twitter post declaring that "Foreign media reports that police tortured a detained lawyer is FAKE NEWS, fabricated to tarnish China's image". The state-owned Xinhua News Agency claimed that "the stories were essentially fake news". The Chinese government has often accused Western news organizations of being biased and dishonest.NEWS,weblink China's Response to Reports of Torture: 'Fake News', Hernández, Javier C., March 3, 2017, The New York Times, May 7, 2017, The Chinese government also claimed that there are people who pose as journalists that spread negative information on social media in order to extort payment from their victims to stop doing so. David Bandurski of University of Hong Kong's China Media Project has said that this issue has continued to worsen.NEWS, March 28, 2014,weblink China's Big Problem With 'Fake News', The Wall Street Journal China Real Time Report blog, April 28, 2017, Taiwan's leaders, including President Tsai Ing-wen and Premier William Lai, have accused China's troll army of spreading "fake news" via social media to support candidates more sympathetic to Beijing ahead of the 2018 Taiwanese local elections.NEWS, 'Fake news' rattles Taiwan ahead of elections,weblink Al-Jazeera, 23 November 2018, NEWS, Analysis: 'Fake news' fears grip Taiwan ahead of local polls,weblink BBC Monitoring, 21 November 2018, NEWS, Fake news: How China is interfering in Taiwanese democracy and what to do about it,weblink Taiwan News, 23 November 2018,

Colombia

In the fall of 2016, Whatsapp spread fake news that impacted votes critical to Colombian history.WEB,weblink In Colombia, a Whatsapp Campaign against Posverdad, Uribe, Pablo Medina, 2018, Academic Search Premier, One of the lies spreading rapidly through WhatsApp was that Colombian citizens would receive less pension so former guerrilla fighters would get money. The misinformation initially began in a question to whether Whatsapp users approved of the peace accord deal between the national government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) or did not. The peace accord would end 5 decades of war between paramilitary groups (rebel forces) and the Colombian government that resulted in millions of deaths and displaced citizens throughout the country. A powerful influence of votes was the "no" campaign, the "no" campaign was to convince citizens of Colombia to not accept the peace accord because it would be letting the rebel group off "too easily."WEB,weblink Peace in Colombia? Hopes and Fears, Garavito, Tatiana, 2016-01-11, Academic Search Premier, Uribe, former president of Colombia and of the democratico party, led the "no" campaign. Santos, president in 2016 took liberal approaches during his presidency. Santos won a Nobel Peace Prize in 2016 because of his efforts towards a peace accord with rebel forces.WEB,weblink Juan Manuel Santos Calderon, 2019, Academic Search Premier, In addition, Uribe naturally had opposing views than of Santos. Furthermore, other news spread through whatsapp were easily misinterpreted by the public, including that Santo's scheme was to turn Colombia under harsh rule like Cuba and chaos like Venezuela (under Hugo Chavez), though the logistics were never explained. In an interview of Juan Carlos Vélez, the "no" campaign manager, he says their strategy was that "We discovered the viral power of social networks." In addition, the yes campaign also took part in spreading fake news through whatsapp. For instance, a photoshopped image of a democratico senator Everth Bustamante spread about of him holding a sign reading "I don't want guirrellas in congress" to show hypocrisy. This would be seen as hypocritical because he was a former left wing M-19 guierrilla. The "no" campaign strongly influenced votes throughout Colombia, Yes votes strong in areas with highest number of victims and no votes in areas influenced by Uribe. In result, there were 50.2 percent of no votes compared to 49.8 percent of yes votes. The result of the fake news throughout Whatsapp included changes within WhatsApp by Journalist, Juanita Leon, who invented the Whatsapp "lie detector" in January 2017 to fight fake news within the app. Although the accord was eventually signed, the WhatsApp incident further prolonged the accord and brought controversial views among citizens.

Czech Republic

{{See also|Centre Against Terrorism and Hybrid Threats}}Fake news outlets in the Czech Republic redistribute news in Czech and English originally produced by Russian sources. Czech president Miloš Zeman has been supporting media outlets accused of spreading fake news.NEWS,weblink Business booming in Czech fake news industry, July 31, 2017, en, The Centre Against Terrorism and Hybrid Threats (CTHH) is unit of the Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic primarily aimed at countering disinformation, fake news, hoaxes and foreign propaganda. The CTHH started operations on January 1, 2017. The CTHH has been criticized by Czech President Miloš Zeman, who said: "We don't need censorship. We don't need thought police. We don't need a new agency for press and information as long as we want to live in a free and democratic society.""Czech Republic open centre to fight fake news". Sky News. January 2, 2017.In 2017 media activists started a website Konspiratori.cz maintaining a list of conspiracy and fake news outlets in Czech.WEB,weblink konspiratori.sk, info@uspech.sk, NetSuccess, s. r. o., konspiratori.sk, July 31, 2017,

Finland

Officials from 11 countries met in Helsinki in November 2016 and planned the formation of a center to combat disinformation cyber-warfare, which includes the spread of fake news on social media. The center is planned to be located in Helsinki and combine efforts from 10 countries, including Sweden, Germany, Finland, and the U.S. Prime Minister of Finland Juha Sipilä planned to address the topic of the center in Spring 2017 with a motion before Parliament.Deputy Secretary of State for EU Affairs Jori Arvonen said cyber-warfare, such as hybrid cyber-warfare intrusions into Finland from Russia and the Islamic State, became an increased problem in 2016. Arvonen cited examples including online fake news, disinformation, and the little green men troops of the Ukrainian crisis."Helsinki to host hub aimed at curbing cyber warfare threats", Yle, November 21, 2016, retrieved December 11, 2016.

France

During the 10-year period preceding 2016, France was witness to an increase in popularity of far-right alternative news sources called the fachosphere ("facho" referring to fascist); known as the {{ill|extreme right on the Internet|fr|Extrême droite sur Internet}}. According to sociologist Antoine Bevort, citing data from Alexa Internet rankings, the most consulted political websites in France in 2016 included Égalité et Réconciliation, {{ill|François Desouche|fr}}, and Les Moutons Enragés.WEB, Bivort, Antoine, October 21, 2016,weblink Les trente sites politiques français ayant le plus d'audience sur le Web, Mediapart, December 11, 2016, NEWS, Bevort,, Antoine, December 1, 2016,weblink "Fake Traffic" ? Quelle fiabilité pour le classement des sites socio-politiques?, fr, Mediapart, December 11, 2016, These sites increased skepticism towards mainstream media from both left and right perspectives.In September 2016, the country faced controversy regarding fake websites providing false information about abortion. The National Assembly moved forward with intentions to ban such fake sites. Laurence Rossignol, women's minister for France, informed parliament though the fake sites look neutral, in actuality their intentions were specifically targeted to give women fake information.

2017 presidential election

France saw an uptick in amounts of disinformation and propaganda, primarily in the midst of election cycles. A study looking at the diffusion of political news during the 2017 presidential election cycle suggests that one in four links shared in social media comes from sources that actively contest traditional media narratives.WEB,weblink The Role and Impact of Non-Traditional Publishers in the French Elections 2017, Bakamo Social, April 20, 2017, Facebook corporate deleted 30,000 Facebook accounts in France associated with fake political information.WEB, Farand, C, April 22, 2017, French social media awash with fake news stories from sources 'exposed to Russian influence' ahead of presidential election,weblink In April 2017, Emmanuel Macron's presidential campaign was attacked by the fake news articles more than the campaigns of conservative candidate Marine Le Pen and socialist candidate .WEB, Toor, A., April 21, 2017, France has a fake news problem, but it's not as bad as the US,weblink One of the fake articles even announced that Marine Le Pen won the presidency before the people of France had even voted. Macron's professional and private emails, as well as memos, contracts and accounting documents were posted on a file sharing website. The leaked documents were mixed with fake ones in social media in an attempt to sway the upcoming presidential election.NEWS,weblink Macron Hacking Attack: What We Know and Don't Know, Morenne, Benoît, May 6, 2017, The New York Times, May 10, 2017, The campaign said that all of the stolen documents were 'legal' and 'authentic' but that fake ones had been added to 'sow doubt and disinformation'., Macron said he would combat fake news of the sort that had been spread during his election campaign.WEB, Romm, T., May 7, 2017, A 'fake news' crackdown could follow Macron's election win in France,weblink Initially, the leak was attributed to APT28, a group tied to Russias GRU military intelligence directorate.NEWS,weblink Macron email leak 'linked to same Russian-backed hackers who attacked Clinton', May 6, 2017, The Independent, May 10, 2017, However, the head of the French cyber-security agency, ANSSI, later said that there was no evidence that the hack leading to the leaks had anything to do with Russia, saying that the attack was so simple, that "we can imagine that it was a person who did this alone. They could be in any country."NEWS,weblink No evidence of Russia behind Macron leaks: report, The Hill, June 1, 2017, en,

Germany

German Chancellor Angela Merkel lamented the problem of fraudulent news reports in a November 2016 speech, days after announcing her campaign for a fourth term as leader of her country. In a speech to the German parliament, Merkel was critical of such fake sites, saying they harmed political discussion. Merkel called attention to the need of government to deal with Internet trolls, bots, and fake news websites. She warned that such fraudulent news websites were a force increasing the power of populist extremism. Merkel called fraudulent news a growing phenomenon that might need to be regulated in the future. Germany's foreign intelligence agency Federal Intelligence Service Chief, Bruno Kahl, warned of the potential for cyberattacks by Russia in the 2017 German election. He said the cyberattacks would take the form of the intentional spread of disinformation. Kahl said the goal is to increase chaos in political debates. Germany's domestic intelligence agency Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution Chief, Hans-Georg Maassen, said sabotage by Russian intelligence was a present threat to German information security.Murdock, Jason (November 30, 2016), "Russian hackers may disrupt Germany's 2017 election warns spy chief", International Business Times UK edition, retrieved December 1, 2016. German government officials and security experts later said there was no Russian interference during the 2017 German federal election."Germany sees no sign of cyber attack before Sept. 24 election". Reuters. 19 September 2017. The German term Lügenpresse, or lying press, has been used since the 19th century and specifically during World War One as a strategy to attack news spread by political opponents from the 19th and 20th century.WEB, Kirschbaum, Erik, Revived Nazi-era term 'Luegenpresse' is German non-word of year,weblink Reuters, Reuters, 19 February 2019, The award-winning German journalist Claas Relotius resigned from Der Spiegel in 2018 after admitting numerous instances of journalistic fraud.NEWS, Award-winning journalist at Der Spiegel admits making up stories including interview with Colin Kaepernick's parents,weblink The Independent, 20 December 2018,

India

Fake news in India has led to episodes of violence between castes and religions, interfering with public policies. It often spreads through the smartphone instant messenger Whatsapp,WEB, Doshi, Vidhi, India's millions of new Internet users are falling for fake news — sometimes with deadly consequences,weblink Washington Post, December 30, 2017, October 1, 2017, which had 200 million monthly active users in the country {{as of|2017|February|lc=y}}.WEB, Singh, Manish, WhatsApp hits 200 million active users in India,weblink Mashable, December 30, 2017, en, On November 8, 2016, India established a 2,000-rupee currency bill on the same day as the Indian 500 and 1,000 rupee note demonetisation. Fake news went viral over Whatsapp that the note came equipped with spying technology that tracked bills 120 meters below the earth. Finance Minister Arun Jaitley refuted the falsities, but not before they had spread to the country's mainstream news outlets."Arun Jaitley dismisses rumours of nano GPS chip on Rs 2000. But data show as many as cash fish catches have been done they had huge bundles of new currency note". Zee News. November 9, 2016. Later, in May 2017, seven people were lynched as rumor of child abductions spread through WhatsApp in a village.Prabhakar Kumar of the Indian media research agency CMS, told The Guardian that India was hit harder by fake news because the country lacked media policy for verification. Law enforcement officers in India arrested individuals with charges of creating fictitious articles, predominantly if there was likelihood the articles inflamed societal conflict.In April 2018, the Information and Broadcasting Ministry said the government would cancel the accreditation of journalists found to be sharing fake news, but this was quickly retracted after criticism that this was an attack on freedom of the press.WEB,weblink India drops plan to punish journalists for 'fake news' following..., Manoj, Kumar, June 27, 2018, In June 2018, mobs murdered a governmental employee, Sukanta Chakraborty, who was fighting against false news and rumours, and two other unrelated people. More people were severely injured. The local government temporarily shut down mobile Internet and texting services.NEWS,weblink Child-Lifting Rumours Reach Tripura, 2 Lynched Within 24 Hours Despite Govt Warnings, Internet Suspended, outlookindia.com/, 2018-06-30, To tackle the menace of fake news in Kashmir, Amir Ali Shah, a youth from south Kashmir' Anantnag district has developed a website called "Stop Fake in Kashmir" where news and facts can be verified. The website is the first of its kind developed in the Kashmir valley.WEB,weblink Youth from Anantnag creates website to check fake news, November 29, 2018,

Indonesia

Recently, Indonesia has seen an increase in the amount of fake news circulating social media. The problem first arose during their 2014 presidential election, where candidate Jokowi became a target of a smear campaign which falsely claimed he was the child of Indonesian Communist Party members, of Chinese descent, and a Christian.WEB, Kwok, Yenni, Where Memes Could Kill: Indonesia's Worsening Problem of Fake News,weblink Time.com, June 2, 2017, Unlike the 2016 U.S. presidential election, where the sharing of fake news resulted in increased social-media engagement than real news, inflaming ethnic and political tensions could be potentially deadly in Indonesia, with its recent incidences of domestic terrorism, and its long and bloody history of anticommunist, anti-Christian and anti-Chinese pogroms. The government, watchdog groups, and even religious organizations have taken steps to prevent its spreading, such as blocking certain websites and creating fact-check apps. The largest Islamic mass organization in Indonesia, Nahdlatul Ulama, has created an anti-fake news campaign called #TurnBackHoax, while other Islamic groups have defined such propagation as tantamount to a sin. While the government currently views criminal punishment as its last resort, officials are working hard to guarantee law enforcement will respect the freedom of expression.

Israel/Palestinian Territories

{{see also|Pallywood}}In 1996, people had been killed in the Western Wall Tunnel riots in reaction to fake news accounts.WEB,weblink This Week in History: Violence in the Old City as new tunnel opens, An Egyptian newspaper reported on Israeli spy sharks trained to eat Arab bathers in the Red Sea, an example of an Israel-related animal conspiracy theory.WEB,weblink Shark 'sent to Egypt by Mossad', Nick, Collins, December 7, 2010, Telegraph.co.uk, The Israeli state has been accused of spreading propaganda in the USA.WEB,weblink How Israel's Media Propaganda Dominates the American Mind, Jensen, Robert, March 25, 2016, AlterNet, September 14, 2017, In April 2018, Palestinian-Israeli football team Bnei Sakhnin threatened to sue Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu for libel, after he claimed fans booed during a minute of silence for Israeli flash-flood victims.In a social media post, Netanyahu blasted various Israeli news critical of him, as fake news including Channel 2, Channel 10, Haaretz and Ynet the same day US President Trump decried "fake news".The Palestinian Islamist political organization, Hamas published a political program in 2017 intended to ease its position on Israel. Among other things, this charter accepted the borders of the Palestinian state circa the Six-Day War of 1967.NEWS,weblink Hamas says it accepts '67 borders, but doesn't recognize Israel, Dewan, Angela, May 5, 2017, CNN, November 10, 2017, Although this document is an advancement from their previous 1988 charter, which called for the destruction of the State of ‘’’Israel’’’, it still does not recognize Israel as legitimate independent nation. In a video, Prime Minister of Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu responded to the coverage of this event by news outlets such as Al Jazeera, CNN, New York Times and The Guardian, calling their reporting fake news.NEWS,weblink Netanyahu Calls CNN, New York Times, Other Outlets 'Fake News', Crowe, Joe, May 8, 2017, Newsmax, November 10, 2017, He specifically disagreed with the notion that Hamas had accepted the state of Israel within their new charter, and called this "a complete distortion of the truth.” Instead he said, “The new Hamas document says Israel has no right to exist.” In a later speech, addressed to his supporters, Netanyahu responded to allegations against him: “The fake news industry is at its peak... Look, for example, how they cover with unlimited enthusiasm, every week, the left-wing demonstration. The same demonstrations whose goal is to apply improper pressure on law enforcement authorities so they will file an indictment at any price.” Observers likened his blanketed use of the term, ‘fake news’, for describing left-wing media to Donald Trump, and his similar statements during the 2016 election cycle.NEWS,weblink Echoing Trump, a defiant Netanyahu attacks ‘fake news’ as investigations heat up, Morris, Loveday, August 13, 2017, The Washington Post, November 10, 2017, In a most recent studies conducted by Yifat Media Check Ltd. and Hamashrokit (“The Whistle” fact-checking NGO), they found that over 70% of statements made by Israeli political leaders were not accurate.JOURNAL, Netanyahu Is Israel's Fake News Champion, Studies Find, November 18, 2018, 10.1037/e489132006-001,

Malaysia

In April 2018, Malaysia implemented the Anti-Fake News Bill 2018, a controversial law that deemed publishing and circulating misleading information as a crime punishable by up to six years in prison and/or fines of up to 500,000 ringit.NEWS,weblink As Malaysia Moves to Ban ‘Fake News,’ Worries About Who Decides the Truth, 2018-05-30, en, At implementation, the country's prime minister was Najib Razak, whose associates were connected to the mishandling of at least $3.5 billion by a United States Department of Justice report.NEWS,weblink Justice Dept. Rejects Account of How Malaysia’s Leader Acquired Millions, 2018-05-30, en, Of that sum of money, $731 million was deposited into bank accounts controlled by Razak. The convergence between the fake news law and Razak's connection to scandal was made clear by the Malaysian minister of communications and multimedia, Salleh Said Keruak, who said that tying Razak to a specific dollar amount could be a prosecutable offense.NEWS,weblink As Malaysia Moves to Ban ‘Fake News,’ Worries About Who Decides the Truth, 2018-04-02, The New York Times, 2018-05-30, en-US, 0362-4331, In the 2018 Malaysian general election, Najib Razak lost his seat as prime minister to Mahatir Mohammad, who vowed to abolish the fake news law in his campaign, as the law was used to target him.NEWS,weblink Malaysia to review not revoke fake news law, 2018-05-14, BBC News, 2018-05-30, en-GB, NEWS,weblink Malaysia's fake-news law is here to stay, new PM says, 2018-05-13, CNET, 2018-05-30, en, After winning the election, the newly elected prime minister Mohammad has said, “Even though we support freedom of press and freedom of speech, there are limits." {{as of|2018|May}}, Mohammad has supported amending the law, rather than a full abolition.Paul Bernal, a lecturer in information and technology, fears that the fake news epidemic is a “Trojan horse” for countries like Malaysia to “control uncomfortable stories.” WEB,weblink Fake news laws are threatening free speech on a global scale, Priday, Richard, April 5, 2018, Wired, 30 May 2018, The vagueness of this law means that satirists, opinion writers, and journalists who make errors could face persecution. The law also makes it illegal to share fake news stories. In one instance, a Danish man and Malaysian citizen were arrested for posting false news stories online and were sentenced to serve a month in jail.WEB,weblink Danish Man is First Person Sentenced Under Malaysia's Anti-Fake-News Law, Domonoske, Kamila, April 30, 2018, NPR, 30 May 2018,

Mexico

{{empty section|date=July 2018}}

Myanmar

In 2015, BBC News reported on fake stories, using unrelated photographs and fraudulent captions, shared online in support of the Rohingya."The fake pictures of the Rohingya crisis", BBC News, June 6, 2015, retrieved December 8, 2016. Fake news negatively affected individuals in Myanmar, leading to a rise in violence against Muslims in the country. Online participation surged from one percent to 20 percent of Myanmar's total populace from 2014 to 2016. Fake stories from Facebook were reprinted in paper periodicals called Facebook and The Internet. False reporting related to practitioners of Islam in the country was directly correlated with increased attacks on Muslims in Myanmar. BuzzFeed journalist Sheera Frenkel reported fake news fictitiously stated believers in Islam acted out in violence at Buddhist locations. She documented a direct relationship between the fake news and violence against Muslim people. Frenkel noted countries that were relatively newer to Internet exposure were more vulnerable to the problems of fake news and fraud.

Netherlands

In March 2018, the European Union’s East StratCom Team compiled a list dubbed a “hall of shame” of articles with suspected Kremlin attempts to influence political decisions.NEWS,weblink Europe wants to crack down on fake news. But one person’s fake news is another’s democratic dissent., Birnbaum, Michael, 2018-04-25, Washington Post, 2018-05-30, en-US, 0190-8286, However, controversy arose when three Dutch media outlets claimed they had been wrongfully singled out because of quotes attributed to people with non-mainstream views. The news outlets included (:nl:ThePostOnline|[1)]Post Online, GeenStijl, and De Gelderlander. All three were flagged for publishing articles critical of Ukrainian policies, and none received any forewarning or opportunity to appeal beforehand. This incident has contributed to the growing issue of what defines news as fake, and how freedoms of press and speech can be protected during attempts to curb to spread of false news.

Pakistan

Khawaja Muhammad Asif, the Minister of Defence of Pakistan, threatened to nuke Israel on Twitter after a false story claiming that Avigdor Lieberman, the Israeli Ministry of Defense, said "If Pakistan send ground troops into Syria on any pretext, we will destroy this country with a nuclear attack."Goldman, Russell (December 24, 2016). "Reading Fake News, Pakistani Minister Directs Nuclear Threat at Israel". The New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2016.Politi, Daniel (December 26, 2016). "A Fake News Story Leads Pakistani Minister to Issue Nuclear Threat Against Israel". Slate. Retrieved December 29, 2016.

Philippines

{{see also|List of fake news websites#For Philippine audiences}}Fake news has been problematic in the Philippines where social media has played a much greater role in political influence. Following the 2016 Philippine election, Senator Francis Pangilinan filed that there be an inquiry of conduct of social media platforms that allowed for the spreading of fake news.WEB, Javier, Kristian, Pangilinan Wants Facebook Penalized over Fake News,weblink philstar.com, June 2, 2017, Pangilinan called for penalties for social media platforms that provided the public with false information about his ideas. The news that came out was meant to discredit the opposing party and used social media as an outlet to bring propaganda into the mainstream media.WEB, Javier, Kristian, LP: Social Media Being Used to Legitimize 'fake News',weblink philstar.com, June 2, 2017, According to media analysts, developing countries such as the Philippines, with the generally new access to social media and democracy, feel the problem of fake news to a larger extent.WEB, Mozur, Paul, Scott, Mark, Fake News in U.S. Election? Elsewhere, That's Nothing New,weblink The New York Times, June 2, 2017, Facebook is one of the largest platforms being an open website, that works as a booster to sway the opinion of the public due to manufactured stories. While Facebook provides free media sources, it does not provide its users with the access to fact checking websites.NEWS,weblink Fake News in U.S. Election? Elsewhere, That's Nothing New, Mozur, Paul, November 17, 2016, The New York Times, June 29, 2017, Scott, Mark, en-US, 0362-4331, Because of this, government authorities call for a tool that will filter out "fake news" to secure the integrity of cyberspace in the Philippines. Rappler, a social news network in the Philippines, investigated online networks of Rodrigo Duterte supporters and discovered that they include fake news, fake accounts, bots and trolls, which Rappler thinks are being used to silence dissent. The creation of fake news, and fake news accounts on social media has been a danger to the political health of the country. According to Kate Lamble and Megha Mohan of BBC news, "What we're seeing on social media again is manufactured reality... They also create a very real chilling effect against normal people, against journalists (who) are the first targets, and they attack in very personal ways with death threats and rape threats." Journalists are often risking their lives in publishing articles that contest fake news in the Philippines.WEB, BBC, Trolls and triumph: a digital battle in the Philippines,weblink bbc.com, June 2, 2017, The 2016 Filipino election was influenced, in large part, by false information propagated by fake news outlets. By New York Times contributor Miguel Syjuco's account, President Rodrigo Duterte benefited from a disproportionate amount of complimentary fake news compared to his opponents. The pro-Duterte propaganda spread across Filipino social media include fake endorsements from prominent public figures like Pope Francis and Angela Merkel.WEB,weblink Fake News Floods the Philippines, Syjuco, Miguel, October 2017, The New York Times, Duterte's own campaign was responsible for a portion of the misinformation spread during the election; according to a study from Oxford University's Computational Propaganda Research Program, Duterte's campaign paid an estimated $200,000 for dedicated trolls to undermine dissenters and disseminate misinformation in 2016.JOURNAL, Bradshaw, Samantha, Howard, Philip N., Winter 2017, Troops, Trolls, and Trouble Makers: A Global Inventory of Organized Social Media Manipulation,weblink Oxford Computational Propaganda Research Project, 21, Oxford University, An incident was the accusation made by Justice Secretary Vitaliano Aguirre II regarding 2017 Marawi Crisis in which he tagged various opposition senators and other people as masterminds of the attack based on a photo shared through social media and other blog sites which produces fake news.WEB,weblink Did Justice Secretary Aguirre fall for fake news?, Ramos, Marlon, newsinfo.inquirer.net, en, June 29, 2017, Another government official, Communications Assistant Secretary Margaux "Mocha" Uson has been accused of spreading fake news.WEB,weblink Trillanes sues Uson for spreading 'news' on alleged bank accounts, ABS-CBN, News, WEB,weblink Asec Mocha Uson herself spreads fake news, says Nancy Binay, The prevalence of fake news in the Philippines have pushed lawmakers to file laws to combat it, like criminalizing its dissemination.NEWS, Santos, Eimor, Bill filed vs. fake news: Up to ₱10M fine, 10-year jail time for erring public officials,weblink CNN Philippines, June 22, 2017, NEWS, Elemia, Camille, Senate bill seeks jail time for gov't officials spreading fake news,weblink CNN Philippines, June 22, 2017, The Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines strongly opposes the spread of fake news as a sin, and published a list of fake news websites.NEWS, Bajo, Anna Felicia, CBCP calls on faithful to help stop the spread of fake news,weblink GMA News and Public Affairs, GMA News, June 23, 2017, June 28, 2017, NEWS, Bondoc, Marlly Rome, CBCP releases list of fake news sites,weblink GMA News and Public Affairs, GMA News, June 27, 2017, June 28, 2017,

Poland

Polish historian {{ill|Jerzy Targalski|pl|Jerzy Targalski (ur. 1952)}} noted fake news websites had infiltrated Poland through anti-establishment and right-wing sources that copied content from Russia Today. Targalski observed there existed about 20 specific fake news websites in Poland that spread Russian disinformation in the form of fake news. One example cited was fake news that Ukraine announced the Polish city of Przemyśl as occupied Polish land."Russian propaganda entering mainstream news: disinformation experts", Radio Poland, November 18, 2016, retrieved December 11, 2016.Poland's anti-EU Law and Justice (PiS) government has been accused of spreading "illiberal disinformation" to undermine public confidence in the European Union."The Real Russian Threat to Central Eastern Europe". Foreign Policy. March 30, 2017. Maria Snegovaya of Columbia University said: "The true origins of this phenomenon are local. The policies of Fidesz and Law and Justice have a lot in common with Putin's own policies."Some mainstream outlets were long accused of fabricating half-true or outright false information. One of popular TV stations, TVN, in 2010 attributed to Jarosław Kaczyński (then an opposition leader) words that "there will be times, when true Poles will come to the power"."Komentarze PiS: Niech TVN nas przeprosi" However, Kaczyński has never uttered those words in the commented speech.

Russia

In March 2019, Russia passed a new bill to ban websites from spreading false information.WEB,weblink Russia bans fake news: A lesson in unintended consequences, April 30, Rev Ben Johnson •, 2019, 2019-04-30, Acton Institute PowerBlog, en-US, 2019-04-30, In addition to tackling fake news, the new legislation specifically punishes any sources or websites for publishing materials that insult the state, the symbol of the government or other political figures.WEB,weblink Russia passes legislation banning state criticism, fake news, www.aljazeera.com, 2019-04-30, For repeated offenders, they would receive a 15-day jail sentence.

Saudi Arabia

According to the Global News, Saudi Arabia's state-owned television spread fake news about Canada. In August 2018, Canada's Global News reported that state-owned television Al Arabiya, "has suggested that Canada is the worst country in the world for women, that it has the highest suicide rate and that it treats its Indigenous people the way Myanmar treats the Rohingya – a Muslim minority massacred and driven out of Myanmar en masse last year."NEWS, Here’s the fake news Saudi Arabia is playing about Canada,weblink Global News, 15 August 2018, In October 2018, Twitter has suspended a number of bot accounts that appeared to be spreading pro-Saudi rhetoric about the disappearance of Saudi opposition journalist Jamal Khashoggi.NEWS, Twitter pulls down bot network that pushed pro-Saudi talking points about disappeared journalist,weblink NBC News, 19 October 2018, NEWS, Twitter removes network of pro-Saudi bots,weblink CEO Magazine, 19 October 2018, According to Newsweek, Saudi Arabia's Office of Public Prosecution tweeted that "producing rumors or fake news [that Saudi Arabia's government was involved in the disappearance of Khashoggi] that would affect the public order or public security or sending or resending it via social media or any technical means" is punishable "by five years and a fine of 3 million riyals".NEWS, Saudi Arabia Warns Those Who Spread 'Fake News' Will Be Jailed, Fined, Amid Rumors It Had Journalist Killed,weblink Newsweek, 15 October 2018, Iranian-backed Twitter accounts spread sensational fake news and rumours about Saudi Arabia.NEWS, Iranian-backed pages spread fake news of a Saudi coup,weblink The National, 18 October 2018,

Singapore

Singapore criminalizes the propagation of fake news. Under existing law, "Any person who transmits or causes to be transmitted a message which he knows to be false or fabricated shall be guilty of an offense".s.45, Telecommunications Act (Cap. 323), retrieved from weblink on June 20, 2017On 18 March 2015, a doctored screenshot of Prime Minister's Office website claiming the demise of the Lee Kuan Yew went viral, and several international news agencies such as CNN and China Central Television initially reported it as news, until corrected by the Prime Minister's Office. The image was created by a student to demonstrate to his classmates how fake news could be easily created and propagated.NEWS,weblink Student who posted fake PMO announcement on Mr Lee Kuan Yew's death given stern warning, migration, April 7, 2015, The Straits Times, June 29, 2017, en, In 2017, Singaporean news website Mothership.sg was criticized by the Ministry of Education (MOE) for propagating remarks falsely attributed to a MOE official.WEB,weblink Ministry of Education raps Mothership for 'fake news' on official's comments, In addition, Minister of Law K Shanmugam also singled out online news website The States Times Review as an example of a source of fake news, as it once claimed a near-zero turnout at the state funeral of President S. R. Nathan.WEB,weblink Shanmugam pinpoints States Times Review as fake news; States Times Review responds scathingly, April 4, 2017, Coconuts, Following these incidents, Shanmugam stated that the existing legalization is limited and ineffectiveAu-Yong, Rachel (April 4, 2017). "Fake news: Current laws 'offer limited remedies{{'"}}. The Straits Times. Retrieved April 28, 2017. and indicated that the government intends to introduce legislation to combat fake news in 2018.NEWS,weblink New laws on fake news to be introduced next year: Shanmugam, Channel NewsAsia, June 29, 2017, en-US, In 2017, the Ministry of Communications and Information set up Factually, a website intended to debunk false rumors regarding issues of public interest such as the environment, housing and transport,WEB,weblink Factually website clarifies 'widespread' falsehoods, hermes, March 2, 2017, while in 2018, the Parliament of Singapore formed a Select Committee to consider new legislation to tackle fake news.WEB,weblink Select Committee formed to study deliberate online falsehoods, Furthermore, the Singapore government has introduced draft legislation with regards to Fake News in April 2019, which is called the Protection From Online Falsehoods and Manipulation Bill.WEB,weblink Protection from Online Falsehoods and Manipulation Bill - Singapore Statutes Online, sso.agc.gov.sg, en, 2019-04-30, This legislation is intended to regulate websites that spread misinformation, and combat fake news. In addition, this bill is supported by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong’s People’s Action Party, which has a super majority in Parliament.WEB,weblink Bloomberg - Are you a robot?, www.bloomberg.com, 2019-04-30, However, critics also point out that this bill could introduce government’s self censorship and increase government’s control over social media.NEWS,weblink Singapore to introduce anti-fake news law, allowing removal of articles, Fullerton, Jamie, 2019-04-01, The Guardian, 2019-04-30, en-GB, 0261-3077, Activist platform The Online Citizen regarded legislation against fake news as an attempt by the government to curb the free flow of information so that only information approved by the government is disseminated to the public.WEB,weblink Fake news: Who decides what is real and what is fake?, September 11, 2017, In an online essay, activist and historian Thum Ping Tjin denied that fake news was a problem in Singapore, and accused the People's Action Party government as the only major source of fake news, claiming that detentions made without trial during Operation Coldstore and Operation Spectrum were based on fake news for party political gain.WEB,weblink SG academic at Oxford: Major "fake news" spreader is Govt – need to educate SGs to be more critical in thinking, February 27, 2018, Facebook and Google have opposed the introduction of new laws to combat fake news, claiming that existing legislation is adequate to address the problem and that an effective way of combating misinformation is through educating citizens on how to distinguish reliable from unreliable information.WEB,weblink Facebook, Google warn Singapore against 'fake news' law, April 24, 2018,

South Africa

A wide range of South African media sources have reported fake news as a growing problem and tool to both increase distrust in the media, discredit political opponents, and divert attention from corruption.Daniels, Glenda (February 15, 2017). "How fake news works as political machinery to tarnish the integrity of journalists". The Mail and Guardian. Retrieved February 27, 2017. Media outlets owned by the Gupta family have been noted by other South African media organisations such as The Huffington Post (South Africa), Sunday Times, Radio 702, and City Press for targeting them.Herman, Paul (February 2, 2017). "'Zuma is one big fake news site' – Pityana". News24. Retrieved February 27, 2017. Individuals targeted include Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan who was seen as blocking Gupta attempts at state capture with accusations levelled against Gordhan of promoting state capture for "white monopoly capital".Ngoepe, Karabo (January 23, 2017). "Fake News – 'It's shifting the political narrative'". Huffington Post South Africa. Retrieved January 29, 2017.Roux, Jean (January 23, 2017). "Hidden hand drives social media smears". Mail and Guardian. Retrieved January 29, 2017.The African National Congress (ANC) was taken to court by Sihle Bolani for unpaid work she did during the election on the ANC's behalf. In court papers Bolani stated that the ANC used her to launch and run a covert R50 million fake news and disinformation campaign during the 2016 municipal elections with the intention of discrediting opposition parties.WEB,weblink Inside the ANC's "black ops" election campaign, Amabhungane.co.za, en, January 29, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170128175330weblink">weblink January 28, 2017, yes, mdy-all, WEB,weblink ANC spent millions on dirty tricks: Cope, January 26, 2017, enca.com, Africa News Agency, en, January 29, 2017, NEWS,weblink It's fake news, says Shaka Sisulu of ANC election accusations, January 24, 2017, Mail and Guardian, en, January 29, 2017,

South Korea

South Korean journalists and media experts lament political hostility between Korea's which distorts Media coverage of North KoreaWEB,weblink S.Korean journalists lament low-quality N. Korea reporting – NK News – North Korea News, August 10, 2015, and North Korea has attributed erroneous reporting to South Korea and United States with being critical to media organization Chosun IlboWEB,weblink On Firewood, Fuel, Fake News — North Korea, a Source of Urban Legends, while also American journalist Barbara Demick had made similar criticisms on media coverage of North.On November 27, 2018, prosecutors raided the house of Gyeonggi Province governor Lee Jae-myung amid suspicions that his wife used a pseudonymous Twitter handle to spread fake news about President Moon Jae-in and other political rivals of her husband.WEB,weblink Prosecutors raid Gyeonggi governor's home, office to search for criminal evidence, The Korea, Herald, November 27, 2018, November 29, 2018, WEB,weblink Gyeonggi Governor's House Raided in Fake News Scandal, November 29, 2018,

Spain

Fake news in Spain has become much more prevalent in the 2010s, but has been prominent throughout Spain's history. The United States government published a fake article in regards to the purchase of the Philippines from Spain, which they had already purchased.WEB,weblink Fake news also hounded 1896 Philippine revolution, Cabreza, Vincent, newsinfo.inquirer.net, en, June 5, 2017, Despite this, the topic of fake news has traditionally not been given much attention to in Spain, until the newspaper El País launched the new blog dedicated strictly to truthful news entitled "Hechos"; which literally translates to "fact" in Spanish. David Alandete, the managing editor of El País, stated how many people misinterpret fake news as real because the sites "have similar names, typography, layouts and are deliberately confusing" (Southern).NEWS,weblink How Spanish newspaper El Pais is tackling fake news, January 30, 2017, Digiday, June 5, 2017, en-US, Alandete made it the new mission of El País "to respond to fake news" (Scott).NEWS,weblink Europe Combats a New Foe of Political Stability: Fake News, Scott, Mark, February 20, 2017, The New York Times, June 5, 2017, Eddy, Melissa, en-US, 0362-4331, María Ramírez of Univision Communications has stated that much of the political fake news circulating in Spain is due to the lack of investigative journalism on the topics. Most recently El País has created a fact-checking position for five employees, to try and debunk the fake news released.

Sweden

The Swedish Security Service issued a report in 2015 identifying propaganda from Russia infiltrating Sweden with the objective to amplify pro-Russian propaganda and inflame societal conflicts. The Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB), part of the Ministry of Defence of Sweden, identified fake news reports targeting Sweden in 2016 that originated from Russia. Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency official Mikael Tofvesson stated a pattern emerged where views critical of Sweden were constantly repeated. The Local identified these tactics as a form of psychological warfare. The newspaper reported the MSB identified Russia Today and Sputnik News as significant fake news purveyors. As a result of growth in this propaganda in Sweden, the MSB planned to hire six additional security officials to fight back against the campaign of fraudulent information."Concern over barrage of fake Russian news in Sweden", The Local, July 27, 2016, retrieved November 25, 2016.According to the Oxford Internet Institute, eight of the top 10 “junk news” sources during the 2018 Swedish general election campaign were Swedish, and “Russian sources comprised less than 1% of the total number of URLs shared in the data sample.”NEWS, Fake News Takes Its Toll on Sweden’s Elections,weblink Bloomberg, 15 November 2018,

Syria

In February 2017, Amnesty International reported that up to 13,000 people had been hanged in a Syrian prison as part of an “extermination” campaign. Syrian president Bashar al-Assad questioned the credibility of Amnesty International and called the report "fake news" fabricated to undermine the government. "You can forge anything these days – we are living in a fake news era.”WEB, Farland, Chloe, Reports Syrian regime hanged 13,000 prisoners branded 'fake news' by Bashar al-Assad,weblink Independent, January 17, 2018, Russia ran a disinformation campaign during the Syrian Civil War to discredit the humanitarian rescue organisation White Helmets, and to discredit reports and images of children and other civilian bombing victims. This was done to weaken criticism of Russia's involvement in the war.WEB, Ellis, Emma, Inside the Conspiracy Theory That Turned Syria's First Responders Into Terrorists,weblink Wired (magazine), Wired, 19 October 2018, The United Nations and international chemical inspectors found Bashar al-Assad responsible for use of chemical weapons,NEWS,weblink UN: Syria responsible for sarin attack that killed scores, CNN, Steve Almasy and Richard Roth,, CNN, 12 June 2018,weblink 12 June 2018, no, which was called "fake news" by Russia. Russia promoted various contradictory claims that no chemicals were present, or attributing the chemical attacks to other countries or groups.NEWS, Russia dismisses allegations of Syria chemical attack as "fake news",weblink 22 October 2018, CBS News, April 10, 2018, en, NEWS, US says Syria did use chemical weapons to kill civilians, Russia claims UK helped 'fake' attack,weblink 22 October 2018, ABC News, 13 April 2018, en-AU, WEB, Nahas, Noor, Russia Ramps Up Chemical Weapon Disinformation Leading-Up to Idlib Offensive - bellingcat,weblink Bellingcat, 22 October 2018, 30 August 2018, NEWS, Lybrand, Holmes, Birth of a Counternarrative,weblink 22 October 2018, The Weekly Standard, 11 May 2018, en, WEB, Nimmo, Ben, #PutinAtWar: Far Right Converges on "False Flag" in Syria,weblink StopFake.org, 22 October 2018, 10 April 2018,

Taiwan

In a report in December 2015 by The China Post, a fake video shared online showed people a light show purportedly made at the Shihmen Reservoir. The Northern Region Water Resources Office confirmed there was no light show at the reservoir and the event had been fabricated. The fraud led to an increase in tourist visits to the actual attraction.According to the news updated paper from the Time World in regards the global threat to free speech, the Taiwanese government has reformed its policy on education and it will include "media literacy" as one part of school curriculum for the students. It will be included to develop the critical thinking skills needed while using social media. Further, the work of media literacy will also include the skills needed to analyze propaganda and sources, so the student can clarify what is fake news.Smith, N. (2017). ":Taiwan Is Leading the Way in Tackling Fake News". Time. Retrieved April 28, 2017.

Ukraine

Since the Euromaidan and the beginning of the Ukrainian crisis in 2014, the Ukrainian media circulated several fake news stories and misleading images, including a dead rebel photograph with a Photoshop-painted tattoo which allegedly indicated that he belonged to Russian Special Forces,WEB,weblink Ukrainian site Censor.net published edited photo of a Russian soldier, StopFake.org, July 30, 2014, a video game screenshot disguised as a satellite image ostensibly showing the shelling of the Ukrainian border from Russia,WEB,weblink Ukrainians use VIDEO GAME to try and blame Russia for shelling attack, Daily Star, August 14, 2014, and the threat of a Russian nuclear attack against the Ukrainian troops.BOOK,weblink The Return of the Cold War: Ukraine, The West and Russia, J. L. Black, Michael Johns, 2016, Routledge, The recurring theme of these fake news was that Russia was solely to blame for the crisis and the war in Donbass.In 2015 the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe published a report criticizing Russian disinformation campaigns to disrupt relations between Europe and Ukraine after ouster of Viktor Yanukovych. According to Deutsche Welle, similar tactics were used by fake news websites during the US elections. A website, StopFake was created by Ukrainian activists in 2014 to debunk fake news in Ukraine, including media portrayal of the Ukrainian crisis."Fake news: Media's post-truth problem", Deutsche Welle, retrieved November 24, 2016.On May 29, 2018, the Ukrainian media and state officials announced that the Russian journalist Arkady Babchenko was assassinated in his apartment in Kiev. Later, Babchenko appeared to be alive, and the Security Service of Ukraine claimed that the staged assassination was needed to arrest a person who allegedly was planning a real assassination. Alexander Baunov, writing for Carnegie.ru, mentioned that the staged assassination of Babchenko was the first instance of fake news delivered directly by the highest officials of a state.NEWS,weblink ru:Репортеры без берегов. Что принесет Украине спецоперация с Бабченко, Alexander Baunov, 31 May 2018, carnegie.ru, Russian, 31 May 2018,

United Kingdom

{{See also|Fake news website#United Kingdom|l1=Fake news website § United Kingdom}}On December 8, 2016, Chief of the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) Alex Younger delivered a speech to journalists at the MI6 headquarters where he called fake news and propaganda damaging to democracy. Younger said the mission of MI6 was to combat propaganda and fake news in order to deliver to his government a strategic advantage in the information warfare arena, and assist other nations including Europe. He called such methods of fake news propaganda online a "fundamental threat to our sovereignty". Younger said all nations that hold democratic values should feel the same worry over fake news.Waterson, Jim (December 8, 2016), "MI6 Chief Says Fake News And Online Propaganda Are A Threat To Democracy", BuzzFeed, retrieved December 11, 2016.However, definitions of "fake news" have been controversial in the UK, with political satire being seen as a key element of British humour.O'Grady, Sean (February 9, 2017). "The term 'fake news' isn't just annoying, it's a danger to democracy". The Independent. Retrieved March 5, 2017. Members of Parliament in the UK have been advised against using the term "when describing the complexity of information disorder", as the term "fake news" is "woefully inadequate":Neither the words 'fake' nor 'news' effectively capture this polluted information ecosystem. Much of the content used as examples in debates on this topic are not fake, they are genuine but used out of context or manipulated. Similarly, to understand the entire ecosystem of polluted information, we need to consider far more than content that mimics 'news'.NEWS, Hern, Alex, MPs warned against term 'fake news' for first live committee hearing outside UK,weblink 1 August 2018, The Guardian, 7 February 2018, en,

United States

{{See also|Fake news websites in the United States|Media bias in the United States}}Fake news became a global subject and was widely introduced to billions as a prominent issue, especially due to the 2016 U.S. presidential election.NEWS, Leonhardt, David, Thompson, Stuart A., Trump's Lies,weblink New York Times, June 23, 2017, June 23, 2017, NEWS, Qui, Linda, Fact-Checking President Trump Through His First 100 Days,weblink April 27, 2017, New York Times, June 25, 2017, NEWS, Kessler, Glenn, Lee, Michelle Ye Hee, Fact Checker Analysis – President Trump's first 100 days: The fact check tally,weblink May 1, 2017, Washington Post, June 25, 2017, NEWS, Drinkard, Jim, Woodward, Calvin, Fact check: Trump's missions unaccomplished despite his claims,weblink June 24, 2017, Chicago Tribune, June 25, 2017, NEWS,weblink To Fix Fake News, Look To Yellow Journalism, November 29, 2016, JSTOR Daily, January 15, 2017, NEWS, Fake news in 2016: What it is, what it wasn't, how to help, BBC News, November 3, 2016,weblink March 28, 2017, NEWS, 2016: The year of fake news, The Somerville Times, January 11, 2017,weblink March 28, 2017, {{refn|Web searches for the term 'fake news' began to rise during the weeks prior to the election, and then more sharply starting several days after the election.WEB,weblink Google Trends: "fake news", Google Trends, November 23, 2018, }} Numerous political commentators and journalists wrote and stated in media that 2016 was the year of fake news and as a result nothing will ever be the same in politics and cyber security.WEB, 2016 didn't just give us 'fake news'. It likely gave us false memories, Vox (website), Vox, March 22, 2017,weblink March 28, 2017, Due to the increase in fake news in 2016, it became much harder to distinguish what was real and what was fake in 2017. Donald Trump tweeted or retweeted posts about "fake news" or "fake media" 176 times as of Dec. 20, 2017, according to an online archive of all of Trump's tweets.WEB,weblink From Trump to Other Leaders: The Globalization of 'Fake News', Galvin, Gaby,weblink 2017-12-30, yes, Governmental bodies in the U.S. and Europe started looking at contingencies and regulations to combat fake news specially when as part of a coordinated intelligence campaign by hostile foreign governments.NEWS, FBI 'investigating role of Breitbart and other right-wing websites in spreading fake news with bots', The Independent, March 22, 2017,weblink March 28, 2017, NEWS, Russia is targeting French, Dutch and German elections with fake news, EU task force warns, The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, January 24, 2017,weblink March 28, 2017, Online tech giants Facebook and Google started putting in place means to combat fake news in 2016 as a result of the phenomenon becoming globally known.NEWS, Fake news: Facebook and Google team up with French media, BBC News, February 6, 2017,weblink March 28, 2017, MAGAZINE, Reuters, Facebook, Google and Others Launch Drive against Fake News in France, Scientific American, February 6, 2017,weblink March 28, 2017, Google Trends shows that the term "fake news" gained traction in online searches in October 2016.NEWS,weblink Did Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg Coin The Phrase 'Fake News'?, Leetaru, Kalev, Forbes, April 19, 2017, Professor Philip N. Howard of the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford studied web traffic in the United States prior to the election. He found that about one half of all news on Twitter directed at Michigan was junk or fake, and the other half came from actual professional news sources.VIDEO,weblink 60 Minutes: How fake news becomes a popular, trending topic, CBS News, March 26, 2017, March 27, 2017, According to BuzzFeed, during the last three months of the presidential campaign, of the top twenty fake election-related articles on Facebook, seventeen were anti-Clinton or pro-Trump. Facebook users interacted with them more often than with stories from genuine news outlets.Debate over the impact of fake news in the election, and whether or not it significantly impacted the election of the Republican candidate Donald Trump, whom the most shared fake stories favored, led researchers from Stanford to study the impact of fake news shared on social media, where 62% of U.S. adults get their news from. They assessed that 8% of readers of fake news recalled and believed in the content they were reading, though the same share of readers also recalled and believed in "placebos" — stories they did not actually read, but that were produced by the authors of the study. In comparison, over 50% of the participants recalled reading and believed in true news stories. The authors do not assess the final impact of these numbers on the election, but seek to "offer theoretical and empirical background" for the debate.File:Trump on 'fake news' and information leaks.webmhd.webm|thumb|right|(60 Minutes]] producers said President Trump uses the phrase "fake news" to mean something else: "I take offense with what you said.")In the United States in the run-up to the 2016 presidential election, fake news was particularly prevalent and spread rapidly over social media "bots", according to researchers at the Oxford Internet Institute.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Automated Pro-Trump Bots Overwhelmed Pro-Clinton Messages, Researchers Say, John Markoff, November 17, 2016, NEWS,weblink The Daily Beast, How Pro-Trump Twitter Bots Spread Fake News, Gideon Resnick, November 17, 2016, In a speech shortly after the election, former Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton warned of the "real-world consequences" of fake news.NEWS, Borchers, Callum, How Hillary Clinton might have inspired Trump’s ‘fake news’ attacks,weblink February 20, 2018, The Washington Post, January 3, 2017, Shortly thereafter, in the early weeks of his presidency, U.S. President Donald Trump frequently used the term "fake news" to refer to traditional news media, singling out CNN.NEWS,weblink 'Very Fake News': Pres. Trump Questioned on Intel Leaks by CNN's Acosta, February 16, 2017, Fox News, Linguist George Lakoff says this creates confusion about the phrase's meaning.NEWS,weblink With 'Fake News,' Trump Moves From Alternative Facts To Alternative Language, NPR, February 19, 2017, According to CBS 60 Minutes, President Trump may use the term fake news to describe any news, however legitimate or responsible, with which he may disagree.After Republican Colorado State Senator Ray Scott used the term as a reference to a column in the Grand Junction Daily Sentinel, the newspaper's publisher threatened a defamation lawsuit.NEWS,weblink One newspaper in Colorado is standing up to charges of 'fake news', Callum Borchers, February 15, 2017, The Washington Post "The Fix" blog, February 19, 2017, NEWS,weblink When A Politician Says 'Fake News' And A Newspaper Threatens To Sue Back, NPR, February 19, 2017, In December 2016, an armed North Carolina man, Edgar Maddison Welch, traveled to Washington, D.C., and opened fire at the Comet Ping Pong pizzeria, driven by a fake online news story known as the Pizzagate conspiracy theory, which accused the pizzeria of hosting a pedophile ring run by Democratic Party leaders.NEWS,weblink Evidence ridiculously thin for Clinton sex network claim, PolitiFact.com, January 15, 2017, These stories tend to go viral quickly. Social media systems, such as Facebook, play a large role in the broadcasting of fake news. These systems show users content that reflects their interests and history, leading to fake and misleading news. Following a plea agreement with prosecutors, Welch pleaded guilty to the federal charge of interstate transport of firearms and a District of Columbia charge of assault with a dangerous weapon. Welch was sentenced to four years in prison on June 22, 2017 and agreed to pay $5,744.33 for damages to the restaurant.NEWS,weblink 'Pizzagate' Gunman Sentenced To 4 Years in Prison, NPR.org, June 28, 2017, en, A situation study by The New York Times shows how a tweet by a person with no more than 40 followers went viral and was shared 16,000 times on Twitter.NEWS,weblink 'How Fake News Goes Viral', March 23, 2017, The tweet concluded that protesters were paid to be bussed to Trump demonstrations and protest. A Twitter user then posted a photograph of two buses outside a building, claiming that those were the Anti-Trump protesters. The tweet immediately went viral on both Twitter and Facebook. Fake news can easily spread due to the speed and accessibility of modern communications technology.File:19 03 2019 Declaração à imprensa (47423243351).jpg|thumb|During a joint news conference, Trump said he was "very proud" to hear Brazilian President Jair BolsonaroJair BolsonaroA CNN investigation examined exactly how fake news can start to trend.NEWS,weblink 'Very Fake News': Pres. Trump Questioned on Intel Leaks by CNN's Acosta, February 16, 2017, Fox News, There are "bots" used by fake news publishers that make their articles appear more popular than they are. This makes it more likely for people to discover them. "Bots are fake social media accounts that are programmed to automatically 'like' or retweet a particular message."NEWS,weblink Automated Pro-Trump Bots Overwhelmed Pro-Clinton Messages, Researchers Say, November 17, 2016, The New York Times, John Markoff, Fraudulent stories during the 2016 U.S. presidential election included a viral post popularized on Facebook that Pope Francis had endorsed Trump, and another that actor Denzel Washington "backs Trump in the most epic way possible".NEWS, March 29, 2017,weblink Facebook, Google Crack Down on Fake News Advertising, Alyssa Newcomb, NBC News, November 15, 2016, WEB,weblink March 29, 2017, FactCheck.org, Did the Pope Endorse Trump?, Sydney, Schaede, October 24, 2016, Trump's son and campaign surrogate Eric Trump, top national security adviser Michael Flynn, and then-campaign managers Kellyanne Conway and Corey Lewandowski shared fake news stories during the campaign.NEWS, Jake, Tapper, Jake Tapper, CNN, November 17, 2016, Fake news stories thriving on social media – Phony news stories are thriving on social media, so much so President Obama addressed it. CNN's Jake Tapper reports., March 29, 2017,weblink NEWS,weblink Facebook fake-news writer: 'I think Donald Trump is in the White House because of me', Dewey, Caitlin, November 17, 2016, The Washington Post, March 29, 2017, WEB,weblink Mother Jones (magazine), Mother Jones blog, March 29, 2017, Meet Ret. General Michael Flynn, the Most Gullible Guy in the Army, November 17, 2016, Kevin, Drum, WEB,weblink Donald Trump's Son & Campaign Manager Both Tweet Obviously Fake Story, Techdirt, March 29, 2017, Mike, Masnick, Mike Masnick, October 14, 2016, Starting in July 2017, President Trump's 2020 presidential campaign launched Real News Update, an online news program posted on Facebook. The series reports on Trump's accomplishments as president of the United States and claims to highlight "real news" as opposed to alleged "fake news". Lara Trump introduced one video by saying "If you are tired of all the fake news out there...we are going to bring you nothing but the facts" and "I bet you haven't heard about all the accomplishments the president had this week, because there's so much fake news out there".NEWS,weblink Trump's daughter-in-law pushes his propaganda: Lara Trump launches "real news" show to praise the president, Sophia Tesfaye, August 2, 2017, Salon (magazine), Salon, August 2, 2017, The show has been labelled as "propaganda".WEB, Blake, Aaron, Trump TV accused of broadcasting state propaganda after 'real news' segment debuted,weblink The Independent, August 13, 2017, In January 2018, it was reported that a Gallup-Knight Foundation survey found that 17% of Democrats and 42% of Republicans "consider accurate news stories that cast a politician or political group in a negative light to always be 'fake news.'"WEB, Wemple, Erik, Study: 42 percent of Republicans believe accurate — but negative — stories qualify as 'fake news',weblink The Washington Post, January 18, 2018, A June 2018 poll by Axios and Survey Monkey found that 72% of Americans believe "traditional news outlets knowingly report false or misleading stories at least sometimes," with 92% of Republican and Republican-leaning independents and 53% of Democrats believing this.NEWS,weblink 92% of Republicans think media intentionally reports fake news, Axios (website), Axios, June 27, 2018, A series of fabricated stories in Europe’s largest weekly magazine, Der Spiegel, prompted U.S. Ambassador to Germany Richard Grenell to call for an independent investigation.NEWS, Der Spiegel 'fake news' reporter could face charges,weblink BBC News, 23 December 2018, NEWS, Connolly, Kate, Le Blond, Josie,weblink Der Spiegel takes the blame for scandal of reporter who faked stories, The Guardian, 23 December 2018, Grenell wrote that "These fake news stories largely focus on U.S. policies and certain segments of the American people."NEWS, Der Spiegel to press charges against reporter who made up article about Fergus Falls, Minnesota,weblink Star Tribune, 24 December 2018,

Venezuela

{{Further|Censorship in Venezuela|Bolivarian propaganda}}On 4 August 2018, a documentary by German broadcaster Deutsche Welle stated that a documentary titled "Venezuela – Escape from a Failed State" was censored from Venezuelan television programming. On social media, Venezuelans voiced their anger of not being able to watch the program. Venezuela's journalist union SNTP stated that the state-run National Commission of Telecommunications (CONATEL) was responsible for the incident, with CONATEL denying the reports of censorship, stating "Media of the right circulate fake news to destabilize the peace of the country".WEB,weblink Venezuela temporarily blocks critical DW documentary, 6 August 2018, Deutsche Welle, en, 2018-08-07, Later on 3 September 2018, Vice President of Venezuela Delcy Rodríguez stated that the Venezuelan refugee crisis was "fake news" and that reports surrounding large scale migration were acts of propaganda designed to promote foreign intervention in Venezuela.NEWS,weblink Latin America Nations in Crisis Summit Amid Venezuela Exodus, Kueffner, Stephan, 3 September 2018, Bloomberg.com, Bloomberg, 2018-09-04,

See also

  • {{annotated link|Alarmism}}
  • {{annotated link|Alternative facts}}
  • {{annotated link|Chequebook journalism}}
  • Clickbait
  • {{annotated link|Citizen journalism}}
  • {{annotated link|Climate change denial}}
  • {{annotated link|Confirmation bias}}
  • {{annotated link|Conspiracy theory}}
  • {{annotated link|Demoralization (warfare)}}
  • {{annotated link|Fearmongering}}
  • {{annotated link|Information quality}}
  • {{annotated link|Internet meme}}
  • {{annotated link|Journalism ethics and standards}}
  • {{annotated link|Lying press|aka=Lügenpresse}}
  • {{annotated link|Media bias}}
  • {{annotated link|Media coverage of North Korea}}
  • {{annotated link|Pseudohistory}}
  • Tabloid journalism

Sources

{{Free-content attribution
author=University of Oxfordpage numbers=202documentURL=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0026/002610/261065e.pdflicense=CC BY SA 3.0 IGO}}

References

{{reflist}}

Further reading

  • AP Not Real News weekly roundup of the most popular, but completely untrue, headlines of the week.
  • NYPR On The Media weekly media criticism and analysis.
  • "Inside a Fake News Sausage Factory: 'This Is All About Income{{'"}} The New York Times November 25, 2016
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170426081655weblink">An online journal for Paul Horner and all of his hoaxes and fake news over the past 20 years
  • NEWS,weblink Deutsche Welle, Fake news 'casts wide net but has little effect', Elizabeth Schumacher, January 4, 2018,
  • BOOK, Bounegru, Liliana, Gray, Jonathan, Venturini, Tommaso, Mauri, Michele, January 8, 2018, A Field Guide to "Fake News" and Other Information Disorders,weblink Amsterdam, Public Data Lab, An open access guide exploring the use of digital methods to study false viral news, political memes, trolling practices and their social life online.
  • BOOK, Young, Kevin, Bunk: The Rise of Hoaxes, Humbug, Plagiarists, Phonies, Post-Facts, and Fake News, Graywolf Press, 2017, 978-1555977917,
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