exclusive economic zone

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exclusive economic zone
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{{Distinguish|Special economic zone}}{{short description|Adjacent sea zone in which a state has special rights}}(File:Zonmar-en.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Sea areas in international rights)An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.WEB, Part V – Exclusive Economic Zone, Article 56,weblink Law of the Sea, United Nations, 2011-08-28, It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from its coast. In colloquial usage, the term may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nmi limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters.WEB, Part V – Exclusive Economic Zone, Articles 55, 56,weblink Law of the Sea, United Nations, (File:Territorial waters - World.svg|thumb|400px|The World's exclusive economic zones, shown in dark blue)


(File:Map of the Territorial Waters of the Atlantic and Indian Ocean.png|thumb|upright=1.35|EEZs in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean)(File:Map of the Territorial Waters of the Pacific Ocean.png|thumb|upright=1.35|EEZs in the Pacific Ocean)Generally, a state's exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than {{convert|200|nmi|km|abbr=on}} out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than {{convert|400|nmi|km|abbr=on}} apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary.William R. Slomanson, 2006. Fundamental Perspectives on International Law, 5th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 294. Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of {{convert|200|nmi|km|abbr=on}} from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at {{convert|12|nmi|km|abbr=on}} from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea).weblink 1982 UN Convention on the Law of The Sea. Thus, the exclusive economic zones includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to {{convert|350|nmi|km|abbr=on}} from the coastal baseline, beyond the exclusive economic zones, but such areas are not part of their exclusive economic zones. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the exclusive economic zone.


The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended {{convert|3|nmi|km|disp=or|abbr=on}} (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to {{convert|12|nmi|km|abbr=on}} beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States in the Truman Proclamation of September 28, 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario {{Not a typo|Oficial}}. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947).The Exclusive Economic Zone: A Historical Perspective. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted.


The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters.
  • Norway and Russia dispute both territorial sea and EEZ with regard to the Svalbard archipelago as it affects Russia's EEZ due to its unique treaty status. A treaty was agreed in principle in April 2010 between the two states and subsequently ratified, resolving this demarcation dispute.Russia and Norway Reach Accord on Barents Sea, New York Times, 28 April 2010, Accessed 28 April 2010 The agreement was signed in Murmansk on September 15, 2010.Russia and Norway resolve Arctic border dispute, Guardian, 15 September 2010, Accessed 21 September 2010
  • The South China Sea (and the Spratly Islands) is the site of an ongoing dispute between several neighboring nations.
  • Croatia's ZERP (Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone) in the Adriatic Sea caused friction with Italy and Slovenia, and caused problems during Croatia's accession to the European Union.
  • A wedge-shaped section of the Beaufort Sea is disputed between Canada and the United States, as the area reportedly contains substantial oil reserves.
  • France claims a portion of Canada's EEZ for Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon based on a new definition of the continental shelf and EEZ between the two countries. Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon is entirely surrounded by Canada's EEZ.
  • Mauritius claims EEZ for Tromelin from France and EEZ for British Indian Ocean Territory from the UK.
  • Turkey claims a portion of Cyprus's EEZ based on Turkey's peculiarWEB,weblink Im östlichen Mittelmeer sollen Erdgasvorkommen von mehreren Billionen Kubikmetern liegen. Das befeuert den Zypernkonflikt, Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 12 November 2018, 13 November 2018, WEB,weblink NZZ: Boreholes rekindle the Cyprus problem (original: ΝΖΖ: Οι γεωτρήσεις αναζωπυρώνουν το Κυπριακό), Kathimerini, 13 November 2018, 13 November 2018, WEB,weblink Cypriot EEZ and Kastellorizo - Erdogan's geostrategic stakes (Original: "Κυπριακή ΑΟΖ και Καστελλόριζο - Το γεωστρατηγικό διακύβευμα του Ερντογάν", SLPress, 4 August 2019, 5 August 2019, definition that no islands, including Cyprus, can have full EEZWEB,weblink Turkey sends non paper to EU, warning to stay away from Cyprus EEZ, KeepTalkingGreece, 23 June 2019, 11 July 2019, WEB,weblink Greece’s maritime claims 'maximalist,' violate international boundaries law, Daily Sabah, 13 June 2019, 11 July 2019, and should only entitled to a 12 nautical mile reduced EEZ rather than the usual 200 that Turkey and every other country are entitled to, including an area to the south of Cyprus containing an offshore gas field. Furthermore, the internationally unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which was created as result of the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus, also claims portions of Cypriot EEZ. Cyprus and the international community do not acknowledge the Turkish claimsWEB,weblink Wess Mitchell sends clear message to Turkey over Cyprus, Kathimerini, 21 December 2018, 18 July 2019, WEB,weblink Gas Partnership: Netanyahu Visits Cyprus, 1 April 2017, WEB,weblink Cyprus Calls on Turkey to Steer Away From Threats –, A., Makris, 1 April 2017, WEB,weblink Athens, Paris, Moscow and Cairo urge Ankara not to violate Cyprus' sovereignty, Kathimerini, 9 July 2019, 10 July 2017, on Cyprus's land and sea, which are viewed as illegal under international law{{efn|See:BOOK, European Consortium for Church-State Research. Conference, Churches and Other Religious Organisations as Legal Persons: Proceedings of the 17th Meeting of the European Consortium for Church and State Research, Höör (Sweden), 17–20 November 2005,weblink 2007, Peeters Publishers, 978-90-429-1858-0, 50, There is little data concerning recognition of the 'legal status' of religions in the occupied territories, since any acts of the 'Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus' are not recognized by either the Republic of Cyprus or the international community., BOOK, Quigley, The Statehood of Palestine,weblink Cambridge University Press, 978-1-139-49124-2, 164, The international community found this declaration invalid, on the ground that Turkey had occupied territory belonging to Cyprus and that the putative state was therefore an infringement on Cypriot sovereignty., BOOK, Nathalie Tocci, EU Accession Dynamics and Conflict Resolution: Catalysing Peace Or Consolidating Partition in Cyprus?,weblink January 2004, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 978-0-7546-4310-4, 56, The occupied territory included 70 percent of the island's economic potential with over 50 percent of the industrial ... In addition, since partition Turkey encouraged mainland immigration to northern Cyprus. ... The international community, excluding Turkey, condemned the unilateral declaration of independence (UDI) as a., BOOK, Dr Anders Wivel, Robert Steinmetz, Small States in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities,weblink 28 March 2013, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 978-1-4094-9958-9, 165, To this day, it remains unrecognised by the international community, except by Turkey, BOOK, Peter Neville, Historical Dictionary of British Foreign Policy,weblink 22 March 2013, Scarecrow Press, 978-0-8108-7371-1, 293, ...Ecevit ordered the army to occupy the Turkish area on 20 July 1974. It became the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, but Britain, like the rest of the international community, except Turkey, refused to extend diplomatic recognition to the enclave. British efforts to secure Turkey's removal from its surrogate territory after 1974 failed., }} and urge Turkey to restraint itself from illegal drilling for gas in the island's EEZ.{{efn|See:WEB,weblink U.S. and EU concerned by Turkey's plans to drill off Cyprus, Reuters, 10 July 2019, WEB,weblink Southern EU leaders express support for Cyprus amid Turkish energy ambitions, Kathimerini, 10 July 2019, WEB,weblink EPP Group urges prompt EU answer to Turkish actions in Cyprus,, 10 July 2019, WEB,weblink France Urges Turkey to Halt ‘Illegal Activities’ in Cyprus,, 10 July 2019, WEB,weblink France sends strict warning to Turkey on Cyprus EEZ- EP President also expresses support,, 10 July 2019, WEB,weblink US urges Turkey against drilling off Cyprus,, 10 July 2019, WEB,weblink Armenia urges Turkey to cease all activities within Cyprus EEZ,, 10 July 2019, WEB,weblink Israel backs Cyprus as Turkey vows to continue drilling in its waters, Times of Israel, 10 July 2019, WEB,weblink Israel gives Cyprus 'full support' in gas drilling dispute with Turkey, The Jerusalem Post, 10 July 2019, WEB,weblink EEZ: Switzerland's Foreign Minister on Cyprus's side: (original: "ΑΟΖ: Στο πλευρό της Κύπρου και ο Ελβετός ΥΠΕΞ"),, 10 July 2019, }} Furthermore, EU has threatened Turkey with economic and political sanctions for violating the Cypriot EEZ.WEB,weblink EU leaders blast Turkey over Cyprus’ EEZ, order list of sanctions,, 10 July 2019, WEB,weblink Turkey’s East Med ambitions facing EU roadblock – Bloomberg,, 10 July 2019,
  • Lebanon claims that the agreement between Cyprus and Israel overlapped its own EEZ.

Potential disputes

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.The Legal Status of Ice in the Antarctic Region {{webarchive|url= |date=2006-02-27 }}

Resolved disputes

  • The Cod Wars between the United Kingdom and Iceland occurred periodically over many decades, until they were resolved with a final agreement in 1976.
  • In 1999, following the Hanish Islands conflict, the Permanent Court of Arbitration ruled that the EEZs of Yemen and Eritrea should be demarcated equidistantly between the mainlands of the two nations, without taking account of sovereignty over the islands.WEB, AWARD OF THE ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL IN THE SECOND STAGE OF THE PROCEEDINGS (MARITIME DELIMITATION),weblink Permanent Court of Arbitration, 12 April 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 12 April 2015, JOURNAL, Kwiatkowska, Barbara, The Eritrea-Yemen Arbitration: Landmark Progress in the Acquisition of Territorial Sovereignty and Equitable Maritime Boundary Delimitation, Ocean Development and International Law, January 2001, 32, 1, 10.1080/00908320150502177,weblink
  • In 2009, in a dispute between Romania and Ukraine over Snake Island, the UN International Court of Justice decided that Snake Island has no EEZ beyond 12 nautical miles of its own land.United Nations International Court of Justice {{Webarchive|url= |date=2015-04-16 }} Decision year: 2009

Transboundary stocks

{{See also|Highly migratory species}}Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.FAO: The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006 Part3: highlights of Special studies Rome. {{ISBN|978-92-5-105568-7}}Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.FAO (2007) Report of the FAO workshop on vulnerable ecosystems and destructive fishing in deep sea fisheries{{Dead link|date=February 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Rome, Fisheries Report No. 829.

By country


File:Territorial waters - Argentina.svg|thumb|none|upright=1.35|Argentina's exclusive economic zone including territorial claims. Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentine reaches 3,849,756 km²km²


File:Territorial waters - Australia.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|AustraliaAustralia{{see also|Australia–Indonesia border|Timor Sea Treaty|Australian Whale Sanctuary}}Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone was declared on 1 August 1994, and extends from 12 nautical miles to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.The Australian Fishing ZoneGeoscience Australia. 2005. Maritime Boundary Definitions {{webarchive|url= |date=2005-04-05 }}. To the 12 nautical miles boundary is Australia's territorial waters. Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind France and the United States, but ahead of Russia, with the total area of 8,148,250 square kilometres, which actually exceeds its land territory.The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ.UN confirms Australia’s rights over extra 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed. {{webarchive|url= |date=2009-10-25 }} Minister for Resources and Energy, The Hon Martin Ferguson AM MP, Media Release, 21 April 2008.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2008-11-13, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2008-08-27, Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory,Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea. Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, Submission by Australia but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.{| class="wikitable"! EEZ !! Area (km2)Geoscience Australia, 2012. Education: Oceans and Seas
Heard and McDonald Islands >| 410,722
Christmas Island}} 463,371
Cocos Islands}} 325,021
Norfolk Island}} 428,618
Macquarie Island >| 471,837
| 6,048,681
Australian Antarctic Territory >| 2,000,000The reference gives an approximate figure of 2 million square kilometres for the EEZ claimed by Australia as part of its Antarctic Territory. This is in addition to the 8 million square kilometre total given in the reference. This EEZ is also distinct from the 2.56 million square kilometres of additional continental shelf mentioned in the reference.
Total >| 10,148,250


File:Territorial waters - Brazil.svg|thumb|none|upright=1.35|BrazilBrazilBrazil's EEZ includes areas around the Fernando de Noronha Islands, St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago and the Trindade and Martim Islands.{| class="wikitable"! EEZ !! Area (km2)WEB, See Around Us Project, Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ), n.d.,weblink 3 June 2015, EEZ waters of: Brazil 2,570,917 km², Fernando de Noronha 363,362 km², St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago 413,636 km², Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl. 468,599 km²,
{{Flag| 2 570 917
22px) Fernando de Noronha 363 362
Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago>St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago 413 636
Trindade and Martin Vaz>Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl. 468 599
Total >| 3 830 955
In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.UN Continental Shelf and UNCLOS Article 76: Brazilian Submission


File:Canada Exclusive Economic Zone.PNG|thumb|right|upright=1.35|CanadaCanadaCanada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering {{convert|5599077|km2|abbr=on}}, is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.Wildlife Habitat Canada. Canada's Marine Waters: Integrating the Boundaries of Politics and Nature {{webarchive|url= |date=2005-12-21 }}. The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about {{convert|300|nmi}} across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago.


File:Territorial waters - Chile.svg|thumb|none|upright=1.35|ChileChileChile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands.{| border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="2" style="margin: 1em 1em 1em 0; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; text-align:right"! style="background:#e9e9e9; text-align:left;" | Region! style="background:#e9e9e9;" | EEZ Area (km2)WEB, See Around Us Project, Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ), n.d.,weblink 3 June 2015, EEZ waters of: Chile 1,975,760 km², Desventuradas Isl. 449,836 km², Easter Isl. 720,412 km², J. Fernandez, Felix and Ambrosio Isl. 502,524 km², ! style="background:#e9e9e9;" | Land area! style="background:#e9e9e9;" | Total
Mainland| 1 975 760| 755 757| 2 731 517
Desventuradas| 449 836|5|449 841
Easter| 720 412| 164| 720 576
Juan Fernandez| 502 524|100|502 624
Total| 3 648 532| 755 921| 4 404 453


File:China Exclusive Economic Zones.png|thumb|right|upright=1.35|People's Republic of China's exclusive economic zone:{{legend|#dd12c2|China's EEZ}}877,019 km2{{legend|#f080e1|EEZ claimed by China, disputed by (Taiwan]]}}{{legend|#f2d1ee|EEZ claimed by China, disputed by others}}3,000,000 km2Total:3,877,019)The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighboring powers' claims.{{clear}}


File:הגבול הימי של ישראל.svg|thumb|Exclusive economic zone between Israel and Cyprus as signed in NicosiaNicosiaThe Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus covers more than 70,000 km2 and is divided between 13 exploration blocks. The process of the establishment of Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon Exclusive Economic Zones was held in Nicosia in 2010 with separate meetings between each country.Γραφείο Τύπου και Πληροφοριών - About us. Retrieved on 2013-07-23. Cyprus and Israel as part of their wider cooperation have agreed to start their gas explorations with a common American company, specifically Noble Energy. Cypriot and Israeli governments are discussing to export their natural gas through the shipping of compressed Natural Gas to Greece and then to the rest of Europe or through a subsea Pipelines starting from Israel and then leading to Greece via Cyprus.WEB,weblink December 29, 2012, {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}EEZ Waters Of Cyprus. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.


File:Territorial waters - Denmark.svg|thumb|none|upright=1.35|The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of DenmarkKingdom of DenmarkThe Kingdom of Denmark includes the constituent country (selvstyre) of Greenland and the constituent country (hjemmestyre) of the Faroe Islands.{| border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="2" style="margin: 1em 1em 1em 0; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; text-align:right"! style="background:#e9e9e9; text-align:left;" | Region! style="background:#e9e9e9;" | EEZ & TW Area (km2)Danish foreign ministry {{webarchive|url= |date=2008-11-23 }}! style="background:#e9e9e9;" | Land area! style="background:#e9e9e9;" | Total
{{Flag|Denmark}}| 105 989| 42 506| 149 083
{{Flag|Faroe Islands}}| 260 995| 1 399| 262 394
{{Flag|Greenland}}| 2 184 254| 2 166 086| 4 350 340
Total| 2 551 238| 2 210 579| 4 761 817


(File:Territorial waters - France.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Exclusive economic zones of France, including Antarctic territorial claim)Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,691,000 km2 (4,513,920 mi2weblink The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.


Greece has claimed an exclusive economic zone, as it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law.Indirect Proclamation of EEZ – Greece Gives Coordinates Of Continental Shelf To UN ~ HellasFrappe. (2013-02-21). Retrieved on 2013-07-23.According to published maps, the Israel government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece and Cyprus. They describe the course of the gas pipeline which will transfer gas produced by American Νoble Εnergy Ltd. from the Leviathan reservoir to Europe, through an undersea pipeline crossing Greece. The gas pipeline should traverse the sea area, which according to international law, is part of the Greek EEZ. By this proposal, Israel recognizes the Greek EEZ in the area and offers an advantage that Greece can use during negotiation procedures to support its claims on the area. In practice, this cooperation will set up a powerful energy coalition between Greece, Cyprus and Israel. The mining and operating part will be undertaken by an American company.Israel Recognizes Greek Exclusive Economic Zone | News from Greeks in Africa, Asia, and South America. (2011-02-23). Retrieved on 2013-07-23. "The substance of the issue is that in an effort to protect and secure vital Israeli interests in the Mediterranean Sea, Israel has been left with no choice other than to officially delimit its maritime borders".Israel defends energy exploration deal with Cyprus | ICEJ UK. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.


File:Territorial waters - India.svg|thumb|none|upright=1.35|IndiaIndia India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles.WEB,weblink India hopes to double its EEZ, P., Sunderarajan, 1 April 2017,


In 2010, an agreement was signed with Cyprus concerning the limit of territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime halfway point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross border resources discovered, and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources.


File:Japan Exclusive Economic Zones.png|thumb|right|upright=1.35|(Japan]]'s exclusive economic zones:{{legend|#dd12c2|Japan's EEZ}}{{legend|#f080e1|Joint regime with Republic of Korea}}{{legend|#f2d1ee|EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others}}){| class="wikitable"! EEZ !! Area (km2)
Marcus Island >| 428,875
Nanpō Islands >| 862,782
Pacific Ocean (Japan) >| 1,162,334
Ryukyu Islands >| 1,394,676
Sea of Japan >| 630,721
Daito Islands >| 44
Senkaku Islands >| 7
Sea of Okhotsk >| 235
Totalincluding areas recommended by HTTP://WWW.UN.ORG/DEPTS/LOS/CLCS_NEW/CLCS_HOME.HTM| 4,479,674
Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, Republic of Korea, China and Taiwan). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us ProjectJapan (main islands) The Sea Around Us ProjectJapan (outer islands) The Sea Around Us Project both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims.Japan also refers to various categories of "shipping area" – Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or Greater Coasting Area, Ocean Going Area – but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications.


File:Territorial waters - Mexico.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Exclusive economic zone of MexicoMexicoMexico's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 3,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.Geographic location{{dead link|date=January 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} This puts Mexico's total territory as 5,153,735 km2.

New Zealand

File:Territorial waters - New Zealand.svg|thumb|none|Exclusive economic zones of the Realm of New Zealand, including the Ross DependencyRoss DependencyNew Zealand's EEZ covers {{convert|4083744|km2|abbr=on}},New Zealand Sea Around Us ProjectKermadec Islands (New Zealand) The Sea Around Us Project which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2.New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (2007). Improving Regulation of Environmental Effects in New Zealand’s Exclusive Economic Zone: Discussion Paper – Introduction {{webarchive|url=|date=2012-02-07}}. Published August 2007, Publication number ME824. {{Listed Invalid ISBN|0-978-478-30160-1}} Accessed 2006-01-07. These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).

North Korea

File:Exclusive economic zone of North Korea.png|thumb|The exclusive economic zone of North KoreaNorth KoreaThe exclusive economic zone of North Korea stretches 200 nautical miles from its basepoints in both the West Sea (Yellow Sea) and the Sea of Japan.{{sfn|Prescott|Schofield|2001|p=25}} The EEZ was declared in 1977 after North Korea had contested the validity of the Northern Limit Lines (NLL) set up after the Korean War as maritime borders.{{sfn|Kim|2017|p=20}} The EEZ has not been codified in law and North Korea has never specified its coordinates, making it difficult to determine its specific scope.{{sfn|Kim|2017|pp=20, 71–72}}In the West Sea, the EEZ remains unspecified in the Korean Bay because China has not determined its own EEZ in the area.{{sfn|Kim|2017|p=77}} The border between the North Korean and South Korean EEZs in the West Sea cannot be determined because of potential overlap and disputes over certain islands.{{sfn|Kotch|Abbey|2003|p=179}}In the Sea of Japan, the North Korean EEZ can be approximated to be trapezoidal-shaped.{{sfn|Van Dyke|2009|p=42}} The border between North Korea and Russia's respective EEZs is the only such border that has been determined in East Asia.{{sfn|Kim|2017|p=51}} Here, the EEZ does not cause many problems, even with regards to South Korea, because the sea is not thought to be rich in resources.{{sfn|Van Dyke|2009|p=42}}


File:Territorial waters - Norway.svg|thumb|none|upright=1.35|Norway's exclusive economic zones, including dependent territory Bouvet IslandBouvet IslandNorway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen.Statistisk Ã¥rbok 2007 Accessed January 2008In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.UN backs Norway claim to Arctic seabed extension {{webarchive|url= |date=2009-12-11 }}, Canwest News Service, 15 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009.{| border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="2" style="margin: 1em 1em 1em 0; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; text-align:right"! style="background:#e9e9e9; text-align:left;" | Region! style="background:#e9e9e9;" | EEZ & TW Area (km2)! style="background:#e9e9e9;" | Land area! style="background:#e9e9e9;" | Total
Mainland| 1 273 482| 323 802| 1 597 284
Svalbard| 402 574| 61 002| 463 576
Jan Mayen| 273 118| 373| 273 491
Bouvet Island| 436 004| 49| 436 053
Total| 2 385 178| 385 226| 2 770 404


(File:Ph Territorial Map.png|thumb|none|upright=1.1|The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines shown in the lighter blue shade, with Archepelagic Waters in the darkest blue)The Philippines' EEZ covers {{convert|2263816|km²|sqmi|abbr=on}}.Exclusive Economic Zones – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.


The Polish EEZ covers the area of {{convert|30533|km2|abbr=on}} within the Baltic Sea.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 23 March 2004, 404, Advanced Solutions International, Inc., 1 April 2017,


File:Portugal EEZ.PNG|thumb|right|upright=1.35|(Portugal]]'s Exclusive Economic Zones plus submitted Extended Continental Shelf to the UNTask Group for the Extension of the Portuguese Continental Shelf {{webarchive|url= |date=2009-12-18 }})Portugal has the 20th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones: Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over additional 2.15 million square kilometers of the neighboring continental shelf in May 2009,Portugal applies to UN to Extend Its Continental Shelf Zone. Accessed 3 July 2011 resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the weblink" title="">Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website.Spain disputes the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain objects, arguing that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf,Lacleta Muñoz, José Manuel: "Las fronteras de España en el mar". Documentos de trabajo 34-2004, Real Instituto Elcano citing article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.WEB,weblink PREAMBLE TO THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA, 1 April 2017,


File:Territorial waters - Russia.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|RussiaRussia
  • Kaliningrad (Baltic Sea) – 11,634 km2
  • St. Petersburg (Baltic Sea) – 12,759 km2
  • Barents Sea – 1,308,140 km2
  • Black Sea (without the Crimean EEZ) – 66,854 km2
  • Pacific – 3,419,202 km2
  • Siberia – 3,277,292 km2
  • Total – 8,095,881 km2WEB,weblink Sea Around Us Project – Data and Visualization, 1 April 2017, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2006,


File:Territorial Waters of Somalia.svg|thumb|none|upright=1.35|SomaliaSomalia
  • 825,052 km2

South Africa

File:Maritime zones of South Africa.svg|thumb|none|South AfricaSouth AfricaSouth Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1,535,538 km2.
  • Mainland – 1,068,659 km2
  • Prince Edward islands – 466,879 km2

South Korea

{{See also|Syngman Rhee Line}}File:Koreez.PNG|thumb|none|upright=1.35|(South Korea]]n exclusive economic zone:{{legend|#0000ff|Korean EEZ}}{{legend|#817ffe|EEZ claimed by Republic of Korea and Japan}}{{legend|#0080ff|Joint regime with Japan}})Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2{{Clear left}}

United Kingdom

File:Territorial waters - United Kingdom.svg|thumb|upright=1.35|The exclusive economic zones of the United Kingdom in blue, including the British Overseas Territories and the Crown Dependencies. The British claim in Antarctica is shown in shaded blue.WEB,weblink Countries within a country, 10 Downing Street10 Downing Street(File:Rockall_EEZ_topographic_map-en.svg|thumb|British Isles EEZ)The United Kingdom's exclusive economic zone is the fifth largest in the world at 6,805,586 square km. It comprises the exclusive economic zones surrounding the United Kingdom,"The Exclusive Economic Zone Order 2013"weblink Retrieved 20 July 2014. the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory. The exclusive economic zones associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina. The EEZ of the Chagos archipelago also known as the British Indian Ocean Territory is also disputed with Mauritius which considers the EEZ as part of its territory.The UK was late to establish an EEZ, relying on overlapping maritime zones for fisheries, pollution control, and energy matters. The Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 gave the powers to establish an EEZ, with the zone defined by The Exclusive Economic Zone Order 2013 which came into force on 31 March 2014.JOURNAL,weblink's_elusive_exclusive_economic_zone, The United Kingdom's elusive exclusive economic zone, Gibson, J., Journal of Water Law, 20, 4, January 2009, 20 November 2018, WEB,weblink The Exclusive Economic Zone Order 2013,, 11 December 2013, 20 November 2018, Only the United Kingdom and Gibraltar are part of the EU. The Crown dependencies and the remaining overseas territories (that is, all except Gibraltar) are not part of the EU. The United Kingdom has not as yet claimed its rights with regards to Gibraltar or the Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus.{| class="wikitable"! Territory! km2! sq mi! Notes
| United Kingdom
773676disp=table}}| includes Rockall and the Isle of Man
| Anguilla
| Ascension Island†
| Bermuda
| British Indian Ocean Territory
638568disp=table}}British Indian Ocean Territory sovereignty dispute>disputed with Mauritius
| British Virgin Islands
| Cayman Islands
| Channel Islands
| Falkland Islands
550872disp=table}}Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute>disputed with Argentina
| Gibraltar
426disp=table}}Disputed status of Gibraltar#Territorial waters>disputed with Spain
| Montserrat
| Pitcairn Island
| Saint Helena†
| South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
1449532disp=table}}South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands sovereignty dispute>disputed with Argentina
| Tristan da Cunha archipelago†
| Turks and Caicos Islands
! Total! 6,805,586! 2,627,651!
†Part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.

United States

File:Territorial waters - United States.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Exclusive economic zones of the United States, including insular areasinsular areasThe United States' exclusive economic zone is the second largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea. The sizes of the components of the US EEZ/territorial seas are (in decreasing size):Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) {{webarchive |url= |date=January 2, 2014 }}. Retrieved on 2013-07-23. Total: {{convert|11,351,000|sqkm|sqmi|abbr=on}}


(File:South China Sea claims map.jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|Territorial claims in the South China Sea. Vietnam's EEZ has a blue line.)Vietnam has an exclusive economic zone of {{convert|417,663|km²|sqmi|abbr=on}}. It includes the Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands. It has disputes mainly with China due to the Nine-Dash Line.

Rankings by area

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes land and internal waters.{| class="sortable wikitable"! Rank! Country! EEZ km2! Shelf km2! EEZ+TIA km2
France}} 11,691,000 579,422 12,366,417
United States}} 11,351,000 2,193,526 21,814,306
Australia}} 8,505,348 2,194,008 16,197,464
Russia}} 7,566,673 3,817,843 24,664,915
United Kingdom}} 6,805,586 872,891 7,048,486
Indonesia}} 6,159,032 2,039,381 8,063,601
Canada}} 5,599,077 2,644,795 15,607,077
Japan}} 4,479,388 214,976 4,857,318
New Zealand}} 4,083,744 277,610 4,352,424
Brazil}} 3,830,955 774,563 12,345,832
Chile}} 3,681,989 252,947 4,431,381
Kiribati}} 3,441,810 7,523 3,442,536
Mexico}} 3,269,386 419,102 5,141,968
Federated States of Micronesia}} 2,996,419 19,403 2,997,121
Denmark}} 2,551,238 495,657 4,761,811
Papua New Guinea}} 2,402,288 191,256 2,865,128
Norway}} 2,385,178 434,020 2,770,404
India}} 2,305,143 402,996 5,592,406
Marshall Islands}} 1,990,530 18,411 1,990,711
Portugal}} 1,727,408 28,000 1,819,498
Philippines}} 1,590,780 272,921 1,890,780
Solomon Islands}} 1,589,477 36,282 1,618,373
South Africa}} 1,535,538 156,337 2,756,575
Seychelles}} 1,336,559 39,063 1,337,014
Mauritius}} 1,284,997 29,061 1,287,037
Fiji}} 1,282,978 47,705 1,301,250
Madagascar}} 1,225,259 101,505 1,812,300
Argentina}} 1,159,063 856,346 3,939,463Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentine reaches 6 581 500 km²
Ecuador}} 1,077,231 41,034 1,333,600
Spain}} 1,039,233 77,920 1,545,225
Maldives}} 923,322 34,538 923,622
Peru}} 906,454 82,000 2,191,670
China}} 877,019 231,340 10,473,980
Somalia}} 825,052 55,895 1,462,709
Colombia}} 808,158 53,691 1,949,906
Cape Verde}} 800,561 5,591 804,594
Iceland}} 751,345 108,015 854,345
Tuvalu}} 749,790 3,575 749,816
Vanuatu}} 663,251 11,483 675,440
Tonga}} 659,558 8,517 660,305
Bahamas}} 654,715 106,323 668,658
Palau}} 603,978 2,837 604,437
Mozambique}} 578,986 94,212 1,380,576
Morocco}} 575,230 115,157 1,287,780
Costa Rica}} 574,725 19,585 625,825
Namibia}} 564,748 86,698 1,388,864
Yemen}} 552,669 59,229 1,080,637
Italy}} 541,915 116,834 843,251
Oman}} 533,180 59,071 842,680
Myanmar}} 532,775 220,332 1,209,353
Sri Lanka}} 532,619 32,453 598,229
Angola}} 518,433 48,092 1,765,133
Greece}} 505,572 81,451 637,529
South Korea}} 475,469 342,522 575,469
Venezuela}} 471,507 98,500 1,387,950
Vietnam}} 417,663 365,198 748,875
Ireland}} 410,310 139,935 480,583
Libya}} 351,589 64,763 2,111,129
Cuba}} 350,751 61,525 460,637
Panama}} 335,646 53,404 411,163
Malaysia}} 334,671 323,412 665,474
Nauru}} 308,480 41 308,501
Equatorial Guinea}} 303,509 7,820 331,560
Thailand}} 299,397 230,063 812,517
Pakistan}} 290,000 51,383 1,117,911
Egypt}} 263,451 61,591 1,265,451
Turkey}} 261,654 56,093 1,045,216
Jamaica}} 258,137 9,802 269,128
Dominican Republic}} 255,898 10,738 304,569
Liberia}} 249,734 17,715 361,103
Honduras}} 249,542 68,718 362,034
Tanzania}} 241,888 25,611 1,186,975
Ghana}} 235,349 22,502 473,888
Saudi Arabia}} 228,633 107,249 2,378,323
Nigeria}} 217,313 42,285 1,141,081
Sierra Leone}} 215,611 28,625 287,351
Gabon}} 202,790 35,020 470,458
Barbados}} 186,898 426 187,328
Côte d'Ivoire}} 176,254 10,175 498,717
Iran}} 168,718 118,693 1,797,468
Mauritania}} 165,338 31,662 1,190,858
Comoros}} 163,752 1,526 165,987
Sweden}} 160,885 154,604 602,255
Senegal}} 158,861 23,092 355,583
Netherlands}} 154,011 77,246 192,345
Ukraine}} 147,318 79,142 750,818
Uruguay}} 142,166 75,327 318,381
Guyana}} 137,765 50,578 352,734
São Tomé and Príncipe}} 131,397 1,902 132,361
Samoa}} 127,950 2,087 130,781
Suriname}} 127,772 53,631 291,592
Haiti}} 126,760 6,683 154,510
Algeria}} 126,353 9,985 2,508,094
Nicaragua}} 123,881 70,874 254,254
Guinea-Bissau}} 123,725 39,339 159,850
Kenya}} 116,942 11,073 697,309
Guatemala}} 114,170 14,422 223,059
Antigua and Barbuda}} 110,089 4,128 110,531
Tunisia}} 101,857 67,126 265,467
Cyprus}} 98,707 4,042 107,958
El Salvador}} 90,962 16,852 112,003
Finland}} 87,171 85,109 425,590
Bangladesh}} 86,392 66,438 230,390
Taiwan}} 83,231 43,016 119,419
Eritrea}} 77,728 61,817 195,328
Trinidad and Tobago}} 74,199 25,284 79,329
East Timor}} 70,326 25,648 85,200
Sudan}} 68,148 19,827 1,954,216
Cambodia}} 62,515 62,515 243,550
Guinea}} 59,426 44,755 305,283
Croatia}} 59,032 50,277 115,626
United Arab Emirates}} 58,218 57,474 141,818
Germany}} 57,485 57,485 414,599
Malta}} 54,823 5,301 55,139
Estonia}} 36,992 36,992 82,219
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines}} 36,302 1,561 36,691
Belize}} 35,351 13,178 58,317
Bulgaria}} 34,307 10,426 145,186
Benin}} 33,221 2,721 145,843
Qatar}} 31,590 31,590 43,176
Congo, Republic of the}} 31,017 7,982 373,017
Poland}} 29,797 29,797 342,482
Dominica}} 28,985 659 29,736
Latvia}} 28,452 27,772 93,011
Grenada}} 27,426 2,237 27,770
Israel}} 26,352 3,745 48,424
Romania}} 23,627 19,303 262,018
Gambia}} 23,112 5,581 34,407
Georgia}} 21,946 3,243 91,646
Lebanon}} 19,516 1,067 29,968
Cameroon}} 16,547 11,420 491,989
Saint Lucia}} 15,617 544 16,156
Albania}} 13,691 6,979 42,439
Togo}} 12,045 1,265 68,830
Kuwait}} 11,026 11,026 28,844
Syria}} 10,503 1,085 195,683
Bahrain}} 10,225 10,225 10,975
Brunei}} 10,090 8,509 15,855
Saint Kitts and Nevis}} 9,974 653 10,235
Montenegro}} 7,745 3,896 21,557
Djibouti}} 7,459 3,187 30,659
Lithuania}} 7,031 7,031 72,331
Belgium}} 3,447 3,447 33,975
Democratic Republic of the Congo}} 1,606 1,593 2,346,464
Singapore}} 1,067 1,067 1,772
Iraq}} 771 771 439,088
Monaco}} 288 2 290
Palestine}} 256 256 6,276
Slovenia}} 220 220 20,493
Jordan}} 166 59 89,508
Bosnia and Herzegovina}} 50 50 51,259
Kazakhstan}} 2,724,900
Mongolia}} 1,564,100
Chad}} 1,284,000
Niger}} 1,267,000
Mali}} 1,240,192
Ethiopia}} 1,104,300
Bolivia}} 1,098,581
Zambia}} 752,612
Afghanistan}} 652,090
Central African Republic}} 622,984
South Sudan}} 619,745
Botswana}} 582,000
Turkmenistan}} 488,100
Uzbekistan}} 447,400
Paraguay}} 406,752
Zimbabwe}} 390,757
Burkina Faso}} 274,222
Uganda}} 241,038
Laos}} 236,800
Belarus}} 207,600
Kyrgyzstan}} 199,951
Nepal}} 147,181
Tajikistan}} 143,100
Malawi}} 118,484
Hungary}} 93,028
Azerbaijan}} 86,600
Austria}} 83,871
Czech Republic}} 78,867
Serbia}} 77,474
Slovakia}} 49,035
Switzerland}} 41,284
Bhutan}} 38,394
Moldova}} 33,846
Lesotho}} 30,355
Armenia}} 29,743
Burundi}} 27,834
Rwanda}} 26,338
North Macedonia}} 25,713
Swaziland}} 17,364
Kosovo}}{{ref labela| 10,887
Luxembourg}} 2,586
Andorra}} 468
Liechtenstein}} 160
San Marino}} 61
Vatican City}} 0.44
Total >United Nations}} 137,159,222 25,103,204 274,004,586

See also


Notes{| style"margin-left:13px; line-height:150%; font-size:100%;"



{{reflist|group=lower-alpha}}{{Reflist|2}}Works cited:
  • BOOK, Suk Kyoon Kim, Maritime Disputes in Northeast Asia: Regional Challenges and Cooperation,weblink 2017, BRILL, Leiden, 978-90-04-34422-8, {{SfnRef, Kim, 2017, }}
  • JOURNAL,weblink Kotch, John Barry, Abbey, Michael, 2003, Ending naval clashes on the Northern Limit Line and the quest for a West Sea peace regime, Asian Perspectives, 27, 2, 175–204,weblink" title="">weblink 25 July 2011, harv,
  • JOURNAL, harv, Prescott, John Robert Victor, Schofield, Clive H., Furness, Shelagh, Maritime Briefing, Undelimited Maritime Boundaries of the Asian Rim in the Pacific Ocean,weblink 3, 1, 2001, International Boundaries Research Unit, University of Durham, Durham, 978-1-897643-43-3,
  • BOOK, Seoung Yong Hong, Van Dyke, Jon M., Van Dyke, Jon M., Maritime Boundary Disputes, Settlement Processes, and the Law of the Sea,weblink 2009, BRILL, Leiden, 90-04-17343-9, 39–76, Disputes Over Islands and Maritime Boundaries in East Asia, {{SfnRef, Van Dyke, 2009, }}

External links

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