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digital rights management
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{{short description|Technology to control access to copyrighted works}}{{condense|date=January 2017}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2017}}Digital rights management (DRM) tools or technological protection measures (TPM){{refn|name=cbc}} are a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works.BOOK,weblink Computer Forensics: Investigating Network Intrusions and Cybercrime, Cengage Learning, 9–26, 1435483529, 16 September 2009, DRM technologies try to control the use, modification, and distribution of copyrighted works (such as software and multimedia content), as well as systems within devices that enforce these policies.WEB,weblink Fact Sheet: Digital Rights Management and have to do: Technical Protection Measures,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160414002554weblink">weblink 14 April 2016, 24 November 2006, Priv.gc.ca, 29 July 2013, The use of digital rights management is not universally accepted. Proponents of DRM argue that it is necessary to prevent intellectual property from being copied freely, just as physical locks are needed to prevent personal property from being stolen,NEWS,weblink The pros, cons, and future of DRM, Digital locks – also known as digital rights management (DRM) technologies or technological protection measures (TPM), Cbc.ca, 7 August 2009, 7 January 2012, that it can help the copyright holder maintain artistic control,WEB,weblink Images and the Internet, and that it can ensure continued revenue streams.WEB,weblink Making Money with Streaming Media, Christopher Levy, 3 February 2003, 28 August 2006, streamingmedia.com,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060514024614weblink">weblink 14 May 2006, Those opposed to DRM contend there is no evidence that DRM helps prevent copyright infringement, arguing instead that it serves only to inconvenience legitimate customers, and that DRM helps big business stifle innovation and competition.WEB,weblink DRM, Electronic Frontier Foundation, 7 January 2012, Furthermore, works can become permanently inaccessible if the DRM scheme changes or if the service is discontinued.WEB,weblink The DRM graveyard: A brief history of digital rights management in music, opensource.com, 3 November 2011, 7 January 2012, DRM can also restrict users from exercising their legal rights under the copyright law, such as backing up copies of CDs or DVDs (instead having to buy another copy, if it can still be purchased), lending materials out through a library, accessing works in the public domain, or using copyrighted materials for research and education under the fair use doctrine. The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and the Free Software Foundation (FSF) consider the use of DRM systems to be an anti-competitive practice.WEB,weblink FairPlay: Another Anti-competitive Use of DRM, Electronic Frontier Foundation, 6 September 2012, WEB,weblink Fair Use and DRM, Electronic Frontier Foundation, 7 January 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111230184227weblink">weblink 30 December 2011, dmy-all, Worldwide, many laws have been created which criminalize the circumvention of DRM, communication about such circumvention, and the creation and distribution of tools used for such circumvention. Such laws are part of the United States' Digital Millennium Copyright Act,WEB,weblink Public Law 105 – 304 – Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 26 July 2015, U. S. Government Publishing Office, U. S. Government Publishing Office, and the European Union's Copyright Directive,JOURNAL,weblink Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society, 22 June 2001, Official Journal of the European Union, 26 July 2015, (the French DADVSI is an example of a member state of the European Union ("EU") implementing the directive).JOURNAL,weblink LOI n° 2006-961 du 1er août 2006 relative au droit d'auteur et aux droits voisins dans la société de l'information, 3 August 2006, Journal officiel de la République française, 26 July 2015, fr,

Introduction

The rise of digital media and analog-to-digital conversion technologies has vastly increased the concerns of copyright-owning individuals and organizations, particularly within the music and movie industries. While analog media inevitably lose quality with each copy generation, and in some cases even during normal use, digital media files may be duplicated an unlimited number of times with no degradation in the quality.The rise of personal computers as household appliances has made it convenient for consumers to convert media (which may or may not be copyrighted) originally in a physical, analog or broadcast form into a universal, digital form (this process is called ripping) for portability or viewing later. This, combined with the Internet and popular file-sharing tools, has made unauthorized distribution of copies of copyrighted digital media (also called digital piracy) much easier.In 1983, a very early implementation of Digital Rights Management (DRM) was the Software Service System (SSS) devised by the Japanese engineer Ryuichi Moriya.Patent application 58-186100 (Publication #60-077218), Software Control System, Japan Patent Office, 5 October 1983, Ryoichi Mori, applicant. Reported by Industrial Property Digital Library. and subsequently refined under the name superdistribution. The SSS was based on encryption, with specialized hardware that controlled decryption and also enabled payments to be sent to the copyright holder. The underlying principle of the SSS and subsequently of superdistribution was that the distribution of encrypted digital products should be completely unrestricted and that users of those products would not just be permitted to redistribute them but would actually be encouraged to do so.Common DRM techniques include restrictive licensing agreements: The access to digital materials, copyright and public domain is restricted to consumers as a condition of entering a website or when downloading software.WEB, Digital Rights Management Systems and Copy Protection Schemes,weblink eff.org, Encryption, scrambling of expressive material and embedding of a tag, which is designed to control access and reproduction of information, including backup copies for personal use.Kranich, Nancy. "Chap 1(pg.8)." The Information Commons. Creative Commons, 2004. Print.DRM technologies enable content publishers to enforce their own access policies on content, such as restrictions on copying or viewing. These technologies have been criticized for restricting individuals from copying or using the content legally, such as by fair use. DRM is in common use by the entertainment industry (e.g., audio and video publishers).WEB,weblink MediaDaily News, QuickPlay Distributes TV Over Mobile Wi-Fi, 11 November 2009, 28 December 2014, Many online music stores, such as Apple's iTunes Store, and e-book publishers and vendors, such as OverDrive, also use DRM, as do cable and satellite service operators, to prevent unauthorized use of content or services. However, Apple dropped DRM from all iTunes music files around 2009.WEB, Bobbie Johnson, San Francisco,weblink Apple drops copy protection from iTunes, Guardian, 6 January 2009, 6 June 2012, Industry has expanded the usage of DRM to more traditional hardware products, such as Keurig's coffeemakers,WEB,weblink Keurig Will Use DRM in New Coffee Maker To Lock Out Refill Market, techdirt.com, Karl, Bode, 3 March 2014, 3 May 2015, NEWS,weblink Keurig's coffee brewer 'DRM' has already been defeated, Chris Welch, 28 August 2014, Philips' light bulbs,Philips pushes lightbulb firmware update that locks out third-party bulbs by Cory Doctorow on Boing Boing (14 December 2015)Light Bulb DRM: Philips Locks Purchasers Out Of Third-Party Bulbs With Firmware Update on techdirt.com (14 December 2015) mobile device power chargers,Another Thing You Need: 'DRM For Chargers' on techdirt.com by Carlo Longino (25 July 2007)WEB,weblink DRM for Chargers: Possibly Good for Users, Ed Felten, 26 July 2007, freedom-to-tinker.com, Apple has filed a patent application on a technology for tethering rechargeable devices (like iPods) to particular chargers. The idea is that the device will only allow its batteries to be recharged if it is connected to an authorized charger. Whether this is good for consumers depends on how a device comes to be authorized. If "authorized" just means "sold or licensed by Apple" then consumers won't benefit – the only effect will be to give Apple control of the aftermarket for replacement chargers., hacking-dell-laptop-charger-identification on hackaday.com (3 March 2014) and John Deere's tractors.WEB,weblink wired.com, We Can't Let John Deere Destroy the Very Idea of Ownership, Kyle, Wiens, 21 April 2015, 3 May 2015, For instance, tractor companies try to prevent farmers from making DIY repairs under usage of DRM-laws as DMCA.WEB,weblink DIY Tractor Repair Runs Afoul of Copyright Law, 17 August 2015, 31 August 2015, Laura, Sydell, npr.com,

Technologies

Computer games

Limited install activations

Computer games sometimes use DRM technologies to limit the number of systems the game can be installed on by requiring authentication with an online server. Most games with this restriction allow three or five installs, although some allow an installation to be 'recovered' when the game is uninstalled. This not only limits users who have more than three or five computers in their homes (seeing as the rights of the software developers allow them to limit the number of installations), but can also prove to be a problem if the user has to unexpectedly perform certain tasks like upgrading operating systems or reformatting the computer's hard drive, tasks which, depending on how the DRM is implemented, count a game's subsequent reinstall as a new installation, making the game potentially unusable after a certain period even if it is only used on a single computer.In mid-2008, the Windows version of Mass Effect marked the start of a wave of titles primarily making use of SecuROM for DRM and requiring authentication with a server. The use of the DRM scheme in 2008's Spore backfired and there were protests, resulting in a considerable number of users seeking an unlicensed version instead. This backlash against the three-activation limit was a significant factor in Spore becoming the most pirated game in 2008, with TorrentFreak compiling a "top 10" list with Spore topping the list.WEB, Ernesto,weblink Top 10 Most Pirated Games of 2008, TorrentFreak, 4 December 2008, 24 November 2011, WEB, Andy Greenberg, Mary Jane Irwin,weblink Spore's Piracy Problem, Forbes, 12 September 2008, 22 October 2011, However, Tweakguides concluded that the presence of intrusive DRM does not appear to increase video game piracy, noting that other games on the list such as Call of Duty 4 and Assassin's Creed use DRM which has no install limits or online activation. Additionally, other video games that do use intrusive DRM such as BioShock, Crysis Warhead, and Mass Effect, do not appear on the list.WEB, Koroush Ghazi,weblink PC Game Piracy Examined: Page 4, Tweakguides, 14 December 2008, 24 November 2011,

Persistent online authentication

Many mainstream publishers continued to rely on online DRM throughout the later half of 2008 and early 2009, including Electronic Arts, Ubisoft, Valve, and Atari, The Sims 3 being a notable exception in the case of Electronic Arts.WEB,weblink The Sims 3 Will Not Use DRM: News from, 1UP.com, 29 March 2009, 31 August 2010, Ubisoft broke with the tendency to use online DRM in late 2008, with the release of Prince of Persia as an experiment to "see how truthful people really are" regarding the claim that DRM was inciting people to use illegal copies.WEB, Kuchera, Ben,weblink PC Prince of Persia contains no DRM. It's a trap!, Arstechnica.com, 12 December 2008, 31 August 2010, Although Ubisoft has not commented on the results of the "experiment", Tweakguides noted that two torrents on Mininova had over 23,000 people downloading the game within 24 hours of its release.WEB, Koroush Ghazi,weblink PC Game Piracy Examined: Page 8, Tweakguides, 11 December 2008, 3 December 2012, Ubisoft formally announced a return to online authentication on 9 February 2010, through its Uplay online gaming platform, starting with (Silent Hunter 5: Battle of the Atlantic|Silent Hunter 5), (The Settlers 7: Paths to a Kingdom|The Settlers 7), and Assassin's Creed II.WEB, Ubisoft,weblink Ubisoft Press Release, Ubisoft, 9 February 2010, 4 March 2010, Silent Hunter 5 was first reported to have been compromised within 24 hours of release,WEB, Nic Simmonds,weblink Ubisoft's contentious DRM scheme already hacked, MyGaming, 4 March 2010, 4 March 2010, but users of the cracked version soon found out that only early parts of the game were playable.WEB, Andy Chalk,weblink Ubisoft Denies Launch Day Crack for Silent Hunter 5 DRM, Escapist Magazine, 4 March 2010, 27 March 2010, The Uplay system works by having the installed game on the local PCs incomplete and then continuously downloading parts of the game-code from Ubisoft's servers as the game progresses.WEB, Ben Kuchera,weblink Official explanation of controversial Assassin's Creed 2 DRM, Escapist Magazine, 18 February 2010, 27 March 2010, It was more than a month after the PC release in the first week of April that software was released that could bypass Ubisoft's DRM in Assassin's Creed II. The software did this by emulating a Ubisoft server for the game. Later that month, a real crack was released that was able to remove the connection requirement altogether.WEB,weblink Ubisoft's DRM for Assassin's Creed II is Cracked, Tomshardware.com, 23 April 2010, 31 August 2010, WEB, Lowensohn, Josh,weblink Ubisoft's controversial 'always on' PC DRM hacked, News.cnet.com, 21 April 2010, 31 August 2010, In early March 2010, the Uplay servers suffered a period of inaccessibility due to a large-scale DDoS attack, causing around 5% of game owners to become locked out of playing their game.WEB, John Leyden,weblink Ubisoft undone by anti-DRM DDoS storm, The Register, 8 March 2010, 27 March 2010, The company later credited owners of the affected games with a free download, and there has been no further downtime.WEB, Andre Yoskowitz,weblink Ubisoft apologizes to users affected by 'always on' DRM, Afterdawn, 8 March 2010, 27 March 2010, Other developers, such as Blizzard Entertainment are also shifting to a strategy where most of the game logic is on the "side" or taken care of by the servers of the game maker. Blizzard uses this strategy for its game Diablo III and Electronic Arts used this same strategy with their reboot of SimCity, the necessity of which has been questioned.WEB, Summer اWalker,weblink SimCity Modder Catches EA Lying, Gamebreaker TV, 20 March 2013, 28 March 2013,

Software tampering

Bohemia Interactive have used a form of technology since (Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis), wherein if the game copy is suspected of being unauthorized, annoyances like guns losing their accuracy or the players being turned into a bird are introduced.WEB, Nathan Grayson,weblink Interview: Bohemia Interactive's CEO on fighting piracy, creative DRM, pcgamer.com, 17 November 2011, Croteam, the company that released (Serious Sam 3: BFE) in November 2011, implemented a different form of DRM wherein, instead of displaying error messages that stop the illicit version of the game from running, it causes a special invincible foe in the game to appear and constantly attack the player until he or she is killed.WEB, John Walker,weblink Serious Sam's DRM Is A Giant Pink Scorpion, rockpapershotgun.com, 7 December 2011, 9 December 2011, WEB, socketboy,weblink Serious Sam 3 Non-Traditional DRM Solutions Part 2, ign.com, 8 December 2011, 9 December 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120216132324weblink">weblink 16 February 2012,

Product keys

One of the oldest and least complicated DRM protection methods for computer and Nintendo Entertainment System games was when the game would pause and prompt the player to look up a certain page in a booklet or manual that came with the game; if the player lacked access to such material, they would not be able to continue the game. A product key, a typically alphanumerical serial number used to represent a license to a particular piece of software, serve a similar function. During the installation process or launch for the software, the user is asked to input the key; if the key correctly corresponds to a valid license (typically via internal algorithms), the key is accepted, then the user who bought the game can continue. In modern practice, product keys are typically combined with other DRM practices (such as online "activation"), as the software could be cracked to run without a product key, or "keygen" programs could be developed to generate keys that would be accepted.

Documents

Enterprise digital rights management (E-DRM or ERM) is the application of DRM technology to the control of access to corporate documents such as Microsoft Word, PDF, and AutoCAD files, emails, and intranet web pages rather than to the control of consumer media.WEB,weblink "DRM vs. ERM: Battle to Control Data", Network World, 2 April 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080303235632weblink">weblink 3 March 2008, dmy-all, E-DRM, now more commonly termed IRM (Information Rights Management), is generally intended to prevent the unauthorized use (such as industrial or corporate espionage or inadvertent release) of proprietary documents. IRM typically integrates with content management system software but corporations such as Samsung Electronics also develop their own custom DRM systems.WEB,weblink NASCA is a DRM solution..., 16 July 2013, DRM has been used by organizations such as the British Library in its secure electronic delivery service to permit worldwide access to substantial numbers of rare (and in many cases unique) documents which, for legal reasons, were previously only available to authorized individuals actually visiting the Library's document centre at Boston Spa in England.CONFERENCE, Braid, Andrew, The use of a Digital Rights Management System for Document Supply, 71th IFLA General Conference and Council, IFLA World Library and Information Congress, 22 June 2005,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160611154507weblink">weblink 11 June 2016, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Practical problems for libraries distributing ebooks & secure electronic delivery, LockLizard, 2016, WEB,weblink How to open your on Demand order, British Library, 1 April 2014,

E-books

Electronic books read on a personal computer, or an e-book reader or e-reader app typically use DRM technology to limit copying, printing, and sharing of e-books. E-books are usually limited to be used on a limited number of reading devices, and some e-publishers prevent any copying or printing. Some commentors believe DRM makes e-book publishing complex.WEB,weblink eBooks and Digital Rights Management (DRM), for ePublishers, TinHat, June 2006, 28 May 2008, tinhat.com, {{As of|2012|08}}, there were five main e-book formats: EPUB, KF8, Mobipocket, PDF, and Topaz.WEB,weblink mobileread.com, Mobileread.com, Topaz, 21 August 2012, The Amazon Kindle uses KF8, Mobipocket, and Topaz; it also supports native PDF format e-books and native PDF files. Other e-book readers mostly use EPUB format e-books, but with differing DRM schemes.{{citation needed|date=June 2015}}There are four main e-book DRM schemes in common use today, one each from Adobe, Amazon, Apple, and the Marlin Trust Management Organization (MTMO).
  • Adobe's ADEPT DRM is applied to EPUBs and PDFs, and can be read by several third-party e-book readers, as well as Adobe Digital Editions (ADE) software. Barnes & Noble uses a DRM technology provided by Adobe, applied to EPUBs and the older PDB (Palm OS) format e-books. In October 2014, Adobe released version 4.0.1 of the software, which sends data to Adobe in a secure transmission (using HTTPS).WEB,weblink What We Can Learn From The Adobe E-Reader Mess, Cooper, Quintin, 31 October 2014, Electronic Frontier Foundation,
  • Amazon's DRM is an adaption of the original Mobipocket encryption and is applied to Amazon's .azw4, KF8, and Mobipocket format e-books. Topaz format e-books have their own encryption system.WEB,weblink MobileRead Wiki – Topaz, wiki.mobileread.com,
  • Apple's FairPlay DRM is applied to EPUBs and can currently only be read by Apple's iBooks app on iOS devices and Mac OS computers.{{Citation needed|date=October 2017}}
  • The Marlin DRM was developed and is maintained in an open industry group known as the Marlin Developer Community (MDC) and is licensed by MTMO. (Marlin was founded by five companies, Intertrust, Panasonic, Philips, Samsung, and Sony.) The Kno online textbook publisher uses Marlin to protect e-books it sells in the EPUB format. These books can be read on the Kno App for iOS and Android.
In one instance of DRM that caused a rift with consumers, Amazon.com in July 2009, remotely deleted purchased copies of George Orwell's Animal Farm (1945) and Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949) from customers' Amazon Kindles after providing them a refund for the purchased products.NEWS,weblink Amazon Erases Orwell Books From Kindle Devices, 18 July 2009, New York Times, Brad, Stone, 1 May 2010, Commentors have described these actions as Orwellian and have compared Amazon to Big Brother from Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four.NEWS,weblink Some E-Books Are More Equal Than Others, 17 July 2009, New York Times, David Pogue, WEB,weblink Big Brother: Amazon Remotely Deletes 1984 From Kindles, 17 July 2009, Pete Cashmore, WEB,weblink Amazon zaps purchased copies of Orwell's 1984 and Animal Farm from Kindles, 17 July 2009, Mark Frauenfelder, WEB, Amazon recalls (and embodies) Orwell's '1984',weblink 17 July 2009, Ina Fried, After Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos issued a public apology, the Free Software Foundation wrote that this was just one more example of the excessive power Amazon has to remotely censor what people read through its software, and called upon Amazon to free its e-book reader and drop DRM.WEB,weblink Amazon's CEO Jeff Bezos apologizes for Kindle ebook deletion. Free Software Foundation calls upon Amazon to free the ebook reader., 23 July 2009, Free Software Foundation, Amazon then revealed the reason behind its deletion: the e-books in question were unauthorized reproductions of Orwell's works, which were not within the public domain and to which the company that published and sold them on Amazon's service had no rights.WEB,weblink Why Amazon went Big Brother on some Kindle e-books, 17 July 2009, arstechnica.com, Websites{{snd}}such as library.nu (shut down by court order on 15 February 2012), BookFi, BookFinder, Library Genesis, and Science Hub{{snd}}have emerged which allow downloading e-books by violating copyright.NEWS, Kelty, Christopher M.,weblink The disappearing virtual library, Al Jazeera, 1 March 2012, WEB,weblink Court Orders Shutdown of Libgen, Bookfi, and Sci-Hub, 2 November 2015, torrentfreak.com, 5 November 2015, WEB, Pirate research-paper sites play hide-and-seek with publishers,weblink Nature News & Comment, 6 December 2015, WEB, Sci-hub, bookfi and libgen resurface after being shut down,weblink TorrentFreak, 7 January 2016, 21 November 2015,

Film

An early example of a DRM system is the Content Scrambling System (CSS) employed by the DVD Forum on film DVDs circa 1996. CSS uses an encryption algorithm to encrypt content on the DVD disc. Manufacturers of DVD players must license this technology and implement it in their devices so that they can decrypt the encrypted content to play it. The CSS license agreement includes restrictions on how the DVD content is played, including what outputs are permitted and how such permitted outputs are made available. This keeps the encryption intact as the video material is played out to a TV.In 1999, Jon Lech Johansen released an application called DeCSS, which allowed a CSS-encrypted DVD to play on a computer running the Linux operating system, at a time when no licensed DVD player application for Linux had yet been created. The legality of DeCSS is questionable: one of the authors has been the subject of a lawsuit, and reproduction of the keys themselves is subject to restrictions as illegal numbers.WEB, Electronic Frontier Foundation,weblink Memorandum Order, in MPAA v. Reimerdes, Corley and Kazan, New York, 2 February 2000, Also in 1999, Microsoft released Windows Media DRM, which read instructions from media files in a rights management language that stated what the user may do with the media.BOOK,weblink Ross J. Anderson, Security Engineering, 0-471-38922-6, 705, The language can define how many times the media file can be played, and whether or not it can be burned to a CD, forwarded, printed, or saved to the local disk.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120821220931weblink">weblink 21 August 2012, Rights Management comes to the Enterprise, Later versions of Windows Media DRM also allow producers to declare whether or not the user may transfer the media file to other devices,WEB,weblink Windows Media Player DRM: frequently asked questions, 22 June 2013, to implement music subscription services that make downloaded files unplayable after subscriptions are cancelled, and to implement regional lockout.BOOK,weblink Security Engineering, WILEY, 22: Copyright and DRM, The Microsoft operating system, Windows Vista, contains a DRM system called the Protected Media Path, which contains the Protected Video Path (PVP). PVP tries to stop DRM-restricted content from playing while unsigned software is running, in order to prevent the unsigned software from accessing the content. Additionally, PVP can encrypt information during transmission to the monitor or the graphics card, which makes it more difficult to make unauthorized recordings.Advanced Access Content System (AACS) is a DRM system for HD DVD and Blu-ray Discs developed by the AACS Licensing Administrator, LLC (AACS LA), a consortium that includes Disney, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Matsushita (Panasonic), Sony, Toshiba, and Warner Brothers. In December 2006, hackers published a process key online, which enabled unrestricted access to AACS-protected HD DVD content.WEB,weblink Report: HD-DVD copy protection defeated, Xeni Jardin, 28 December 2006, BoingBoing, 1 January 2008, After the cracked keys were revoked, further cracked keys were released.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090124055806weblink">weblink 24 January 2009, New AACS processing key leaks onto the net, Cory Doctorow, 30 May 2007, BoingBoing, Marlin (DRM) is a technology that is developed and maintained in an open industry group known as the Marlin Developer Community (MDC) and licensed by the Marlin Trust Management Organization (MTMO). Founded in 2005, by five companies: Intertrust, Panasonic, Philips, Samsung, and Sony, Marlin DRM has been deployed in multiple places around the world. In Europe, Philips NetTVs implement Marlin DRM. Also in Europe, Marlin DRM is required in such industry groups as the Open IPTV Forum and national initiatives such as HDForum in France, Tivu in Italy, and YouView in the UK, and which are starting to see broad deployments. In Japan, the acTVila IPTV service uses Marlin to encrypt video streams, which are permitted to be recorded on a DVR in the home.OMA DRM is a system invented by the Open Mobile Alliance, whose members represent information technology companies (e.g., IBM and Microsoft), mobile phone network operators (e.g., Cingular, Deutsche Telekom, Orange, O2, and Vodafone), mobile phone manufacturers (e.g., LG, Motorola, Samsung, and Sony), mobile system manufacturers (e.g., Ericsson and Openwave).

Music

Audio CDs

Discs with DRM schemes are not standards-compliant Compact Discs (CDs) but are rather CD-ROM media. Therefore, they all lack the CD logotype found on discs which follow the standard (known as Red Book). These CDs cannot be played on all CD players or personal computers. Personal computers running Microsoft Windows sometimes even crash when attempting to play the CDs.WEB, Lewis, Rita, What is DRM and Why Should I Care?, 8 January 2008, Firefox News, 10 July 2008,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080614083008weblink">weblink 14 June 2008, dmy-all, In 2005, Sony BMG introduced new DRM technology which installed DRM software on users' computers without clearly notifying the user or requiring confirmation. Among other things, the installed software included a rootkit, which created a severe security vulnerability others could exploit. When the nature of the DRM involved was made public much later, Sony BMG initially minimized the significance of the vulnerabilities its software had created, but was eventually compelled to recall millions of CDs, and released several attempts to patch the surreptitiously included software to at least remove the rootkit. Several class action lawsuits were filed, which were ultimately settled by agreements to provide affected consumers with a cash payout or album downloads free of DRM.WEB, McMillan, Robert, Settlement Ends Sony Rootkit Case, 23 May 2006, PC World (magazine), PC World, 8 April 2007,weblink Sony BMG's DRM software actually had only a limited ability to prevent copying, as it affected only playback on Windows computers, not on other equipment. Even on the Windows platform, users regularly bypassed the restrictions. And, while the Sony BMG DRM technology created fundamental vulnerabilities in customers' computers, parts of it could be trivially bypassed by holding down the "shift" key while inserting the CD, or by disabling the autorun feature. In addition, audio tracks could simply be played and re-recorded, thus completely bypassing all the DRM (this is known as the analog hole). Sony BMG's first two attempts at releasing a patch which would remove the DRM software from users' computers failed.In January 2007, EMI stopped publishing audio CDs with DRM, stating that "the costs of DRM do not measure up to the results."WEB, Marechal, Sander,weblink DRM on audio CDs abolished, 9 January 2007, Following EMI, Sony BMG was the last publisher to abolish DRM completely, and audio CDs containing DRM are no longer released by the four largest commercial record label companies."MEMBERWIDE">URL=HTTP://WWW.BUSINESSWEEK.COM/TECHNOLOGY/CONTENT/JAN2008/TC2008013_398775.HTMDATE=4 JANUARY 2008,

Internet music

Many internet music stores employ DRM to restrict usage of music purchased and downloaded.
  • Prior to 2009, Apple's iTunes Store utilized the FairPlay DRM system for music. Apple did not license its DRM to other companies, so only Apple devices and Apple's QuickTime media player could play iTunes music. In May 2007, EMI tracks became available in iTunes Plus format at a higher price. These tracks were higher quality (256 kbit/s) and DRM free. In October 2007, the cost of iTunes Plus tracks was lowered to US$0.99.WEB,weblink iTunes Plus DRM-free tracks expanding, dropping to 99 cents, Apple News from ARS Technica, 16 October 2007, 16 October 2007, In April 2009, all iTunes music became available completely DRM-free. (Videos sold and rented through iTunes, as well as iOS Apps, however, were to continue using Apple's FairPlay DRM.)
  • Napster music store offers a subscription-based approach to DRM alongside permanent purchases. Users of the subscription service can download and stream an unlimited amount of music transcoded to Windows Media Audio (WMA) while subscribed to the service. But when the subscription period lapses, all the downloaded music is unplayable until the user renews his or her subscription. Napster also charges users who wish to use the music on their portable device an additional $5 per month. In addition, Napster gives users the option of paying an additional $0.99 per track to burn it to CD or for the song to never expire. Music bought through Napster can be played on players carrying the Microsoft PlaysForSure logo (which, notably, do not include iPods or even Microsoft's own Zune). As of June 2009, Napster is offering DRM free MP3 music, which can be played on iPhones and iPods.
  • Wal-Mart Music Downloads, another music download store, charges $0.94 per track for all non-sale downloads. All Wal-Mart downloads are able to be played on any Windows PlaysForSure marked product. The music does play on the SanDisk's Sansa mp3 player, for example, but must be copied to the player's internal memory. It cannot be played through the player's microSD card slot, which is a problem that many users of the mp3 player experience.
  • Sony operated a music download service called "Connect" which used Sony's proprietary OpenMG DRM technology. Music downloaded from this store (usually via Sony's SonicStage software) was only playable on computers running Microsoft Windows and Sony hardware (including the PSP and some Sony Ericsson phones).
  • Kazaa is one of a few services offering a subscription-based pricing model. However, music downloads from the Kazaa website are DRM-protected and can only be played on computers or portable devices running Windows Media Player, and only as long as the customer remains subscribed to Kazaa.
The various services are currently not interoperable, though those that use the same DRM system (for instance the several Windows Media DRM format stores, including Napster, Kazaa and Yahoo Music) all provide songs that can be played side-by-side through the same player program. Almost all stores require client software of some sort to be downloaded, and some also need plug-ins. Several colleges and universities, such as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, have made arrangements with assorted Internet music suppliers to provide access (typically DRM-restricted) to music files for their students, to less than universal popularity, sometimes making payments from student activity fee funds.NEWS,weblink Free, Legal and Ignored, Nick Timeraos, WSJ.com (Wall Street Journal), 6 July 2006, 27 November 2006, One of the problems is that the music becomes unplayable after leaving school unless the student continues to pay individually. Another is that few of these vendors are compatible with the most common portable music player, the Apple iPod. The Gowers Review of Intellectual Property (to HMG in the UK; 141 pages, 40+ specific recommendations) has taken note of the incompatibilities, and suggests (Recommendations 8—12) that there be explicit fair dealing exceptions to copyright allowing libraries to copy and format-shift between DRM schemes, and further allowing end users to do the same privately. If adopted, some acrimony may decrease.Although DRM is prevalent for Internet music, some online music stores such as eMusic, Dogmazic, Amazon, and Beatport, do not use DRM despite encouraging users to avoid sharing music. Major labels have begun releasing more music without DRM. Eric Bangeman suggests in Ars Technica that this is because the record labels are "slowly beginning to realize that they can't have DRMed music and complete control over the online music market at the same time... One way to break the cycle is to sell music that is playable on any digital audio player. eMusic does exactly that, and their surprisingly extensive catalog of non-DRMed music has vaulted it into the number two online music store position behind the iTunes Store."WEB,weblink Testing DRM-free waters: EMI selling a few MP3s through Yahoo Music, Eric Bangeman, Ars Technica, 6 December 2006, Apple's Steve Jobs called on the music industry to eliminate DRM in an open letter titled Thoughts on Music.WEB,weblink Steve Jobs, Thoughts on Music, Apple's iTunes Store will start to sell DRM-free 256 kbit/s (up from 128 kbit/s) AAC encoded music from EMI for a premium price (this has since reverted to the standard price).In March 2007, Musicload.de, one of Europe's largest internet music retailers, announced their position strongly against DRM. In an open letter, Musicload stated that three out of every four calls to their customer support phone service are as a result of consumer frustration with DRM.NEWS, Ken Fisher, 18 March 2007, Musicload: 75% of customer service problems caused by DRM, Ars Technica,weblink 20 March 2007,

Mobile ring tones

The Open Mobile Alliance created a standard for interoperable DRM on mobile devices. The first version of OMA DRM consisted of a simple rights management language and was widely used to protect mobile phone ringtones from being copied from the phone to other devices. Later versions expanded the rights management language to similar expressiveness as Fairplay, but did not become widely used.

Television

The CableCard standard is used by cable television providers in the United States to restrict content to services to which the customer has subscribed.The broadcast flag concept was developed by Fox Broadcasting in 2001, and was supported by the MPAA and the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC). A ruling in May 2005, by a United States courts of appeals held that the FCC lacked authority to impose it on the TV industry in the US. It required that all HDTVs obey a stream specification determining whether a stream can be recorded. This could block instances of fair use, such as time-shifting. It achieved more success elsewhere when it was adopted by the Digital Video Broadcasting Project (DVB), a consortium of about 250 broadcasters, manufacturers, network operators, software developers, and regulatory bodies from about 35 countries involved in attempting to develop new digital TV standards.An updated variant of the broadcast flag has been developed in the Content Protection and Copy Management group under DVB (DVB-CPCM). Upon publication by DVB, the technical specification was submitted to European governments in March 2007. As with much DRM, the CPCM system is intended to control use of copyrighted material by the end-user, at the direction of the copyright holder. According to Ren Bucholz of the EFF, which paid to be a member of the consortium, "You won't even know ahead of time whether and how you will be able to record and make use of particular programs or devices".WEB,weblink Who Controls Your Television?, Electronic Frontier Foundation, 1 January 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080129123215weblink">weblink 29 January 2008, dmy-all, The normative sections have now all been approved for publication by the DVB Steering Board, and will be published by ETSI as a formal European Standard as ETSI TS 102 825-X where X refers to the Part number of specification. Nobody has yet stepped forward to provide a Compliance and Robustness regime for the standard (though several are rumoured to be in development), so it is not presently possible to fully implement a system, as there is nowhere to obtain the necessary device certificates.

Metadata

Sometimes, metadata is included in purchased media which records information such as the purchaser's name, account information, or email address. Also included may be the file's publisher, author, creation date, download date, and various notes. This information is not embedded in the played content, like a watermark, but is kept separate, but within the file or stream.As an example, metadata is used in media purchased from Apple's iTunes Store for DRM-free as well as DRM-restricted versions of their music or videos. This information is included as MPEG standard metadata.WEB,weblink Tunes Plus DRM-free, not free of annoying glitches, Engadget, WEB,weblink Macworld, Watermarked iTunes files,

Watermarks

Digital watermarks exist since 1992. They are steganographically embedded within audio or video data during production or distribution. They can be used for recording the copyright owner, the distributor, the distribution chain or identifying the purchaser of the music.{{citation needed|date=June 2017}}Watermarks are not complete DRM mechanisms in their own right, but are used as part of a system for copyright enforcement, such as helping provide prosecution evidence for legal purposes, rather than direct technological restriction. Some programs used to edit video and/or audio may distort, delete, or otherwise interfere with watermarks. Signal/modulator-carrier chromatography may also separate watermarks from original audio or detect them as glitches. Additionally, comparison of two separately obtained copies of audio using simple, home-grown algorithms can often reveal watermarks.{{citation needed|date=June 2017}}

Streaming media services

Since the late-2000s the trend in media consumption has been towards renting content using online streaming services, for example Spotify for music and Netflix for video content. Copyright holders often require that these services protect the content they licence using DRM mechanisms.

Laws

{{refimprove section|date=May 2014}}{{globalize|section|date=November 2012}}The 1996 World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty (WCT) requires nations to enact laws against DRM circumvention, and has been implemented in most member states of the World Intellectual Property Organization.The United States implementation is the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), while in Europe the treaty has been implemented by the 2001 European directive on copyright, which requires member states of the European Union to implement legal protections for technological prevention measures. {{As of|2006|alt=In 2006}}, the lower house of the French parliament adopted such legislation as part of the controversial DADVSI law, but added that protected DRM techniques should be made interoperable, a move which caused widespread controversy in the United States. The Tribunal de grande instance de Paris concluded in 2006, that the complete blocking of any possibilities of making private copies was an impermissible behaviour under French copyright law.WEB,weblink Christophe R. vs Warner Music: French court bans private-copying hostile DRM, Natali Helberger, 1 March 2006, INDICARE, 31 May 2014,

China

In 1998 "Interim Regulations" were founded in China, referring to the DMCA.WEB,weblink Digital age copyright law in Asia: DMCA-type provisions in China and India, Gerk, David, Dannenberg, Ross, 13 May 2009, Lexology, China also has Intellectual Property Rights, which to the World Trade Organization, was "not in compliance with the Berne Convention". The WTO panel "determined that China's copyright laws do not provide the same efficacy to non- Chinese nationals as they do to Chinese citizens, as required by the Berne Convention". and that "China's copyright laws do not provide enforcement procedures so as to permit effective action against any act of infringement of intellectual property rights".

European Union

On 22 May 2001, the European Union passed the EU Copyright Directive, an implementation of the 1996 WIPO Copyright Treaty, that addressed many of the same issues as the DMCA.On 25 April 2007, the European Parliament supported the first directive of EU, which aims to harmonize criminal law in the member states. It adopted a first reading report on harmonizing the national measures for fighting copyright abuse. If the European Parliament and the Council approve the legislation, the submitted directive will oblige the member states to consider a crime a violation of international copyright committed with commercial purposes. The text suggests numerous measures: from fines to imprisonment, depending on the gravity of the offense. The EP members supported the Commission motion, changing some of the texts. They excluded patent rights from the range of the directive and decided that the sanctions should apply only to offenses with commercial purposes. Copying for personal, non-commercial purposes was also excluded from the range of the directive.In 2012, the Court of Justice of the European Union ruled in favor of reselling copyrighted games, prohibiting any preventative action that would prevent such transaction.WEB,weblink European Court of Justice rules on the right to sell your digital games and licenses, PC Gamer, 8 October 2014, The court said that "The first sale in the EU of a copy of a computer program by the copyright holder or with his consent exhausts the right of distribution of that copy in the EU. A rightholder who has marketed a copy in the territory of a Member State of the EU thus loses the right to rely on his monopoly of exploitation in order to oppose the resale of that copy."WEB,weblink European Courts Rule in Favor of Consumers Reselling Downloaded Games, Greg Voakes, 3 July 2012, Forbes, 8 October 2014, In 2014, the Court of Justice of the European Union ruled that circumventing DRM on game devices may be legal under some circumstances, limiting the legal protection to only cover technological measures intended to prevent or eliminate unauthorised acts of reproduction, communication, public offer or distribution.WEB,weblink Europe's Highest Court Says DRM Circumvention May Be Lawful in Certain Circumstances, Techdirt., 8 October 2014, WEB,weblink DRM Circumvention May Be Legal, European Union Court Rules, 23 January 2014, The Escapist, 8 October 2014,

India

India is not a signatory to WIPO Copyright Treaty nor the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty.Seemantani Sharma, ‘India, RCEP and the WIPO Internet Treaties: Time For a Rethink’ (The Diplomat, 16 August 2017) accessed 16 May 2018. However, as a part of its 2012 amendment of copyright laws, it implemented digital rights management protection.WEB,weblink Needless pressure to change copyright laws, DEVIKA AGARWAL & RADHIKA, AGARWAL, @businessline, Section 65A of Copyright Act, 1957 imposed criminal sanctions on circumvention of "effective technological protection measures".Zakir Thomas, 'Overview of Changes to Indian Copyright Law' [2012] 17 Journal of Intellectual Property Rights pp 324–334, 332 Section 65B criminalized interference with digital rights management information. Any distribution of copies whose rights management information was modified was also criminalized by Section 65B. The terms used in the provisions were not specifically defined, with the concerned Parliamentary Standing Committee indicating the same to have been deliberate. The Standing Committee noted that similar terms in developed terms were used to considerable complexity and therefore in light of the same, it was preferable to keep it open-ended. A prison sentence is mandatory under both provisions, with a maximum term of 2 years in addition to fine, which is discretionary. While the statute doesn't include exceptions to copyright infringement, including fair use directly, Section 65A allows measures "unless they are expressly prohibited", which may implicitly include such exceptions. Section 65B however, lacks any exceptions.Arul George Scaria, 'Does India Need Digital Rights Management Provisions or Better Digital Business Management Strategies?' [2012] 17 Journal of Intellectual Property Rights pp. 463–477, 465 Further. Section 65B (digital rights management information) allows resort to other civil provisions, unlike Section 65A. It is important to note that the WIPO Internet Treaties themselves do not mandate criminal sanctions, merely requiring "effective legal remedies."Urs Gasser, 'Legal Frameworks and Technological Protection Measures: Moving towards a Best Practices Model' Research Publication No. 2006-04 at Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society (Harvard) Thus, India's adoption of criminal sanctions ensures compliance with the highest standards of the WIPO internet treaties. Given the 2012 amendment, India's entry to the WIPO Internet Treaties appears facilitated,Arul George Scaria, 'Does India Need Digital Rights Management Provisions or Better Digital Business Management Strategies?' [2012] 17 Journal of Intellectual Property Rights pp. 463–477, 464 especially since ratification of the WIPO Internet Treaties is mandatory under agreements like the RCEP.

Israel

{{as of| 2019}} Israel had not ratified the WIPO Copyright Treaty. Israeli law does not currently expressly prohibit the circumvention of technological measures used to implement digital rights management. In June 2012 The Israeli Ministry of Justice proposed a bill to prohibit such activities, but the Knesset did not pass it. In September 2013, the Supreme Court ruled that the current copyright law could not be interpreted to prohibit the circumvention of digital rights management, though the Court left open the possibility that such activities could result in liability under the law of unjust enrichment.WEB,weblink Israel Technology Law Blog – No Digital Rights Management Here,

United States

In May 1998, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) passed as an amendment to US copyright law, which criminalizes the production and dissemination of technology that lets users circumvent technical copy-restriction methods. (For a more detailed analysis of the statute, see WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act.)Reverse engineering of existing systems is expressly permitted under the Act under the specific condition of a safe harbor, where circumvention is necessary to achieve interoperability with other software . See 17 U.S.C. Sec. 1201(f). Open-source software to decrypt content scrambled with the Content Scrambling System and other encryption techniques presents an intractable problem with the application of the Act. Much depends on the intent of the actor. If the decryption is done for the purpose of achieving interoperability of open source operating systems with proprietary operating systems, it would be protected by Section 1201(f) the Act. Cf., Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Corley, 273 F.3d 429 (2d Cir. 2001) at notes 5 and 16. However, dissemination of such software for the purpose of violating or encouraging others to violate copyrights has been held illegal. See Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Reimerdes, 111 F. Supp. 2d 346 (S.D.N.Y. 2000).The DMCA has been largely ineffective in protecting DRM systems,WEB,weblink DMCA's author says the DMCA is a failure, blames record industry, Cory, Doctorow, 24 March 2007, 12 January 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110623191635weblink">weblink 23 June 2011, dmy-all, as software allowing users to circumvent DRM remains widely available. However, those who wish to preserve the DRM systems have attempted to use the Act to restrict the distribution and development of such software, as in the case of DeCSS.Although the Act contains an exception for research, the exception is subject to vague qualifiers that do little to reassure researchers. Cf., 17 U.S.C. Sec. 1201(g). The DMCA has affected cryptography, because many {{Who|date=March 2010}} fear that cryptanalytic research may violate the DMCA. In 2001, the arrest of Russian programmer Dmitry Sklyarov for alleged infringement of the DMCA was a highly publicized example of the law's use to prevent or penalize development of anti-DRM measures. He was arrested in the US after a presentation at DEF CON, and spent several months in jail. The DMCA has also been cited as chilling to non-criminal inclined users, such as students of cryptanalysis including, Professor Felten and students at Princeton University;WEB,weblink RIAA challenges SDMI attack, 7 January 2002, security consultants, such as Netherlands based Niels Ferguson, who declined to publish vulnerabilities he discovered in Intel's secure-computing scheme due to fear of being arrested under the DMCA when he travels to the US; and blind or visually impaired users of screen readers or other assistive technologies.WEB,weblink Joint Comments of the American Council of the Blind and the American Foundation for the Blind, DOCKET NO. RM 2011-7, American Council of the Blind and American Foundation for the Blind, 2011,

International issues

In Europe, there have been several ongoing dialog activities that are characterized by their consensus-building intention:
  • January 2001 Workshop on Digital Rights Management of the World Wide Web Consortium .WEB,weblink W3C Workshop – Digital Rights Management for the Web, W3.org, 31 August 2010,
  • 2003 Participative preparation of the European Committee for Standardization/Information Society Standardization System (CEN/ISSS) DRM Report.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061005073900weblink">weblink 5 October 2006, Digital Rights Management, European Committee for Standardization (CEN),
  • 2005 DRM Workshops of Directorate-General for Information Society and Media (European Commission), and the work of the High Level Group on DRM.WEB, European Commission – Information Society – eEurope 2005, eEurope 2005 Action Plan, 2005,weblinkweblink 2006-05-20, yes,
  • 2005 Gowers Review of Intellectual Property by the British Government from Andrew Gowers published in 2006 with recommendations regarding copyright terms, exceptions, orphaned works, and copyright enforcement.
  • 2004 Consultation process of the European Commission, DG Internal Market, on the Communication COM(2004)261 by the European Commission on "Management of Copyright and Related Rights" (closed).WEB,weblink The address you requested is obsolete, Europa.eu.int, 23 February 2009, 31 August 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060422013330weblink">weblink 22 April 2006, dmy-all,
  • The AXMEDIS project, a European Commission Integrated Project of the FP6, has as its main goal automating content production, copy protection, and distribution, to reduce the related costs, and to support DRM at both B2B and B2C areas, harmonizing them.
  • The INDICARE project is an ongoing dialogue on consumer acceptability of DRM solutions in Europe. It is an open and neutral platform for exchange of facts and opinions, mainly based on articles by authors from science and practice.

Opposition

Many organizations, prominent individuals, and computer scientists are opposed to DRM. Two notable DRM critics are John Walker, as expressed for instance, in his article "The Digital Imprimatur: How Big brother and big media can put the Internet genie back in the bottle",WEB,weblink The Digital Imprimatur: How big brother and big media can put the Internet genie back in the bottle., John, Walker, 13 September 2003, and Richard Stallman in his article The Right to ReadWEB, Richard Stallman,weblink The Right to Read, and in other public statements: "DRM is an example of a malicious feature – a feature designed to hurt the user of the software, and therefore, it's something for which there can never be toleration".WEB,weblink Transcript of Opening session of first international GPLv3 conference, 16 January 2006, Ciaran, O'Riordan, Stallman also believes that using the word "rights" is misleading and suggests that the word "restrictions", as in "Digital Restrictions Management", be used instead.WEB,weblink Opposing Digital Rights Mismanagement (Or Digital Restrictions Management, as we now call it)?, 29 May 2014, This terminology has since been adopted by many other writers and critics unconnected with Stallman.WEB,weblink Sony rootkit: The untold story, David Berlind, 18 November 2005, ZDNet, 20 August 2015, {{Citation| last = Grassmuck| first = Volker| year = 2003| title = Vom PC zum TC: Trusted Computing und Digital Restrictions Management| publisher = Verlag Recht und Wirtschaft| publication-place = Frankfurt am Main| page =| url =weblink| accessdate = 20 August 2015| series = Kommunikation & Recht| work = Trusted Computing}}CONFERENCE,weblink Scholarly e‐books: the views of 16,000 academics: Results from the JISC National E‐Book Observatory, Jamali, Hamid R., Nicholas, David, Rowlands, Ian, 2009, Emerald Insight, Aslib Proceedings, 33–47, Other prominent critics of DRM include Professor Ross Anderson of Cambridge University, who heads a British organization which opposes DRM and similar efforts in the UK and elsewhere, and Cory Doctorow, a writer and technology blogger.There have been numerous others who see DRM at a more fundamental level. This is similar to some of the ideas in Michael H. Goldhaber's presentation about "The Attention Economy and the Net" at a 1997 conference on the "Economics of Digital Information".WEB,weblink The Attention Economy and the Net, 28 July 2008, (sample quote from the "Advice for the Transition" section of that presentation: "If you can't figure out how to afford it without charging, you may be doing something wrong.")The EFF and similar organizations such as FreeCulture.org also hold positions which are characterized as opposed to DRM.WEB, DRM,weblink Electronic Frontier Foundation, Electronic Frontier Foundation, 13 January 2016, The Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure has criticized DRM's effect as a trade barrier from a free market perspective.BOOK, Media in the Digital Age, Pavlik, John, Columbia University Press, 2008, 0231142099, New York, 181, The final version of the GNU General Public License version 3, as released by the Free Software Foundation, has a provision that "strips" DRM of its legal value, so people can break the DRM on GPL software without breaking laws like the DMCA. Also, in May 2006, the FSF launched a "Defective by Design" campaign against DRM.WEB,weblink Frequently Asked Questions about the GNU Licenses – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation, FSF, 28 July 2010, 31 August 2010, WEB,weblink The Campaign to Eliminate DRM, DefectiveByDesign.org, 31 August 2010, Creative Commons provides licensing options encouraging the expansion of and building upon creative work without the use of DRM.WEB,weblink Frequently Asked Questions – CcWiki, 22 November 2006, 9 November 2006, In addition, Creative Commons licenses have anti-DRM clauses, therefore the use of DRM by a licensee to restrict the freedoms granted by a Creative Commons license is a breach of the Baseline Rights asserted by the licenses.WEB,weblink Baseline Rights – Creative Commons Wiki, 23 December 2007, 13 July 2007, Bill Gates spoke about DRM at CES in 2006. According to him, DRM is not where it should be, and causes problems for legitimate consumers while trying to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate users.WEB,weblink Bill Gates on the Future of DRM., According to Steve Jobs, Apple opposes DRM music after a public letter calling its music labels to stop requiring DRM on its iTunes Store. As of 6 January 2009, the iTunes Store is DRM-free for songs.WEB,weblink Changes Coming to the iTunes Store, apple.com, 6 January 2009, 8 March 2009, File:DRM protest Boston DefectiveByDesign.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Man in Tyvek suit holding a "Eliminate DRM" sign|Defective by DesignDefective by DesignThe Norwegian consumer rights organization "Forbrukerrådet" complained to Apple Inc. in 2007, about the company's use of DRM in, and in conjunction with, its iPod and iTunes products. Apple was accused of restricting users' access to their music and videos in an unlawful way, and of using EULAs which conflict with Norwegian consumer legislation. The complaint was supported by consumers' ombudsmen in Sweden and Denmark, and is currently being reviewed in the EU. Similarly, the United States Federal Trade Commission held hearings in March 2009, to review disclosure of DRM limitations to customers' use of media products.WEB,weblink FTC Town Hall to Address Digital Rights Management Technologies,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141029070751weblink">weblink 29 October 2014, Federal Trade Commission, DRM opponents argue that the presence of DRM violates existing private property rights and restricts a range of heretofore normal and legal user activities. A DRM component would control a device a user owns (such as a digital audio player) by restricting how it may act with regard to certain content, overriding some of the user's wishes (for example, preventing the user from burning a copyrighted song to CD as part of a compilation or a review). Doctorow has described this possibility as "the right to make up your own copyright laws".DRM Is The Right To Make Up Your Own Copyright Laws – Mike Masnick, Techdirt, 6 February 2014An example of this restriction to legal user activities may be seen in Microsoft's Windows Vista operating system in which content using a Protected Media Path is disabled or degraded depending on the DRM scheme's evaluation of whether the hardware and its use are 'secure'.WEB,weblink What Content Will Be Crippled When Output in Vista?, 8 September 2010, All forms of DRM depend on the DRM-enabled device (e.g., computer, DVD player, TV) imposing restrictions that (at least by intent) cannot be disabled or modified by the user. Key issues around DRM such as the right to make personal copies, provisions for persons to lend copies to friends, provisions for service discontinuance, hardware agnosticism, software and operating system agnosticism,WEB,weblink Why is Netflix ignoring Linux?, 8 September 2010, contracts for public libraries, and customers' protection against one-side amendments of the contract by the publisher have not been fully addressed.(see references 80–89) It has also been pointed out that it is entirely unclear whether owners of content with DRM are legally permitted to pass on their property as inheritance to another person.Why the Kindle's DRM is anti-elderly: AARP should fight against it {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090503064350weblink |date=3 May 2009 }}, 26 February 2009Tools like FairUse4WM have been created to strip Windows Media of DRM restrictions.WEB,weblink Engadget FairUse4WM strips Windows Media DRM!, 25 August 2006, Valve Corporation president Gabe Newell also stated "most DRM strategies are just dumb" because they only decrease the value of a game in the consumer's eyes. Newell suggests that the goal should instead be "[creating] greater value for customers through service value". Valve operates Steam, a service which serves as an online store for PC games, as well as a social networking service and a DRM platform.WEB,weblink Gabe Newell Says DRM Strategies 'Are Just Dumb', 2 December 2008, At the 2012 Game Developers Conference, the CEO of CD Projekt Red, Marcin Iwinski, announced that the company will not use DRM in any of its future releases. Iwinski stated of DRM, "it's just over-complicating things. We release the game. It's cracked in two hours, it was no time for (The Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings|Witcher 2). What really surprised me is that the pirates didn't use the GOG version, which was not protected. They took the SecuROM retail version, cracked it and said 'we cracked it' – meanwhile there's a non-secure version with a simultaneous release. You'd think the GOG version would be the one floating around." Iwinski added after the presentation, "DRM does not protect your game. If there are examples that it does, then people maybe should consider it, but then there are complications with legit users."WEB,weblink 'Witcher 2' Developer: 'We Will Never Use Any DRM Anymore', Kain, Eric, Forbes, 30 March 2012, Bruce Schneier argues that digital copy prevention is futile: "What the entertainment industry is trying to do is to use technology to contradict that natural law. They want a practical way to make copying hard enough to save their existing business. But they are doomed to fail."The Futility of Digital Copy Prevention Crypto-Gram Newsletter, 15 May 2001 He has also described trying to make digital files uncopyable as being like "trying to make water not wet".WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100103095236weblink">weblink 3 January 2010, Quickest Patch Ever, Bruce Schneier, 7 September 2005, Wired, The creators of StarForce also take this stance, stating that "The purpose of copy protection is not making the game uncrackable – it is impossible."WEB,weblink Official words of StarForce on DRM, 8 September 2010, The Association for Computing Machinery and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers have historically opposed DRM, even going so far as to name AACS as a technology "most likely to fail" in an issue of IEEE Spectrum.WEB,weblink Loser: DVD Copy Protection, Take 2, 4 May 2007, Tekla S. Perry, January 2007, Spectrum Online, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070608074811weblink">weblink 8 June 2007, dmy-all,

DRM-free works

File:DRM-free label.en.svg|thumb|alt=DRM FREE with the no symbol removed|Label proposed by the Free Software FoundationFree Software FoundationIn reaction to opposition to DRM, many publishers and artists label their works as "DRM-free". Major companies that have done so include the following:
  • Apple Inc. sold DRM content on their iTunes Store when it started 2003, but made music DRM-free after April 2007WEB,weblink Apple Unveils Higher Quality DRM-Free Music on the iTunes Store, 13 September 2008, and has been labeling all music as "DRM-Free" since January 2009.WEB,weblink Apple hides account info in DRM-free music, too, 13 September 2008, The music still carries a digital watermark to identify the purchaser. Other works sold on iTunes such as apps, audiobooks, movies, and TV shows continue to be protected by DRM.WEB,weblink Apple announces all music on iTunes to go DRM-free – no word on movies, TV shows, games, audiobooks and applications, 8 January 2009,
  • Since 2014, Comixology, which distributes digital comics, has allowed rights holders to provide the option of a DRM-free download of purchased comics. Publishers which allow this include Dynamite Entertainment, Image Comics, Thrillbent, Top Shelf Productions, and Zenescope Entertainment.NEWS, Amazon's comixology introduces DRM-free downloads,weblink 30 July 2014, The Guardian, 25 July 2014,
  • GOG.com (formerly Good Old Games), a digital distributor started in 2008, specializes in the distribution of PC video games. While most other digital distribution services allow various forms of DRM (or have them embedded), gog.com has a strict non-DRM policy.WEB,weblink First look: GOG revives classic PC games for download age, 27 December 2012, Frank, Caron, 9 September 2008, Ars Technica, [...] [Good Old Games] focuses on bringing old, time-tested games into the downloadable era with low prices and no DRM.,
  • All music sold on Google Play is DRM free.
  • Tor Books, a major publisher of science fiction and fantasy books, started selling DRM-free e-books in July 2012.WEB, Tor/Forge E-book Titles to Go DRM-Free,weblink Tor.com, 24 April 2012, Smaller e-book publishers, such as Baen Books and O'Reilly Media, had already forgone DRM previously.
  • Vimeo on Demand is one of the publishers included in the Free Software Foundation's DRM-free guide.WEB, Guide to DRM-Free Living {{!, Defective by Design|url =weblink|website = www.defectivebydesign.org|accessdate = 3 August 2015}}

Shortcomings

DRM server and Internet outages

Many DRM systems require authentication with an online server. Whenever the server goes down, or a region or country experiences an Internet outage, it effectively locks out people from registering or using the material. This is especially true for a product that requires a persistent online authentication, where, for example, a successful DDoS attack on the server would essentially make all copies of the material unusable.

DRM bypass methods for audio and video content

One simple method to bypass DRM on audio files is to burn the content to an audio CD and then rip it into DRM-free files. Some software products simplify and automate this burn-rip process by allowing the user to burn music to a CD-RW disc or to a Virtual CD-R drive, then automatically rip and encode the music, and automatically repeat this process until all selected music has been converted, rather than forcing the user to do this one CD (72–80 minutes worth of music) at a time.Many software programs have been developed that intercept the data stream as it is decrypted out of the DRM-restricted file, and then use this data to construct a DRM-free file. These programs require a decryption key. Programs that do this for Blu-ray Discs, DVDs, and HD DVDs include universal decryption keys in the software itself. Programs that do this for iTunes audio, PlaysForSure songs, and TiVo ToGo recordings, however, rely on the user's own key – that is, they can only process content the user has legally acquired under his or her own account.Another method is to use software to record the signals being sent through the audio or video cards or plug analog recording devices into the analog outputs of the media player. These techniques utilize the "analog hole".To bypass DRM technologies embedded in video-streaming services, hackers employ a variety of methods. Besides rerecording and redistributing video streams, they place links to video-streaming services in web pages owned by the hackers, sell legitimate users' data on the black market for other people's use, and legitimate users sharing their account with family or friends who intend not to pay for the service.NEWS,weblink DRM and the Challenge of Securing Content, TvTechnology, TV Technology, 26 May 2017, en-US,

Analog recording

All forms of DRM for audio and visual material (excluding interactive materials, e.g., videogames) are subject to the analog hole, namely that in order for a viewer to play the material, the digital signal must be turned into an analog signal containing light and/or sound for the viewer, and so available to be copied as no DRM is capable of controlling content in this form. In other words, a user could play a purchased audio file while using a separate program to record the sound back into the computer into a DRM-free file format.All DRM to date can therefore be bypassed by recording this signal and digitally storing and distributing it in a non DRM limited form, by anyone who has the technical means of recording the analog stream. Furthermore, the analog hole cannot be overcome without the additional protection of externally imposed restrictions, such as legal regulations, because the vulnerability is inherent to all analog means of transmission.Sicker, Douglas, Paul Ohm, and Shannon Gunaji. "The Analog Hole and the Price of Music: An Empirical Study". Journal of Tellecommunications and High Technology. 2006–2007. However, the conversion from digital to analog and back is likely to force a loss of quality, particularly when using lossy digital formats. HDCP is an attempt to plug the analog hole, although as of 2009, it was largely ineffective.WEB,weblink MPAA shows how to videorecord a TV set, 4 September 2009, BOOK,weblink Security and Privacy in Digital Rights Management, 4 September 2009, 9783540436775, Sander, Tomas, 26 April 2002, Asus released a soundcard which features a function called "Analog Loopback Transformation" to bypass the restrictions of DRM. This feature allows the user to record DRM-restricted audio via the soundcard's built-in analog I/O connection.WEB,weblink Computex 2007: ASUS Showcases New Generation Audio Card, 28 December 2014, www.techpowerup.com, 6 June 2007, WEB,weblink PC Pro Product Reviews Asus Xonar D2, Pcpro.co.uk, 1 August 2007, 20 February 2012, In order to prevent this exploit, there has been some discussions between copyright holders and manufacturers of electronics capable of playing such content to no longer include analog connectivity in their devices.{{citation needed|date=June 2016}} The movement, dubbed as "Analog Sunset", has seen a steady decline in analog output options on most Blu-ray devices manufactured after 2010.{{citation needed|date=June 2016}}

General computing platforms

Many of the DRM systems in use are designed to work on general purpose computing hardware, such as desktop PCs, apparently because this equipment is felt to be a major contributor to revenue loss from disallowed copying.{{citation needed|date=January 2013}} Large commercial copyright infringers avoid consumer equipment,{{Citation needed|date=December 2010}} so losses from such infringers will not be covered by such provisions.Such schemes, especially software based ones, can never be wholly secure since the software must include all the information necessary to decrypt the content, such as the decryption keys. An attacker will be able to extract this information, directly decrypt and copy the content, which bypasses the restrictions imposed by a DRM system.WEB,weblink PDF, Microsoft Research DRM Talk, Cory, Doctorow, Cory Doctorow, At the end of the day, all DRM systems share a common vulnerability: they provide their attackers with ciphertext, the cipher and the key. At this point, the secret isn't a secret anymore., 17 June 2004, 17 August 2007, craphound.com,

Purpose-built hardware

Many DRM schemes use encrypted media which requires purpose-built hardware to hear or see the content. This appears to ensure that only licensed users (those with the hardware) can access the content. It additionally tries to protect a secret decryption key from the users of the system.While this in principle can work, it is extremely difficult to build the hardware to protect the secret key against a sufficiently determined adversary. Many such systems have failed in the field. Once the secret key is known, building a version of the hardware that performs no checks is often relatively straightforward. In addition user verification provisions are frequently subject to attack, pirate decryption being among the most frequented ones.A common real-world example can be found in commercial direct broadcast satellite television systems such as DirecTV and Malaysia's Astro. The company uses tamper-resistant smart cards to store decryption keys so that they are hidden from the user and the satellite receiver.

Watermarks

Watermarks can often be removed, although degradation of video or audio can occur.

Undecrypted copying failure

Mass redistribution of hard copies does not necessarily need DRM to be decrypted or removed, as it can be achieved by bit-perfect copying of a legally obtained medium without accessing the decrypted content. Additionally, still-encrypted disk images can be distributed over the Internet and played on legitimately licensed players.

Obsolescence

When standards and formats change, it may be difficult to transfer DRM-restricted content to new media, for instance Microsoft's new media player Zune did not support content that uses Microsoft's own PlaysForSure DRM scheme they had previously been selling.WEB,weblink Zune Won't Play Old DRM Infected Files, 19 September 2006, 19 September 2007, slashdot.org, Additionally, any system that requires contact with an authentication server is vulnerable to that server's becoming unavailable, as happened in 2007, when videos purchased from Major League Baseball (mlb.com) prior to 2006, became unplayable due to a change to the servers that validate the licenses.WEB,weblink MLB Fans Who Bought DRM Videos Get Hosed, 7 November 2007, 8 November 2007, slashdot.org, Furthermore, when a company undergoes business adjustment or even bankrupt, its legacy service may become unavailable. Examples include MSN MusicNEWS,weblink DRM sucks redux: Microsoft to nuke MSN Music DRM keys, 22 April 2008, 22 April 2008, Ars Technica, Jacqui, Cheng, , Yahoo! Music StoreNEWS,weblink DRM still sucks: Yahoo Music going dark, taking keys with it, 24 July 2008, 18 May 2012, Ars Technica, Nate, Anderson, , Adobe Content Server 3 for Adobe PDFWEB,weblink Adobe Content 3 Server Discontinued, 22 February 2011, , Acetrax Video on DemandWEB,weblink VOD Service Acetrax Shutting Down, Forcing Customers Through DRM Hoops To Retain Their Purchased Movies, 23 May 2013, , etc.

Environmental issues

DRM can accelerate hardware obsolescence, turning it into electronic waste sooner:
  • DRM-related restrictions on capabilities of hardware can artificially reduce the range of potential uses of the device (to the point of making a device consisting of general-purpose components usable only for a purpose approved, or with “content” provided, by the vendor), limit upgradeability and repairability.WEB,weblink Copyright.gov, Ntia.doc.gov Cf. proprietary abandonware, orphan works, planned obsolescence. Examples:
  • Users may be forced to buy new devices for compatibility with DRM (i.e., through having to upgrade an operating system to one with different hardware requirements).WEB,weblink "Wow starts now"? Software Freedom Activists Stand Up To VISTA Launch, Heller, Gregory, 26 January 2007, Defective By Design.org, Free Software Foundation, Inc., 1 January 2013,

Moral and legitimacy implications

According to the EFF, "in an effort to attract customers, these music services try to obscure the restrictions they impose on you with clever marketing."WEB,weblink The Customer Is Always Wrong, Electronic Frontier Foundation, 6 February 2011, DRM laws are widely flouted: according to Australia Official Music Chart Survey, copyright infringements from all causes are practised by millions of people.WEB,weblink Australia Recording industry Association Survey, 2003, 5 February 2011,

Relaxing some forms of DRM can be beneficial

Jeff Raikes, ex-president of the Microsoft Business Division, stated: "If they're going to pirate somebody, we want it to be us rather than somebody else".WEB,weblink Microsoft executive: Pirating software? Choose Microsoft!, 6 February 2011, An analogous argument was made in an early paper by Kathleen Conner and Richard Rummelt.JOURNAL, Software Piracy: An Analysis of Protection Strategies, Conner, Kathleen and Richard Rummelt, Management Science, 37, 1991, 2632386, 2, 10.1287/mnsc.37.2.125, A subsequent study of digital rights management for e-books by Gal Oestreicher-Singer and Arun Sundararajan showed that relaxing some forms of DRM can be beneficial to digital rights holders because the losses from piracy are outweighed by the increases in value to legal buyers.WEB,weblink Are Digital Rights Valuable? Theory and Evidence from the eBook Industry, Oestreicher-Singer, Gal and Arun Sundararajan, Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems, 2004, Also, free distribution, even if unauthorized, can be beneficial to small or new content providers by spreading and popularizing content and therefore generating a larger consumer base by sharing and word of mouth. Several musicians {{Who|date=January 2019}} have grown to popularity by posting their music videos on sites like YouTube where the content is free to listen to. This method of putting the product out in the world free of DRM not only generates a greater following but also fuels greater revenue through other merchandise (hats, T-shirts), concert tickets, and of course, more sales of the content to paying consumers.

Can increase infringement

While the main intent of DRM is to prevent unauthorized copies of a product, there are mathematical models that suggest that DRM schemes can fail to do their job on multiple levels.WEB, Music Downloads and the Flip Side of Digital Rights Management,weblink 12 July 2012, Dinah A. Vernik, Devavrat Purohit, Preyas S. Desai, 2011, The biggest failure that can result from DRM is that they have a potential to increase the infringement rate of a product. This goes against the held belief that DRM can always reduce unauthorized distribution. There also seems to be evidence that DRM will reduce profits.The driving factor behind this is related to how many restrictions DRM imposes on a legal buyer. An ideal DRM would be one which imposes zero restrictions on legal buyers but imposes restrictions on copyright infringers. Even if an ideal DRM can be created and used, in certain cases, it can be shown that removing the DRM will result in less unauthorized copying. For the ideal DRM, the reason why profits can increase is because of the demand is elastic. When there are more people legally buying and few people sharing the product, more profits are going to be made.The mathematical models are strictly applied to the music industry (music CDs, downloadable music). These models could be extended to the other industries such as the gaming industry which show similarities to the music industry model. There are real instances when DRM restrain consumers in the gaming industry. Some DRM games are required to connect to the Internet in order to play them.WEB, Sinclair, Brendan, Ubisoft DRM games to be temporarily unplayable,weblink Good Old Games' head of public relations and marketing, Trevor Longino, in agreement with this, believes that using DRM is less effective than improving a game's value in reducing video game infringement.WEB, Dobra, Andrei, DRM Doesn't Stop Piracy, Game Content Does, Good Old Games Believes,weblink 12 July 2012, However, TorrentFreak published a "Top 10 pirated games of 2008" list which shows that intrusive DRM is not the main reason why some games are copied more heavily than others. Popular games such as BioShock, Crysis Warhead, and Mass Effect which use intrusive DRM are strangely absent from the list.

Alternatives

Several business models have been proposed that offer an alternative to the use of DRM by content providers and rights holders.Committee on Intellectual Property Rights in the Emerging Information Infrastructure, National Research Council. (2000) "The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age." 3 May 2011.weblink

"Easy and cheap"

The first business model that dissuades illegal file sharing is to make downloading digital media easy and cheap. The use of noncommercial sites makes downloading digital media complex. For example, misspelling an artist's name in a search query will often fail to return a result, and some sites limit internet traffic, which can make downloading media a long and frustrating process. Furthermore, illegal file sharing websites are often host to viruses and malware which attach themselves to the files (see torrent poisoning).WEB,weblink Surprise, surprise – almost every piracy website features cyber scams, BetaNews, 8 October 2014, If digital media (for example, songs) are all provided on accessible, legitimate sites, and are reasonably priced, consumers will purchase media legally to overcome these frustrations.Comedian Louis C.K. made headlines in 2011, with the release of his concert film Live at the Beacon Theater as an inexpensive (US$5), DRM-free download. The only attempt to deter unlicensed copies was a letter emphasizing the lack of corporate involvement and direct relationship between artist and viewer. The film was a commercial success, turning a profit within 12 hours of its release. Some, including the artist himself, have suggested that file sharing rates were lower than normal as a result, making the release an important case study for the digital marketplace.WEB,weblink Louis CK: Live at the Beacon Theater, Buy.louisck.net, 13 December 2011, 7 January 2012, WEB, Ingram, Mathew,weblink What Louis C.K. Knows That Most Media Companies Don't, Businessweek, 14 December 2011, 7 January 2012, NEWS, chris hannay,weblink Why Louis C.K.'s big payday proves the Internet has ethics, The Globe and Mail, 6 September 2012, 7 January 2012, Webcomic Diesel Sweeties released a DRM-free PDF e-book on author R Stevens's 35th birthday,WEB,weblink A New DRM-free Experiment: Diesel Sweeties, news.cnet.com, 17 January 2012, 17 February 2012, WEB,weblink, Diesel Sweeties Webcomics Ebook, www.dieselsweeties.com, 17 February 2012, WEB, http:boingboing.net/2012/01/17/free-pdf-of-the-first-diesel-s.html, Free PDF of the first Diesel Sweeties comic collection, boingboing.net, 17 February 2012, leading to more than 140,000 downloads in the first month, according to Stevens.WEB,weblink Diesel Sweeties eBook-Stravaganza 3000 by Richard Stevens – Kickstarter, Kickstarter.com, 20 February 2012, He followed this with a DRM-free iBook specifically for the iPad, using Apple's new software,WEB,weblink An Experiment in iBookery, dieselsweeties.com, 23 January 2012, 17 February 2012, which generated more than 10,000 downloads in three days.WEB,weblink iBooks Follow-up, dieselsweeties.com, 26 January 2012, 17 February 2012, That led Stevens to launch a Kickstarter project – "ebook stravaganza 3000" – to fund the conversion of 3,000 comics, written over 12 years, into a single "humongous" e-book to be released both for free and through the iBookstore; launched 8 February 2012, with the goal of raising $3,000 in 30 days, the project met its goal in 45 minutes, and went on to be funded at more than 10 times its original goal.WEB,weblink Diesel Sweeties eBook-Stravaganza 3000, 17 February 2012, The "payment optional" DRM-free model in this case was adopted on Stevens' view that "there is a class of webcomics reader who would prefer to read in large chunks and, even better, would be willing to spend a little money on it."

Crowdfunding or pre-order model

In February 2012, Double Fine asked for an upcoming video game, Double Fine Adventure, for crowdfunding on kickstarter.com and offered the game DRM-free for backers. This project exceeded its original goal of $400,000 in 45 days, raising in excess of $2 million.WEB,weblink Double Fine Adventure, 17 February 2012, WEB,weblink Double Fine's adventure game will be DRM free for backers, videogamer.com, 16 February 2012, 17 February 2012, In this case DRM freedom was offered to backers as an incentive for supporting the project before release, with the consumer and community support and media attention from the highly successful Kickstarter drive counterbalancing {{citation needed span|any loss through file sharing.|date=June 2013}} Also, crowdfunding with the product itself as benefit for the supporters can be seen as pre-order or subscription business model in which one motivation for DRM, the uncertainty if a product will have enough paying customers to outweigh the development costs, is eliminated. After the success of Double Fine Adventure, many games were crowd-funded and many of them offered a DRM-free game version for the backers.drmfree-torment-is-the-most-richly-backed-game-on-kickstarter on theinquirer.netcivitas-the-drm-free-alternative-to-simcity-hits-kickstarter on techspot.comKitaru Kickstarter supporters get DRM-free copy of the game on technologytell.com

Digital content as promotion for traditional products

Many artists are using the Internet to give away music to create awareness and liking to a new upcoming album. The artists release a new song on the internet for free download, which consumers can download. The hope is to have the listeners buy the new album because of the free download. A common practice used today is releasing a song or two on the internet for consumers to indulge. In 2007, Radiohead released an album named "In Rainbows", in which fans could pay any amount they want, or download it for free.Monaghan, Angela. (2007). "Radiohead Challenges Labels With Free Album." Web. 10 May 2011.weblink

Artistic Freedom Voucher

The Artistic Freedom Voucher (AFV) introduced by Dean Baker is a way for consumers to support “creative and artistic work.” In this system, each consumer would have a refundable tax credit of $100 to give to any artist of creative work. To restrict fraud, the artists must register with the government. The voucher prohibits any artist that receives the benefits from copyrighting their material for a certain length of time. Consumers can obtain music for a certain amount of time easily and the consumer decides which artists receive the $100. The money can either be given to one artist or to many, the distribution is up to the consumer.Baker, Dean. (2003). "The Artistic Freedom Voucher: An Internet Age Alternative to Copyrights." Pg. 2–8. Web. 3 May. 2011.weblink

See also

{{Too many see alsos|date=June 2016}}

Related concepts

Lawsuits

Organizations

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • Lawrence Lessig's Free Culture, published by Basic Books in 2004, is available for free download in PDF format. The book is a legal and social history of copyright. Lessig is well known, in part, for arguing landmark cases on copyright law. A Professor of Law at Stanford University, Lessig writes for an educated lay audience, including for non-lawyers. He is, for the most part, an opponent of DRM technologies.
  • Rosenblatt, B. et al., Digital Rights Management: Business and Technology, published by M&T Books (John Wiley & Sons) in 2001. An overview of DRM technology, business implications for content publishers, and relationship to U.S. copyright law.
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101208173800weblink">Consumer's Guide to DRM, published in 10 languages (Czech, German, Greek, English, Spanish, French, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Swedish), produced by the weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101208173800weblink">INDICARE research and dialogue project
  • Eberhard Becker, Willms Buhse, Dirk Günnewig, Niels Rump: Digital Rights Management – Technological, Economic, Legal and Political Aspects. An 800-page compendium from 60 different authors on DRM.
  • Arun Sundararajan's weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101208173800weblink">Managing Digital Piracy: Pricing and Protection uses the following digital rights conjecture, that "digital rights increases the incidence of digital piracy, and that managing digital rights therefore involves restricting the rights of usage that contribute to customer value" to show that creative pricing can be an effective substitute for excessively stringent DRM.
  • Fetscherin, M., Implications of Digital Rights Management on the Demand for Digital Content, provides an excellent view on DRM from a consumers perspective. WEB,weblink Buch- und online Publikationen, dissertation.de, 5 February 1998, 31 August 2010,
  • The Pig and the Box, a book with colorful illustrations and having a coloring book version, by 'MCM'. It describes DRM in terms suited to kids, written in reaction to a Canadian entertainment industry copyright education initiative, aimed at children.
  • Present State and Emerging Scenarios of Digital Rights Management Systems – A paper by Marc Fetscherin which provides an overview of the various components of DRM, pro and cons and future outlook of how, where, when such systems might be used.
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101208173800weblink">DRM is Like Paying for Ice – Richard Menta article on MP3 Newswire discusses how DRM is implemented in ways to control consumers, but is undermining perceived product value in the process.
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101208173800weblink">A Semantic Web Approach to Digital Rights Management – PhD Thesis by Roberto García that tries to address DRM issues using Semantic Web technologies and methodologies.
  • Patricia Akester, "Technological Accommodation of Conflicts between Freedom of Expression and DRM: The First Empirical Assessment" available atweblink (unveiling, through empirical lines of enquiry, (1) whether certain acts which are permitted by law are being adversely affected by the use of DRM and (2) whether technology can accommodate conflicts between freedom of expression and DRM).

External links

{{commons category}} {{FOSS}}{{Intellectual property activism}}{{Broadcast encryption}}{{Authority control}}

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