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digital media
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{{short description|Any media that are encoded in machine-readable formats}}File:Innansicht Festplatte 512 MB von Quantum.jpg|thumb|Hard drives store information in binary form and so are considered a type of physical digital media.]]Digital media are any media that are encoded in machine-readable formats.WEB, Digital Media,weblink Technology Brief, University of Guelph, 28 March 2014, September 2006, Digital media can be created, viewed, distributed, modified and preserved on digital electronics devices.

Digital media

Examples of digital media include software, digital images, digital video, video games, web pages and websites, social media, digital data and databases, digital audio such as MP3, and electronic books. Digital media often contrasts with print media, such as printed books, newspapers and magazines, and other traditional or analog media, such as photographic film, audio tapes or video tapes.Digital media has had a significantly broad and complex impact on society and culture. Combined with the Internet and personal computing, digital media has caused disruptive innovation in publishing, journalism, public relations, entertainment, education, commerce and politics. Digital media has also posed new challenges to copyright and intellectual property laws, fostering an open content movement in which content creators voluntarily give up some or all of their legal rights to their work. The ubiquity of digital media and its effects on society suggest that we are at the start of a new era in industrial history, called the Information Age, perhaps leading to a paperless society in which all media are produced and consumed on computers.WEB, Dewar, James A., The information age and the printing press: looking backward to see ahead,weblink RAND Corporation, 29 March 2014, 1998, However, challenges to a digital transition remain, including outdated copyright laws, censorship, the digital divide, and the spectre of a digital dark age, in which older media becomes inaccessible to new or upgraded information systems.NEWS, Koehl, Sean, We need to act now to prevent a digital 'dark age',weblink 29 March 2014, Wired, 15 May 2013, Digital media has a significant, wide-ranging and complex impact on society and culture.

History

Codes and information by machines were first conceptualized by Charles Babbage in the early 1800s. Babbage imagined that these codes would give him instructions for his Motor of Difference and Analytical Engine, machines that Babbage had designed to solve the problem of error in calculations.Between 1822 and 1823, Ada Lovelace, mathematics, wrote the first instructions for calculating numbers on Babbage engines. Lovelace's instructions are now believed to be the first computer program.Although the machines were designed to perform analysis tasks, Lovelace anticipated the possible social impact of computers and programming, writing. "For in the distribution and combination of truths and formulas of analysis, which may become easier and more quickly subjected to the mechanical combinations of the engine, the relationships and the nature of many subjects in which science necessarily relates in new subjects, and more deeply researched ... there are in all extensions of human power or additions to human knowledge, various collateral influences, in addition to the primary and primary object reached. "Other old machine readable media include instructions for pianolas and weaving machines.It is estimated that in the year 1986 less than 1% of the world's media storage capacity was digital and in 2007 it was already 94%."The World’s Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information", especially Supporting online material, Martin Hilbert and Priscila López (2011), Science, 332(6025), 60-65; free access to the article through here: martinhilbert.net/WorldInfoCapacity.html The year 2002 is assumed to be the year when human kind was able to store more information in digital than in analog media (the "beginning of the digital age").WEB,weblink World_info_capacity_animation, Martin Hilbert, 11 June 2011, YouTube,

Digital computers

{{see also|Digital electronics|History of computing|History of computing hardware|History of programming languages|History of the transistor}}
missing image!
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Digital codes, like binary, can be changed without reconfiguring mechanical parts
Though they used machine-readable media, Babbage's engines, player pianos, jacquard looms and many other early calculating machines were themselves analog computers, with physical, mechanical parts. The first truly digital media came into existence with the rise of digital computers.WEB, Copeland, B. Jack, The modern history of computing,weblink The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, 31 March 2014, Fall 2008, Digital computers use binary code and Boolean logic to store and process information, allowing one machine in one configuration to perform many different tasks. The first modern, programmable, digital computers, the Manchester Mark 1 and the EDSAC, were independently invented between 1948 and 1949.NEWS, Sci/tech pioneers recall computer creation,weblink 29 March 2014, BBC, 15 April 1999, Though different in many ways from modern computers, these machines had digital software controlling their logical operations. They were encoded in binary, a system of ones and zeroes that are combined to make hundreds of characters. The 1s and 0s of binary are the "digits" of digital media.WEB,weblink 12 Projects You Should Know About Under the Digital India Initiative, 2 July 2015, In 1959, the metal–oxide–silicon field-effect transistor (MOSFET, or MOS transistor) was invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs.JOURNAL,weblink 1960 - Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Transistor Demonstrated, The Silicon Engine, Computer History Museum, BOOK, Lojek, Bo, History of Semiconductor Engineering, 2007, Springer Science & Business Media, 9783540342588, 321–3, It was the first truly compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses.BOOK, Moskowitz, Sanford L., Advanced Materials Innovation: Managing Global Technology in the 21st century, 2016, John Wiley & Sons, 9780470508923, 165-167,weblink The MOSFET led to the development of microprocessors, memory chips, and digital telecommunication circuits.BOOK, Colinge, Jean-Pierre, Greer, James C., Nanowire Transistors: Physics of Devices and Materials in One Dimension, 2016, Cambridge University Press, 9781107052406, 2,weblink This led to the development of the personal computer (PC) in the 1970s, and the beginning of the microcomputer revolutionBOOK, Malmstadt, Howard V., Enke, Christie G., Crouch, Stanley R., Making the Right Connections: Microcomputers and Electronic Instrumentation, 1994, American Chemical Society, 9780841228610, 389,weblink The relative simplicity and low power requirements of MOSFETs have fostered today's microcomputer revolution., and the Digital Revolution.WEB, The Foundation of Today's Digital World: The Triumph of the MOS Transistor,weblink Computer History Museum, 21 July 2019, 13 July 2010, BOOK, Raymer, Michael G., The Silicon Web: Physics for the Internet Age, 2009, CRC Press, 9781439803127, 365,weblink BOOK, Wong, Kit Po, Electrical Engineering - Volume II, 2009, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems, EOLSS Publications, 9781905839780, 7,weblink WEB, Transistors - an overview,weblink ScienceDirect, 8 August 2019,

"As We May Think"

While digital media did not come into common use until the late 20th century, the conceptual foundation of digital media is traced to the work of scientist and engineer Vannevar Bush and his celebrated essay "As We May Think," published in The Atlantic Monthly in 1945.NEWS, Simpson, Rosemary, 50 years after "As We May Think": the Brown/MIT Vannevar Bush symposium,weblink 29 March 2014, Interactions, March 1996, Allen Renear, Elli Mylonas, Andries van Dam, 47–67, Bush envisioned a system of devices that could be used to help scientists, doctors, historians and others, store, analyze and communicate information. Calling this then-imaginary device a "memex", Bush wrote:The owner of the memex, let us say, is interested in the origin and properties of the bow and arrow. Specifically he is studying why the short Turkish bow was apparently superior to the English long bow in the skirmishes of the Crusades. He has dozens of possibly pertinent books and articles in his memex. First he runs through an encyclopedia, finds an interesting but sketchy article, leaves it projected. Next, in a history, he finds another pertinent item, and ties the two together. Thus he goes, building a trail of many items. Occasionally he inserts a comment of his own, either linking it into the main trail or joining it by a side trail to a particular item. When it becomes evident that the elastic properties of available materials had a great deal to do with the bow, he branches off on a side trail which takes him through textbooks on elasticity and tables of physical constants. He inserts a page of longhand analysis of his own. Thus he builds a trail of his interest through the maze of materials available to him.NEWS, Bush, Vannevar, As We May Think,weblink 29 March 2014, The Atlantic Monthly, 1 July 1945, Bush hoped that the creation of this memex would be the work of scientists after World War II. Though the essay predated digital computers by several years, "As We May Think," anticipated the potential social and intellectual benefits of digital media and provided the conceptual framework for digital scholarship, the World Wide Web, wikis and even social media.WEB, Mynatt, Elizabeth, As we may think: the legacy of computing research and the power of human cognition,weblink Computing Research Association, 30 March 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140407053914weblink">weblink 7 April 2014, dead, It was recognized as a significant work even at the time of its publication.

Digital multimedia

{{See also|Data compression|Digital television|Image compression|Streaming media|Video coding format}}Practical digital multimedia distribution and streaming was made possible by advances in data compression, due to the impractically high memory, storage and bandwidth requirements of uncompressed media.BOOK, Lee, Jack, Scalable Continuous Media Streaming Systems: Architecture, Design, Analysis and Implementation, 2005, John Wiley & Sons, 9780470857649, 25,weblink The most important compression technique is the discrete cosine transform (DCT),BOOK, Ce, Zhu, Streaming Media Architectures, Techniques, and Applications: Recent Advances: Recent Advances, 2010, IGI Global, 9781616928339, 26,weblink a lossy compression algorithm that was first proposed as an image compression technique by Nasir Ahmed at the University of Texas in 1972.JOURNAL, Ahmed, Nasir, N. Ahmed, How I came up with the discrete cosine transform, Digital Signal Processing, January 1991, 1, 1, 4–5, 10.1016/1051-2004(91)90086-Z,weblink The DCT algorithm was the basis for the first practical video coding format, H.261, in 1988.BOOK, Ghanbari, Mohammed, Standard Codecs: Image Compression to Advanced Video Coding, 2003, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 9780852967102, 1-2,weblink It was followed by more DCT-based video coding standards, most notably the MPEG video formats from 1991 onwards. The JPEG image format, also based on the DCT algorithm, was introduced in 1992.WEB, T.81 – DIGITAL COMPRESSION AND CODING OF CONTINUOUS-TONE STILL IMAGES – REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDELINES,weblink CCITT, September 1992, 12 July 2019, The development of the modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) algorithm led to the MP3 audio coding format in 1994,WEB, Guckert, John, The Use of FFT and MDCT in MP3 Audio Compression,weblink University of Utah, Spring 2012, 14 July 2019, and the Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) format in 1999.WEB,weblink MP3 and AAC Explained, Brandenburg, Karlheinz, 1999, live,weblink 2017-02-13,

Impact

The digital revolution

{{See also|Digital Revolution}}Since the 1960s, computing power and storage capacity have increased exponentially, largely as a result of MOSFET scaling which enables MOS transistor counts to increase at a rapid pace predicted by Moore's law.JOURNAL, Motoyoshi, M., Through-Silicon Via (TSV), Proceedings of the IEEE, 2009, 97, 1, 43–48, 10.1109/JPROC.2008.2007462,weblink 0018-9219, WEB, Tortoise of Transistors Wins the Race - CHM Revolution,weblink Computer History Museum, 22 July 2019, NEWS, Transistors Keep Moore's Law Alive,weblink 18 July 2019, EETimes, 12 December 2018, Personal computers and smartphones put the ability to access, modify, store and share digital media in the hands of billions of people. Many electronic devices, from digital cameras to drones have the ability to create, transmit and view digital media. Combined with the World Wide Web and the Internet, digital media has transformed 21st century society in a way that is frequently compared to the cultural, economic and social impact of the printing press.NEWS, Bazillion, Richard, Academic libraries in the digital revolution,weblink 31 March 2014, Educause Quarterly, 2001, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130503055833weblink">weblink 3 May 2013, The change has been so rapid and so widespread that it has launched an economic transition from an industrial economy to an information-based economy, creating a new period in human history known as the Information Age or the digital revolution.The transition has created some uncertainty about definitions. Digital media, new media, multimedia, and similar terms all have a relationship to both the engineering innovations and cultural impact of digital media.JOURNAL, Lauer, Claire, Contending with Terms: "Multimodal" and "Multimedia" in the Academic and Public Spheres, Computers and Composition, 2009, 26, 4, 225–239,weblink 10.1016/j.compcom.2009.09.001, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140327001010weblink">weblink 2014-03-27, 10.1.1.457.673, The blending of digital media with other media, and with cultural and social factors, is sometimes known as new media or "the new media."JOURNAL, Ito, Mizuko, Living and learning with the new media: summary of findings from the digital youth project, November 2008,weblink 29 March 2014, etal, Similarly, digital media seems to demand a new set of communications skills, called transliteracy, media literacy, or digital literacy.WEB, Digital literacy definition,weblink ALA Connect, 30 March 2014, 14 September 2012, These skills include not only the ability to read and write—traditional literacy—but the ability to navigate the Internet, evaluate sources, and create digital content.WEB, What is ital literacy?,weblink Cornell University Digital Literacy Resource, Cornell University, 30 March 2014, The idea that we are moving toward a fully digital, paperless society is accompanied by the fear that we may soon—or currently—be facing a digital dark age, in which older media are no longer accessible on modern devices or using modern methods of scholarship. Digital media has a significant, wide-ranging and complex effect on society and culture.The impact of the digital revolution can also be assessed by exploring the amount of worldwide mobile smart device users there are. This can be split into 2 categories smart phone users and smart tablet users. Worldwide there are currently 2.32 billion smartphone users across the world.WEB,weblink Number of smartphone users worldwide 2014-2020 {{!, Statista|website=Statista|language=en|access-date=2017-05-12}} This figure is to exceed 2.87 billion by 2020. Smart tablet users reached a total of 1 billion in 2015, 15% of the world’s population.WEB,weblink Tablet Users to Surpass 1 Billion Worldwide in 2015 - eMarketer, www.emarketer.com, en, 2017-05-12, The first mobile phone was released in 1973 by a senior engineer in Motorola NEWS,weblink The History of Mobile Phones From 1973 To 2008: The Handsets That Made It ALL Happen, Know Your Mobile, 2017-05-12, en, and was only affordable by the incredibly wealthy. The fact that such a large proportion of the world’s population own smart devices demonstrates the rapid level of growth achieved throughout the digital revolution.The statistics evidence the impact of digital media communications today. What is also of relevance is the fact that the numbers of smart device users is rising rapidly yet the amount of functional uses increase daily. A smartphone or tablet can be used for hundreds of daily needs. There are currently over 1 million apps on the Apple Appstore.WEB,weblink Apple announces 1 million apps in the App Store, more than 1 billion songs played on iTunes radio, 2013-10-22, The Verge, 2017-05-12, These are all opportunities for digital marketing efforts. A smartphone user is impacted with digital advertising every second they open their Apple or Android device. This further evidences the digital revolution and the impact of revolution.

Disruption in industry

Compared with print media, the mass media, and other analog technologies, digital media are easy to copy, store, share and modify. This quality of digital media has led to significant changes in many industries, especially journalism, publishing, education, entertainment, and the music business. The overall effect of these changes is so far-reaching that it is difficult to quantify. For example, in movie-making, the transition from analog film cameras to digital cameras is nearly complete. The transition has economic benefits to Hollywood, making distribution easier and making it possible to add high-quality digital effects to films.NEWS, Cusumano, Catherine, Changeover in film technology spells end for age of analog,weblink 31 March 2014, Brown Daily Herald, 18 March 2013, At the same time, it has affected the analog special effects, stunt, and animation industries in Hollywood.NEWS, Carter, Beth, Side by side takes digital vs. analog debate to the movies,weblink 31 March 2014, Wired, 26 April 2012, It has imposed painful costs on small movie theaters, some of which did not or will not survive the transition to digital.NEWS, McCracken, Erin, Last reel: Movie industry's switch to digital hits theaters -- especially small ones -- in the wallet,weblink 29 March 2014, York Daily Record, 5 May 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140407050448weblink">weblink 7 April 2014, The effect of digital media on other media industries is similarly sweeping and complex.In journalism, digital media and citizen journalism have led to the loss of thousands of jobs in print media and the bankruptcy of many major newspapers.WEB, Kirchhoff, Suzanne M., The U.S. newspaper industry in transition,weblink Congressional Research Service, 29 March 2014, 9 September 2010, But the rise of digital journalism has also created thousands of new jobs and specializations.NEWS, Zara, Christopher, Job growth in digital journalism is bigger than anyone knows,weblink 29 March 2014, International Business Times, 2 October 2012, E-books and self-publishing are changing the book industry, and digital textbooks and other media-inclusive curricula are changing primary and secondary education.WEB, Publishing in the digital era,weblink Bain & Company, 29 March 2014, 2011, NEWS, Toppo, Greg, Obama wants schools to speed digital transition,weblink 17 March 2014, USA Today, 31 January 2012, In academia, digital media has led to a new form of scholarship, called digital scholarship, and new fields of study, such as digital humanities and digital history. It has changed the way libraries are used and their role in society. Every major media, communications and academic endeavor is facing a period of transition and uncertainty related to digital media.

Individual as content creator

Digital media has also allowed individuals to be much more active in content creation.WEB, Horrigan, John, A Typology of Information and Communication Technology Users,weblink Pew Internet and American Life Study, May 2007, Anyone with access to computers and the Internet can participate in social media and contribute their own writing, art, videos, photography and commentary to the Internet, as well as conduct business online. The dramatic reduction in the costs required to create and share content have led to a democratization of content creation as well as the creation of new types of content, like blogs, memes and video essays. Some of these activities have also been labelled citizen journalism. This spike in user created content is due to the development of the internet as well as the way in which users interact with media today. The release of technologies such mobile devices allow for easier and quicker access to all things media.BOOK, Pavlik, John, McIntosh, Shawn, Converging Media, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-934230-3, 237–239, Fourth, 2014, Many media production tools that were once only available to a few are now free and easy to use. The cost of devices that can access the internet is dropping steadily, and now personal ownership of multiple digital devices is becoming standard. These elements have significantly affected political participation.JOURNAL, Cohen, Cathy J., Joseph Kahne, Participatory politics: new media and youth political action, 2012,weblink 29 March 2014, Digital media is seen by many scholars as having a role in Arab Spring, and crackdowns on the use of digital and social media by embattled governments are increasingly common.NEWS, Kelley, Peter, Philip Howard’s new book explores digital media role in Arab Spring,weblink 30 March 2014, University of Washington, 13 June 2013, Many governments restrict access to digital media in some way, either to prevent obscenity or in a broader form of political censorship.NEWS, Rininsland, Andrew, Internet censorship listed: how does each country compare?,weblink 30 March 2014, The Guardian, 16 April 2012, User-generated content raises issues of privacy, credibility, civility and compensation for cultural, intellectual and artistic contributions. The spread of digital media, and the wide range of literacy and communications skills necessary to use it effectively, have deepened the digital divide between those who have access to digital media and those who don't.NEWS, Crawford, Susan P., Internet access and the new digital divide,weblink 30 March 2014, The New York Times, 3 December 2011, The rising of digital media has made the consumer's audio collection more precise and personalized. It is no longer necessary to purchase an entire album if the consumer is ultimately interested in only a few audio files.

Web-only news

As the internet becomes more and more prevalent, more companies are beginning to distribute content through internet only means. With the loss of viewers, there is a loss of revenue but not as bad as what would be expected. Cisco Inc released its latest forecast and the numbers are all trending to internet news to continue to grow at a rate where it will be quadruple by 2018.WEB,weblink Cisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2013–2018,

Copyright challenges

{{See also|Open data|Open access|Open source}}{{tone|section}}Digital media Ann Marie Sullivan, Cultural Heritage & New Media: A Future for the Past, 15 J. MARSHALL REV. INTELL. PROP. L. 604 (2016)weblink pose several challenges to the current copyright and intellectual property laws.WEB, Copyright: an overview,weblink Jisc Digital Media, 30 March 2014, The ease of creating, modifying and sharing digital media makes copyright enforcement a challenge, and copyright laws are widely seen as outdated.NEWS, Barnett, Emma, Outdated copyright laws hinder growth says Government,weblink 30 March 2014, The Telegraph, 18 May 2011, NEWS, Brunet, Maël, Outdated copyright laws must adapt to the new digital age,weblink 30 March 2014, Policy Review, March 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150219023349weblink">weblink 19 February 2015, For example, under current copyright law, common Internet memes are probably illegal to share in many countries.NEWS, Kloc, Joe, Outdated copyright law makes memes illegal in Australia,weblink 30 March 2014, Daily Dot, 12 November 2013, Legal rights are at least unclear for many common Internet activities, such as posting a picture that belongs to someone else to a social media account, covering a popular song on a YouTube video, or writing fanfiction. Over the last decade the concept of fair use has been applied to many online medias.To resolve some of these issues, content creators can voluntarily adopt open or copyleft licenses, giving up some of their legal rights, or they can release their work to the public domain. Among the most common open licenses are Creative Commons licenses and the GNU Free Documentation License, both of which are in use on Pseudopedia. Open licenses are part of a broader open content movement that pushes for the reduction or removal of copyright restrictions from software, data and other digital media.NEWS, Trotter, Andrew, The open-content movement,weblink 30 March 2014, Digital Directions, 17 October 2008, Additional software has been developed in order to protect digital media. digital rights management (DRM) is used to digitally copyright material and allows users to use that media for specific cases. For example, DRM allows a movie producer to rent a movie at a lower price than selling the movie, restricting the movie rental license length, rather than only selling the movie at full price. Additionally, DRM can prevent unauthorized sharing or modification of media.Digital Media is numerical, networked and interactive system of links and databases that allows us to navigate from one bit of content or webpage to another.One form of digital media that is becoming a phenomenon is in the form of a online magazine or digital magazine. What exactly is a digital magazine? Due to the economic importance of digital magazines, the Audit Bureau of Circulations integrated the definition of this medium in its latest report (March 2011): a digital magazine involves the distribution of a magazine content by electronic means; it may be a replica.CONFERENCE, Santos Silva, Dora, ELPUB - 16th International Conference on Electronic Publishing, Social Shaping of Digital Publishing: Exploring the Interplay Between Culture and Technology, Baptista, A.A., June 14{{ndash, 15, 2012|location=Guimarães, Portugal|url=http://elpub.scix.net/data/works/att/109_elpub2012.content.pdf|format=PDF|title=The Future of Digital Magazine Publishing|accessdate=21 November 2014|display-editors=etal}} This is an outdated definition of what a digital magazine is. A digital magazine should not be, in fact, a replica of the print magazine in PDF, as was common practice in recent years. It should, rather, be a magazine that is, in essence, interactive and created from scratch to a digital platform (Internet, mobile phones, private networks, iPad or other device). The barriers for digital magazine distribution are thus decreasing. At the same time digitizing platforms are broadening the scope of where digital magazines can be published, such as within websites and on smartphones.WEB, Jones, Ryan, Are Digital Magazines Dead,weblink WWW.wired.com, 21 November 2014, With the improvements of tablets and digital magazines are becoming visually enticing and readable magazines with it graphic arts.BOOK, Pavlik, John, Mclntosh, Shawn, Converging Media, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-934230-3, 89, fourth, 2014,

See also

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • Ramón Reichert, Annika Richterich, Pablo Abend, Mathias Fuchs, Karin Wenz (eds.), Digital Culture & Society.


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