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dendrogram
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{{Distinguish|Dendrogramma}}{{Refimprove|date=January 2017}}(File:UPGMA Dendrogram Hierarchical.svg|thumb| Dendrogram of a hierarchical clustering (UPGMA) with the height of the nodes (adapted from bacterial 5S rRNA sequence dataBOOK, Molecular Systematics, 2nd edition, Swofford, David L., Olsen, Gary J., Waddell, Peter J., Hillis, David M., vanc, 1996, 9780878932825, Hillis, David M., Moritz, Craig, Mable, Barbara K., Sinauer, Sunderland, MA, 407-514, Phylogenetic inference, ).)(File:Global-Diversity-of-Sponges-(Porifera)-pone.0035105.s008.tif|thumb|Dendrogram output for hierarchical clustering of marine provinces using presence / absence of sponge species.JOURNAL, Van Soest R, Boury-Esnault N, Vacelet J, Dohrmann M, Erpenbeck D, De Voogd N, Santodomingo N, Vanhoorne B, Kelly M, Hooper J, Global Diversity of Sponges (Porifera), 10.1371/journal.pone.0035105, PLOS ONE, 2012, 22558119, 3338747, )File:Phylogenetic tree.svg|thumb|A dendrogram of the Tree of Life. This phylogenetic tree is adapted from Woese et al. rRNA analysis.JOURNAL, Woese, Carl R., Carl Woese, Otto Kandler, Kandler, O, Wheelis, M, Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya,weblink Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 87, 12, 4576–4579, 1990, 2112744, 10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576, 54159, 1990PNAS...87.4576W, The vertical line at bottom represents the last universal common ancestorlast universal common ancestorFile:Heatmap RNAseqV2 1.png|thumb|Heatmap of RNA-SeqRNA-SeqA dendrogram is a diagram representing a tree. This diagrammatic representation is frequently used in different contexts:
  • in hierarchical clustering, it illustrates the arrangement of the clusters produced by the corresponding analyses.BOOK, Everitt, Brian, 1998, Dictionary of Statistics, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 96, 0-521-59346-8,
  • in computational biology, it shows the clustering of genes or samples, sometimes in the margins of heatmaps.JOURNAL, Wilkinson, Leland, Friendly, Michael, The History of the Cluster Heat Map, The American Statistician, May 2009, 63, 2, 179–184, 10.1198/tas.2009.0033,
  • in phylogenetics, it displays the evolutionary relationships among various biological taxa. In this case, the dendrogram is also called a phylogenetic tree.NEWS,weblink Phylogenetic tree (biology), Encyclopedia Britannica, 2018-10-22, en,
The name dendrogram derives from the two ancient greek words {{wikt-lang|grc|δένδρον}} ({{grc-transl|δένδρον}}), meaning "tree", and {{wikt-lang|grc|γράμμα}} ({{grc-transl|γράμμα}}), meaning "drawing, mathematical figure".BOOK,weblink Abrégé du dictionnaire grec français, Bailly, Anatole, 1981-01-01, Hachette, 2010035283, Paris, 461974285, WEB,weblink Greek-french dictionary online, Bailly, Anatole, www.tabularium.be, October 20, 2018,

Clustering example

For a clustering example, suppose that five taxa (a to e) have been clustered by UPGMA based on a matrix of genetic distances. The hierarchical clustering dendrogram would show a column of five nodes representing the initial data (here individual taxa), and the remaining nodes represent the clusters to which the data belong, with the arrows representing the distance (dissimilarity). The distance between merged clusters is monotone, increasing with the level of the merger: the height of each node in the plot is proportional to the value of the intergroup dissimilarity between its two daughters (the nodes on the right representing individual observations all plotted at zero height).

See also

References

{{reflist}}
  • JOURNAL, Galili, T, 2015, dendextend: an R package for visualizing, adjusting and comparing trees of hierarchical clustering, 10.1093/bioinformatics/btv428, Bioinformatics, 31, 3718–3720, 26209431, 4817050,

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