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cucumber
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{{About|the fruit|the related species|Armenian cucumber|other uses}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use dmy dates|date=November 2014}}{{speciesbox|name = Cucumber|image = ARS_cucumber.jpg|image_caption = Cucumbers growing on vines|image_alt = Photograph of cucumber vine with fruits, flowers and leaves visible|image2 = Cucumber BNC.jpg|image2_caption = Photograph of a single cucumber fruit|genus = Cucumis|species = sativus! style="background:#ddf; width:75%;"| Country! style="background:#ddf; width:25%;"| (millions of tonnes)
Carl Linnaeus>L.}}The cucumber (Cucumis sativus), or less formally cuke, is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae. It is a creeping vine that bears (wikt:Special:Search/cucumiform|cucumiform) fruits that are used as vegetables. There are three main varieties of cucumber: slicing, pickling, and seedless. Within these varieties, several cultivars have been created. In North America, the term "wild cucumber" refers to plants in the genera Echinocystis and Marah, but these are not closely related. The cucumber is originally from South Asia, but now grows on most continents. Many different types of cucumber are traded on the global market.

Description

{{nutritional value | name=Cucumber, with peel, raw| water=95.23 g| kJ=65| protein=0.65 g| fat=0.11 g| carbs=3.63 g| fiber=0.5 g| sugars=1.67| calcium_mg=16| iron_mg=0.28| magnesium_mg=13| phosphorus_mg=24| potassium_mg=147| sodium_mg=2| zinc_mg=0.2| manganese_mg=0.079| opt1n=Fluoride| opt1v=1.3 µg| vitC_mg=2.8| thiamin_mg=0.027| riboflavin_mg=0.033| niacin_mg=0.098| pantothenic_mg=0.259| vitB6_mg=0.04| folate_ug=7| vitK_ug=16.4| note=Link to USDA database entry}}The cucumber is a creeping vine that roots in the ground and grows up trellises or other supporting frames, wrapping around supports with thin, spiraling tendrils. The plant may also root in a soilless medium and will sprawl along the ground if it does not have supports. The vine has large leaves that form a canopy over the fruits. The fruit of typical cultivars of cucumber is roughly cylindrical, but elongated with tapered ends, and may be as large as {{convert|60|cm|in|sp=us}} long and {{convert|10|cm|in|sp=us}} in diameter.{{Citation needed|date=October 2016}} Botanically speaking, the cucumber is classified as a pepo, a type of botanical berry with a hard outer rind and no internal divisions. Much like tomato and squash, it is often perceived, prepared and eaten as a vegetable. Cucumber fruits consist of 95% water (see nutrition table).File:Cucumber vine in New Jersey.jpg|A tendril emerges from cucumber vines to facilitate climbingFile:Cucumbers growing on a string lattice structure.jpg|A string lattice supports vine growthFile:Cucumber hanging on the vine.JPG|A bulb shaped cucumber hanging on the vine

Flowering and pollination

A few cultivars of cucumber are parthenocarpic, the blossoms creating seedless fruit without pollination. Pollination for these cultivars degrades the quality. In the United States, these are usually grown in greenhouses, where bees are excluded. In Europe, they are grown outdoors in some regions, and bees are excluded from these areas.Most cucumber cultivars, however, are seeded and require pollination. Thousands of hives of honey bees are annually carried to cucumber fields just before bloom for this purpose. Cucumbers may also be pollinated by bumblebees and several other bee species. Most cucumbers that require pollination are self-incompatible, so pollen from a different plant is required to form seeds and fruit.BOOK, Nonnecke, I.L., 1989, Vegetable Production, Springer, 9780442267216,weblink Some self-compatible cultivars exist that are related to the 'Lemon' cultivar. Symptoms of inadequate pollination include fruit abortion and misshapen fruit. Partially pollinated flowers may develop fruit that are green and develop normally near the stem end, but are pale yellow and withered at the blossom end.Traditional cultivars produce male blossoms first, then female, in about equivalent numbers. Newer gynoecious hybrid cultivars produce almost all female blossoms. They may have a pollenizer cultivar interplanted, and the number of beehives per unit area is increased, but temperature changes induce male flowers even on these plants, which may be sufficient for pollination to occur.







factoids

Nutrition

In a 100-gram serving, raw cucumber (with peel) is 95% water, provides {{convert|16|kcal|kJ|order=flip|abbr=off}} and supplies low content of essential nutrients, as it is notable only for vitamin K at 16% of the Daily Value (table).

Genome

In 2009, an international team of researchers announced they had sequenced the cucumber genome.JOURNAL, Huang, S., Li, R., Zhang, Z., Li, L., Gu, X., Fan, W., Lucas, W., Wang, X., Xie, B., Ni, P., Ren, Y., Zhu, H., Li, J., Lin, K., Jin, W., Fei, Z., Li, G., Staub, J., Kilian, A., Van Der Vossen, E. A. G., Wu, Y., Guo, J., He, J., Jia, Z., Ren, Y., Tian, G., Lu, Y., Ruan, J., Qian, W., Wang, M., The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L, Nature Genetics, 41, 12, 1275–1281, 2009, 19881527, 10.1038/ng.475,

Varieties

(File:Kurkkuja.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Slicing cucumbers){{See also|List of cucumber varieties}}In general cultivation, cucumbers are classified into three main cultivar groups: "slicing", "pickling", and "burpless".

Slicing

Cucumbers grown to eat fresh are called slicing cucumbers. The main varieties of slicers mature on vines with large leaves that provide shading.WEB,weblink Cucumbers: Planting, growing, and harvesting cucumbers, Old Farmer's Almanac, Yankee Publishing, Inc., Dublin, NH, 2016, 11 August 2016, They are mainly eaten in the unripe green form, since the ripe yellow form normally becomes bitter and sour. Slicers grown commercially for the North American market are generally longer, smoother, more uniform in color, and have a much tougher skin. Slicers in other countries are smaller and have a thinner, more delicate skin, often having fewer seeds and being sold in a plastic skin for protection. Sometimes these are known as English cucumbers. This variety may also be called a "telegraph cucumber", particularly in Australasia.Cucumber - 5+ a day, New Zealand Retrieved 18 May 2018 Smaller slicing cucumbers can also be pickled.(File:PicklingCucumbers.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Pickling cucumbers)(File:Spreewaldgurke2.jpg|thumb|right|150px|Gherkins)

Pickling

Pickling with brine, sugar, vinegar, and spices creates various, flavored products from cucumbers and other foods.WEB, Avi, Torey, History in a jar: The story of pickles,weblink Public Broadcasting Service, 13 November 2017, 3 September 2014, Although any cucumber can be pickled, commercial pickles are made from cucumbers specially bred for uniformity of length-to-diameter ratio and lack of voids in the flesh. Those cucumbers intended for pickling, called picklers, grow to about {{convert|7|to|10|cm|in|abbr=on|0}} long and {{convert|2.5|cm|in|abbr=on|0}} wide. Compared to slicers, picklers tend to be shorter, thicker, less regularly shaped, and have bumpy skin with tiny white or black-dotted spines. Color can vary from creamy yellow to pale or dark green. The process of pickling led to the use of paraffin wax as a seal for jars used to preserve pickled and other preserved foods, and to the Mason jar made from thick glass able to tolerate high temperatures used in processing pickles and other foods for long-term shelf-life. The liquid made from pickling is called "pickle juice."

Gherkin

Gherkins, also called cornichons,WEB, What's The Deal With Cornichons?,weblink The Kitchn, 13 November 2017, 2017, baby dills, or baby pickles, are small, whole, unsliced cucumbers, typically those {{Convert|1|in|cm}} to {{Convert|5|in|cm}} in length, often with bumpy skin, and pickled in variable combinations of brine, vinegar, spices, and sugar.WEB, Gherkins,weblink Zon, 13 November 2017, Venlo, Netherlands, 2017, WEB, Cucumbers,weblink Western Institute for Food Safety and Security, US Department of Agriculture, 13 November 2017, University of California-Davis, May 2016, WEB, Cucumbers and gherkins,weblink Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority, Government of India, 13 November 2017, 2015, In the United Kingdom, gherkins may be prepared predominantly in vinegar, imparting an acidic flavor "punch" as a side-dish for meals.NEWS, Quinn, Susan, A pretty pickle,weblink 13 November 2017, The Guardian, 11 June 2012, Although gherkins may be grown in greenhouses, they are commonly grown as a field crop, processed locally, and packaged in jars in Canada, the United States, and India.NEWS, Wells, Jennifer, Cucumber business leaves family farm in a pickle,weblink 13 November 2017, The Hamilton Spectator (Ontario, Canada), 27 August 2016, India, Turkey, Ukraine and Mexico compete as producers for the global gherkin market, with the European Union, United States, Canada, and Israel as major importers.NEWS, Lamont, James, India serves up gherkins,weblink 13 November 2017, Financial Times, 13 October 2009, London, UK, The word gherkin derived in the mid-17th century from early modern Dutch, gurken or augurken for "small pickled cucumber".WEB, Word origin and history for gherkin,weblink Dictionary.com, 13 November 2017, 2017, The term, West Indian gherkin, has been applied to Cucumis anguria L., a related species of Cucumis sativus, the most common cucumber plant.WEB, West Indian gherkin, Cucumis anguria L.,weblink Plants for a Future, 13 November 2017, 2012,

Burpless

{{Distinguish|Burpee Seeds}}File:Persiancucumber.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Isfahan burpless cucumber, IranIranBurpless cucumbers are sweeter and have a thinner skin than other varieties of cucumber. They are reputed to be easy to digest and to have a pleasant taste. They can grow as long as {{convert|2|ft|m|sp=us}}, are nearly seedless, and have a delicate skin. Most commonly grown in greenhouses, these parthenocarpic cucumbers are often found in grocery markets, shrink-wrapped in plastic. They are sometimes marketed as seedless or burpless, because the seeds and skin of other varieties of cucumbers are said to give some people gas.WEB, Jordan-Reilly, Melissa, Why do cucumbers upset my digestion?,weblink LiveStrong.com, 15 September 2013, Several other cultivars are sold commercially :
  • Lebanese cucumbers are small, smooth-skinned and mild, yet with a distinct flavor and aroma. Like the English cucumber, Lebanese cucumbers are nearly seedless.
  • East Asian cucumbers are mild, slender, deep green, and have a bumpy, ridged skin. They can be used for slicing, salads, pickling, etc., and are available year-round. They are usually burpless as well.
  • Persian cucumber, which are mini, seedless, and slightly sweet, are available from Canada during the summer, and all year-round in the US. Easy to cut and peel, it is on average {{convert|4|–|7|in|cm|abbr=on|0}} long. They are commonly eaten chopped up in plain yogurt with mint or sliced thin and long with salt and lemon juice. Vines are parthenocarpic, requiring no pollinators for fruit set.
  • Beit Alpha cucumbers are small, sweet parthenocarpic cucumbers adapted to the dry climate of the Middle East.
  • Apple cucumbers are short, round cucumbers grown in New Zealand and parts of Europe, known for their light yellow-green color and mildly sweet flavor. When mature, the fruit may grow tiny spines, and contains numerous edible green seeds. The fruit is usually eaten raw, with skin.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110724194759weblink">Apple Cucumbers. Wairarapa Eco Farms. wefs.co.nz
  • Schälgurken are eaten in Germany. Their thick skins are peeled and then they braised or fried, often with minced meat or dill. They are often known by the term 'Schmorgurken'.
  • Dosakai is a yellow cucumber available in parts of India. These fruits are generally spherical in shape. It is commonly cooked as curry, added in sambar or soup, daal and also in making dosa-aavakaaya (Indian pickle) and chutney; it is also grown and available through farms in Central California.
  • Kekiri is a smooth skinned cucumber, relatively hard, and not used for salads. It is cooked as spicy curry. It is found in dry zone of Sri Lanka. It becomes orange colored when the fruit is matured.
  • In May 2008, British supermarket chain Sainsbury's unveiled the 'c-thru-cumber', a thin-skinned variety that reportedly does not require peeling.NEWS,weblink The 'c-thru' cucumbers with no skin to encumber them, Daily Mail, Daily Mail, 28 May 2008, 4 January 2011, London,
missing image!
- Trans-2,cis-6-Nonadienal.png -
Trans,cis-2,6-nonadienal is a component of the distinctive aroma of cucumbers.
  • Armenian cucumbers (also known as yard long cucumbers) are fruits produced by the plant Cucumis melo var. flexuosus. This is not the same species as the common cucumber (Cucumis sativus) although it is closely related. Armenian cucumbers have very long, ribbed fruit with a thin skin that does not require peeling, but are actually an immature melon. This is the variety sold in Middle Eastern markets as "pickled wild cucumber".Wild cucumbers got you in a pickle?. SFGate (16 October 2004). Retrieved on 2012-11-25.

Aroma and taste

Depending on variety, cucumbers may have a mild melon aroma and flavor, in part resulting from unsaturated aldehydes, such as {{nowrap|(E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal}}, and the cis- and trans- isomers of 2-nonenal.JOURNAL, Schieberle, P., Ofner, S., Grosch, W., 1990, Evaluation of Potent Odorants in Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) and Muskmelons (Cucumis melo) by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis, Journal of Food Science, 55, 193, 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1990.tb06050.x, The slightly bitter taste of cucumber rind results from cucurbitacins.JOURNAL, Shang, Y, Ma, Y, Zhou, Y, Zhang, H, Duan, L, Chen, H, Zeng, J, Zhou, Q, Wang, S, 2014, Plant science. Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber,weblink Science, 346, 6213, 1084–8, 10.1126/science.1259215, 25430763, Gu, W, Liu, M, Ren, J, Gu, X, Zhang, S, Wang, Y, Yasukawa, K, Bouwmeester, H. J., Qi, X, Zhang, Z, Lucas, W. J., Huang, S,

Production {| class"wikitable" style"float:right; clear:left; width:18em;"

! colspan=2|Production of cucumbers and gherkins, 2016
| 61.9
| 2.0
| 1.8
| 1.7
| 0.9
World >| 80.6
Source: FAOSTAT of the United NationsFAOSTAT>TITLE=CROPSACCESS-DATE=2018-08-25, Countries - Select All; Regions - World + (Total); Elements - Production Quantity; Items - Cucumbers and gherkins; Years - 2016
In 2016, world production of cucumbers and gherkins was 80.6 million tonnes, led by China with nearly 77% of the total.

Cultivation history

The cucumber originated in India, where a great many varieties have been observed,Doijode, S. D. (2001). Seed storage of horticultural crops. Haworth Press. {{ISBN|1-56022-901-2}} p. 281JOURNAL, 17425784, Phylogenetics of Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae): Cucumber (C. sativus) belongs in an Asian/Australian clade far from melon (C. melo), 2007, Renner, SS, Schaefer, H, Kocyan, A, 7, 58, 10.1186/1471-2148-7-58, 3225884, BMC Evolutionary Biology, Cucumis hystrix. Newstrackindia.com (21 July 2010). Retrieved on 2012-11-25. from Cucumis hystrix.cucumber, Encyclopædia Britannica on-line. It has been cultivated for at least 3,000 years, and was probably introduced to other parts of Europe by the Greeks or Romans. Records of cucumber cultivation appear in France in the 9th century, England in the 14th century, and in North America by the mid-16th century.

Earliest cultivation

The cucumber is listed among the foods of ancient Ur, and the legend of Gilgamesh describes people eating cucumbers.{{Citation needed|date=December 2016}} Cucumbers are mentioned in the Bible as one of the foods eaten by the Israelites in Egypt.Numbers 11:5 From India, it spread to Greece (where it was called "σίκυον", síkyon) and Italy (where the Romans were especially fond of the crop), and later into China.Robert Daniel, in discussing an ostracon dated to the second half of the third century AD, has suggested identifying an otherwise unknown word, ολγιττα, with the Arabic al-qitta', the common word for cucumber.Although the ostracon was written in Greek, Daniel implies that the writer used the Arabic word instead of the Greek because the recipient, who has a Semitic name Salamanes, was a native Arabic speaker. JOURNAL, Daniel, Robert W., 20190675, From Work on the Petra Papyri: Arabic on a Greek Ostracon from Roman Egypt and the Name of the Church Father Sozomen,weblink Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 131, 2000, 173–176, According to Pliny the Elder (The Natural History, Book XIX, Chapter 23), the Ancient Greeks grew cucumbers, and there were different varieties in Italy, Africa, and Moesia.

Roman Empire

According to Pliny, the Emperor Tiberius had the cucumber on his table daily during summer and winter. The Romans reportedly used artificial methods (similar to the greenhouse system) of growing to have it available for his table every day of the year. "Indeed, he was never without it; for he had raised beds made in frames upon wheels, by means of which the cucumbers were moved and exposed to the full heat of the sun; while, in winter, they were withdrawn, and placed under the protection of frames glazed with 'mirrorstone' ."Pliny, N.H., 19, 23 'Mirrorstone' is a literal translation of Pliny's 'lapis specularis', believed to have been sheet mica.James, Peter J., Thorpe, Nick and Thorpe, I.J. Ancient Inventions Chapter 12 "Sport and Leusure: Roman Gardening Technology." Ballantine Books, 1995, p. 563.Reportedly, they were also cultivated in cucumber houses glazed with oiled cloth known as “specularia”.Pliny the Elder describes the Italian fruit as very small, probably like a gherkin, describing it as a wild cucumber considerably smaller than the cultivated one. Pliny also describes the preparation of a medication known as elaterium, though some scholars{{who|date=February 2013}} believe he was referring to Ecballium elaterium, known in pre-Linnean times as "Cucumis silvestris" or "Cucumis asininus" ("wild cucumber" or "donkey cucumber"), a species different from the common cucumber.Pliny, N.H., 20.3 Pliny also writes about several other varieties of cucumber, including the cultivated cucumber,Pliny, ''N.H., 20.4–5 and remedies from the different types (9 from the cultivated, 5 from the "anguine", and 26 from the "wild"). The Romans are reported to have used cucumbers to treat scorpion bites, bad eyesight, and to scare away mice. Wives wishing for children wore them around their waists. They were also carried by midwives, and thrown away when the child was born.{{citation needed|date=September 2012}}

Middle Ages

Charlemagne had cucumbers grown in his gardens in the 8th/9th century. They were reportedly introduced into England in the early 14th century, lost, then reintroduced approximately 250 years later.The Spaniards (through the Italian Christopher Columbus) brought cucumbers to Haiti in 1494. In 1535, Jacques Cartier, a French explorer, found “very great cucumbers” grown on the site of what is now Montreal.

Early-modern age

{{Refimprove section|date=April 2015}}Throughout the 16th century, European trappers, traders, bison hunters, and explorers bartered for the products of American Indian agriculture. The tribes of the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains learned from the Spanish how to grow European crops. The farmers on the Great Plains included the Mandan and Abenaki. They obtained cucumbers and watermelons from the Spanish, and added them to the crops they were already growing, including several varieties of corn and beans, pumpkins, squash, and gourd plants.BOOK, Taste, Memory: Forgotten Foods, Lost Flavors, and why They Matter, 109, Buchanan, David, Chelsea Green Publishing, VT, USA, 9781603584401, 2012, The Iroquois were also growing them when the first Europeans visited them.BOOK, Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany and Use, 159, Kuhnlein, H. V., Turner, N. J., Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1996, 9782881244650, In 1630, the Reverend Francis Higginson produced a book called New England’s Plantation in which, describing a garden on Conant’s Island in Boston Harbor known as The Governor’s Garden, he states: “The countrie aboundeth naturally with store of roots of great varietie and good to eat. Our turnips, parsnips, and carrots are here both bigger and sweeter than is ordinary to be found in England. Here are store of pompions, cowcumbers, and other things of that nature which I know not...”William Wood published in New England Prospect (published in 1633 in England) observations he made in 1629 in America: “The ground affords very good kitchin gardens, for Turneps, Parsnips, Carrots, Radishes, and Pompions, Muskmillons, Isquoter-squashes, coucumbars, Onyons, and whatever grows well in England grows as well there, many things being better and larger.”

Age of Enlightenment and later

File:Lobster, Crab, and a Cucumber - 1891P32.jpg|thumb|Lobster, Crab, and a Cucumber by William Henry Hunt (watercolour, 1826 or 1827)]]In the later 17th century, a prejudice developed against uncooked vegetables and fruits. A number of articles in contemporary health publications stated that uncooked plants brought on summer diseases and should be forbidden to children. The cucumber kept this reputation for an inordinate period of time: “fit only for consumption by cows,” which some believe is why it gained the name, cowcumber.A copper etching made by Maddalena Bouchard between 1772 and 1793 shows this plant to have smaller, almost bean-shaped fruits, and small yellow flowers. The small form of the cucumber is figured in Herbals of the 16th century, but states, "If hung in a tube while in blossom, the Cucumber will grow to a most surprising length."Samuel Pepys wrote in his diary on 22 August 1663:Saturday 22 August 1663 (Pepys' Diary). Pepysdiary.com. Retrieved on 25 November 2012. “this day Sir W. Batten tells me that Mr. Newburne is dead of eating cowcumbers, of which the other day I heard of another, I think.” In "The Greenstone Door", William Satchell notes that "Te Moanaroa was dead – of a surfeit of cucumbers...", having eaten four of the "prickly" melons. (Chapter XX, The Storm Cloud).

In the news

In May 2011, cucumbers infected with E. coli were claimed to have caused the deaths of at least ten people, leading to some retailers withdrawing cucumbers from sale in Germany, Austria and the Czech Republic.NEWS, E.coli-infected cucumber scare spreads beyond Germany,weblink BBC News, BBC, 31 May 2011, 29 May 2011, The cucumbers were initially thought to have come from Spain. However, subsequent testing failed to show contamination in imported Spanish cucumbers, which led to the Spanish Government demanding compensation for Spanish farmers who had been forced to destroy huge quantities of cucumbers.NEWS, Deadly E. coli infections still rising in Germany,weblink BBC News, BBC, 1 June 2011, 1 June 2011, After the outbreak, the World Health Organization stated that it was a completely new strain of the bacterium involved.NEWS, Gallagher, James, E. coli outbreak is a new strain,weblink 2 June 2011, BBC News, 2 June 2011,

Gallery

File:దోసకాయ ఉల్లిపాయ పోపు కూర.jpg|An Indian yellow Cucumber daily curry with onion and red chilli powder made in a house of Andhra Pradesh,Vijayawada File:దోసకాయ ఎండు కారం పచ్చడి (2).jpg|An Indian yellow Cucumber daily pickle made with red chillies in Andhra Pradesh,Vijayawada File:Kurkkuja.jpg|A Scandinavian cucumber sliced into piecesFile:An Indian yellow cucumber.jpg|An Indian yellow cucumberFile:Lemon cucumber J1.JPG|Lemon cucumber File:GNTdosakai.jpg|'Dosakai' is a round, yellow cucumber seen at a market in Guntur, IndiaFile:Cucumber grated.jpg|Grated cucumberFile:Mizeria.jpg|dish with cucumber cut piecesFile:Cucumis sativus 0002.JPG|Cucumis sativus flowerFile:Komkommer (Cucumis sativus 'Gele Tros').jpg|Komkommer (Cucumis sativus 'Gele Tros') in fieldsFile:Cucumber slices.jpg|Cucumber slices used for garnish

See also

{{Div col|colwidth=22em}} {{div col end}}

References

{{Reflist|35em}}

External links

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