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{{Other uses}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2012}}File:Wien Deutschordenskirche Flügelaltar Kreuzigung 01.jpg|thumb|Crucifixion of Christ at the winged triptych at the Church of the Teutonic Order in Vienna, Austria. Woodcarvings by an anonymous master; polychromy by Jan van Wavere, Mechelen, signed 1520. This altarpiece was originally made for St. Mary's Church, GdańskSt. Mary's Church, GdańskA crucifix (from Latin cruci fixus meaning "(one) fixed to a cross") is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross. The representation of Jesus himself on the cross is referred to in English as the corpus (Latin for "body").Rufolf Distelberger, Western Decorative Arts (National Gallery of Art 1993), p. 15Paul F. Bradshaw, The New SCM Dictionary of Liturgy and Worship (Hymns Ancient & Modern Ltd, 2002)The crucifix is a principal symbol for many groups of Christians, and one of the most common forms of the Crucifixion in the arts. It is especially important in the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, but is also used in the Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian, and Eastern Catholic Churches, as well as by the Lutheran and Anglican Churches.Our Savior's Lutheran Church, "Sanctuary and Chapel"St. John's Lutheran Church of Topeka, KS, "The Altar Crucifix" {{webarchive|url= |date=19 June 2012 }} The symbol is less common in churches of other Protestant denominations, which prefer to use a cross without the figure of Jesus (the corpus). The crucifix emphasizes Jesus' sacrifice—his death by crucifixion, which Christians believe brought about the redemption of mankind. Most crucifixes portray Jesus on a Latin cross, rather than any other shape, such as a Tau cross or a Coptic cross.Western crucifixes usually have a three-dimensional corpus, but in Eastern Orthodoxy Jesus' body is normally painted on the cross, or in low relief. Strictly speaking, to be a crucifix, the cross must be three-dimensional, but this distinction is not always observed. An entire painting of the Crucifixion of Jesus including a landscape background and other figures is not a crucifix either.Large crucifixes high across the central axis of a church are known by the Old English term rood. By the late Middle Ages these were a near-universal feature of Western churches, but are now very rare. Modern Roman Catholic churches often have a crucifix above the altar on the wall; for the celebration of Mass, the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church requires that "on or close to the altar there is to be a cross with a figure of Christ crucified".General Instruction of the Roman Missal, 117.


File:Chancel of Trinity Lutheran Church on Holy Saturday.jpg|right|thumb|250px|A crucifix in the chancel of a LutheranLutheranThe standard, four-pointed Latin crucifix consists of an upright post or stipes and a single crosspiece to which the sufferer's arms were nailed. There may also be a short projecting nameplate, showing the letters INRI (Greek: INBI). The Russian Orthodox crucifix usually has an additional third crossbar, to which the feet are nailed, and which is angled upward toward the penitent thief Saint Dismas (to the viewer's left) and downward toward the impenitent thief Gestas (to the viewer's right). The corpus of Eastern crucifixes is normally a two-dimensional or low relief icon that shows Jesus as already dead, his face peaceful and somber. They are rarely three-dimensional figures as in the Western tradition, although these may be found where Western influences are strong, but are more typically icons painted on a piece of wood shaped to include the double-barred cross and perhaps the edge of Christ's hips and halo, and no background. More sculptural small crucifixes in metal relief are also used in Orthodoxy (see gallery examples), including as pectoral crosses and blessing crosses.Western crucifixes may show Christ dead or alive, the presence of the spear wound in his ribs traditionally indicating that he is dead. In either case his face very often shows his suffering. In Orthodoxy he has normally been shown as dead since around the end of the period of Byzantine Iconoclasm.Schiller, Gertrud, Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. II, 1972 (English trans from German) Lund Humphries, London, {{ISBN|0-85331-324-5}} Eastern crucifixes have Jesus' two feet nailed side by side, rather than crossed one above the other, as Western crucifixes have shown them since around the 13th century. The crown of thorns is also generally absent in Eastern crucifixes, since the emphasis is not on Christ's suffering, but on his triumph over sin and death. The "S"-shaped position of Jesus' body on the cross is a Byzantine innovation of the late 10th century,Schiller, 98-99 though also found in the German Gero Cross of the same date. Probably more from Byzantine influence, it spread elsewhere in the West, especially to Italy, by the Romanesque period, though it was more usual in painting than sculpted crucifixes. It's in Italy that the emphasis was put on Jesus' suffering and realistic details, during a process of general humanization of Christ favored by the Franciscan order. During the 13th century the suffering Italian model (Christus patiens) triumphed over the traditional Byzantine one (Christus gloriosus) anywhere in Europe also due to the works of artists such as Giunta Pisano and Cimabue. Since the Renaissance the "S"-shape is generally much less pronounced. Eastern Christian blessing crosses will often have the Crucifixion depicted on one side, and the Resurrection on the other, illustrating the understanding of Orthodox theology that the Crucifixion and Resurrection are two intimately related aspects of the same act of salvation.Another, symbolic, depiction shows a triumphant Christ (), clothed in robes, rather than stripped as for His execution, with arms raised, appearing to rise up from the cross, sometimes accompanied by "rays of light", or an aureole encircling His Body. He may be robed as a prophet, crowned as a king, and vested in a stole as Great High Priest.On some crucifixes a skull and crossbones are shown below the corpus, referring to Golgotha (Calvary), the site at which Jesus was crucified, which the Gospels say means in Hebrew "the place of the skull."In fact this is clearly Aramaic rather than Hebrew. 'Gûlgaltâ' is the Aramaic for 'skull'. The name appears in all of the gospels except Luke, which calls the place simply Kranion 'the Skull', with no Aramaic. See Aramaic of Jesus Medieval tradition held that it was the burial-place of Adam and Eve, and that the cross of Christ was raised directly over Adam's skull, so many crucifixes manufactured in Catholic countries still show the skull and crossbones below the corpus.Very large crucifixes have been built, the largest being the Cross in the Woods in Michigan, with a {{convert|31|ft|m}} high statue.WEB, Welcome to the Worlds Largest Crucifixion,weblink Michigan Interactive, Michigan Interactive, 30 June 2010,


Prayer in front of a crucifix, which is seen as a sacramental, is often part of devotion for Christians, especially those worshipping in a church, also privately. The person may sit, stand, or kneel in front of the crucifix, sometimes looking at it in contemplation, or merely in front of it with head bowed or eyes closed. During the Middle Ages small crucifixes, generally hung on a wall, became normal in the personal cells or living quarters first of monks, then all clergy, followed by the homes of the laity, spreading down from the top of society as these became cheap enough for the average person to afford. Most towns had a large crucifix erected as a monument, or some other shrine at the crossroads of the town. By the 19th century displaying a crucifix somewhere in the general reception areas of a house became typical of Catholic homes. Richer Catholics could afford a room set aside for a chapel.Roman Catholic (both Eastern and Western), Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican and Lutheran Christians generally use the crucifix in public religious services. They believe use of the crucifix is in keeping with the statement by Saint Paul in Scripture, "we preach Christ crucified, a stumbling block to Jews and folly to Gentiles, but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God".{{bibleverse|1|Cor|1:23-24|ESV}}In the West altar crosses and processional crosses began to be crucifixes in the 11th century, which became general around the 14th century, as they became cheaper. The Roman Rite requires that "either on the altar or near it, there is to be a cross, with the figure of Christ crucified upon it, a cross clearly visible to the assembled people. It is desirable that such a cross should remain near the altar even outside of liturgical celebrations, so as to call to mind for the faithful the saving Passion of the Lord."General Instruction of the Roman Missal, 308 The requirement of the altar cross was also mentioned in pre-1970 editions of the Roman Missal,Rubricae generales Missalis, XX though not in the original 1570 Roman Missal of Pope Pius V.Manlio Sodi, Achille Maria Triacca, Missale Romanum: Editio Princeps (1570) (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1998 {{ISBN|88-209-2547-8}}) The Rite of Funerals says that the Gospel Book, the Bible, or a cross (which will generally be in crucifix form) may be placed on the coffin for a Requiem Mass, but a second standing cross is not to be placed near the coffin if the altar cross can be easily seen from the body of the church.Rite of Funerals, 38Eastern Christian liturgical processions called crucessions {{citation needed|date=March 2016}} include a cross or crucifix at their head. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the crucifix is often placed above the iconostasis in the church. In the Russian Orthodox Church a large crucifix ("Golgotha") is placed behind the Holy Table (altar). During Matins of Good Friday, a large crucifix is taken in procession to the centre of the church, where it is venerated by the faithful. Sometimes the soma (corpus) is removable and is taken off the crucifix at Vespers that evening during the Gospel lesson describing the Descent from the Cross. The empty cross may then remain in the centre of the church until the Paschal vigil (local practices vary). The blessing cross which the priest uses to bless the faithful at the dismissal will often have the crucifix on one side and an icon of the Resurrection of Jesus on the other, the side with the Resurrection being used on Sundays and during Paschaltide, and the crucifix on other days.Exorcist Gabriele Amorth has stated that the crucifix is one of the most effective means of averting or opposing demons. In folklore, it is believed to ward off vampires, incubi, succubi, and other evils.Modern iconoclasts have used an inverted (upside-down) crucifix when showing disdain for Jesus Christ or the Catholic Church which believes in his divinity.Lucifer Rising: A Book of Sin, Devil Worship and Rock n' Roll (Nemesis, 1994) According to Christian tradition, Saint Peter was martyred by being crucified upside-down.Kramer, Heinrich and Sprenger, James (1486), Summers, Montague (translator - 1928), The Malleus Maleficarum


File:Kirche Oberwiesenthal Kruzifixe.jpg|right|thumb|Unlike many other Protestants, Lutherans retained the use of the crucifix, Martin Luther church in OberwiesenthalOberwiesenthal

Protestant Reformation

The Lutheran Churches retained the use of the crucifix, "justifying "their continued use of medieval crucifixes with the same arguments employed since the Middle Ages, as is evident from the example of the altar of the Holy Cross in the Cistercian church of Doberan."BOOK, Marquardt, Janet T., Jordan, Alyce A., Medieval Art and Architecture after the Middle Ages, 14 January 2009, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, English, 9781443803984, 71, Martin Luther did not object to them, and this was among his differences with Andreas Karlstadt as early as 1525. At the time of the Reformation, Luther retained the crucifix in the Lutheran Church and they remain the center of worship in Lutheran parishes across Europe.BOOK, Lyons, Mary Ann, O'Connor, Thomas, The Ulster Earls and Baroque Europe: Refashioning Irish Identities, 1600-1800, 2010, Four Courts Press, English, 172, In the United States, however, Lutheranism came under the influence of Calvinism, and the plain cross came to be used in many churches.WEB,weblink HOME, 2 January 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 1 August 2013, dead, dmy-all, In contrast to the practice of the Lutheran Churches, the early Reformed Churches rejected the use of the crucifix, and indeed the unadorned cross, along with other traditional religious imagery, as idolatrous.BOOK, Obelkevich, James, Roper, Lyndal, Disciplines of Faith: Studies in Religion, Politics and Patriarchy, 5 November 2013, Routledge, English, 9781136820793, 548, The Calvinizers sought to remove the crucifix as idolatrous. There was considerable continuity, certainly, between the Lutheran use of the crucifix and the Catholic., Calvin, considered to be the father of the Reformed Church, was violently opposed to both cross and crucifix.BOOK, John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion,weblink 12 November 2015, Of what use, then, were the erection in churches of so many crosses of wood and stone, silver and gold,, In England, the Royal Chapels of Elizabeth I were most unusual among local churches in retaining crucifixes, following the Queen's conservative tastes. These disappeared under her successor, James I, and their brief re-appearance in the early 1620s when James' heir was seeking a Spanish marriage was the subject of rumour and close observation by both Catholics and Protestants; when the match fell through they disappeared.Tyacke, Nicholas in Lake, Peter and Questier, Michael C.; Conformity and orthodoxy in the English church, c. 1560-1660, Boydell & Brewer, 2000, {{ISBN|0-85115-797-1}}, {{ISBN|978-0-85115-797-9}}, pp. 29–32


In 2005, a mother accused her daughter's school in Derby, England, of discriminating against Christians after the teenager was suspended for refusing to take off a crucifix necklace.The TelegraphA British prison ordered a multi-faith chapel to remove all crucifixes "in case it offends Muslims."Prison chapel not to have a crucifix In 2008 in Spain, a local judge ordered crucifixes removed from public schools to settle a decades-old dispute over whether crucifixes should be displayed in public buildings in a non-confessional state.weblink" title="">Monster and Critics A 2008 Quebec government-commissioned report recommended that the crucifix of the National Assembly be removed to achieve greater pluralism, but the Liberal government was supported in its refusal by a consensus of most legislators.WEB,weblink Remove Crucifixes and Ban Public Prayer to Solve Immigrant Tensions - Quebec Report, On 18 March 2011, the European Court of Human Rights ruled in the Lautsi v. Italy case, that the requirement in Italian law that crucifixes be displayed in classrooms of state schools does not violate the European Convention on Human Rights.Press release of the European Court of Human RightsFull text of the judgment of the European Court of Human RightsSummary of the ruling by the European Court of Human Rights Crucifixes are common in most other Italian official buildings, including courts of law.On 24 March 2011, the Constitutional Court of Peru ruled that the presence of crucifixes in courts of law does not violate the secular nature of the state.Peru court upholds presence of crucifix in public places


Image:Small crucifix.jpg|A handheld crucifixImage:Baux-de-provence-eglise-st-vincent-crucifix.jpg|A crucifix in a church, with votive candles.File:Orth Kreuz.gif|Russian Orthodox crucifix, brassFile:Распятие 01.jpg|Russian Orthodox crucifix, 19th - early 20th centuryFile:Crucifixion icon orthodox cathedral vilnius.JPG|Orthodox crucifix in VilniusFile:Crucifix, ca. 1795-1862, 02.257.2427.jpg|Crucifix, ca. 1795-1862, Brooklyn MuseumFile:Immeldorf Kirche 2467.jpg|Lutheran crucifix with the portrait of Luther at Saint George's church in Immeldorf, LichtenauFile:Gereja Santa, Jakarta.jpg|A large crucifix at Gereja Santa, Jakarta, IndonesiaFile:S95CrucifixCourtroomNuremberg.jpg|A post–World War II crucifix in a courtroom in Nuremberg, GermanyFile:Garden of the Anglican Shrine - - 791188.jpg|A crucifix overlooks a fountain at the Anglican Shrine of Our Lady of WalsinghamFile:Pulpit of Canterbury Cathedral 08.JPG|Pulpit crucifix at the Canterbury CathedralFile:Christ Church Cathedral altar.jpg|Altar of Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford

See also



External links

{{Commons category|Crucifixes}} {{Catholic protection}}

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