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cosmos
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{{Other uses}}File:Flammarion.jpg|thumb|265px|Flammarion engravingFlammarion engravingThe cosmos ({{IPAc-en|UK|ˈ|k|ɒ|z|m|ɒ|s}}, {{IPAc-en|US|-|m|oʊ|s}}) is the universe. Using the word cosmos rather than the word universe implies viewing the universe as a complex and orderly system or entity; the opposite of chaos.WEB,weblink
website= Dictionary.com, 2017-06-01, The cosmos, and our understanding of the reasons for its existence and significance, are studied in cosmology – a very broad discipline covering any scientific, religious, or philosophical contemplation of the cosmos and its nature, or reasons for existing. Religious and philosophical approaches may include in their concepts of the cosmos various spiritual entities or other matters deemed to exist outside our physical universe.

Etymology

The philosopher Pythagoras first used the term cosmos () for the order of the universe.Iamblichus, Pyth., β 59; Aetius ΙΙ 1.1.Anaxagoras further introduced the concept of a Cosmic Mind (Nous) ordering all things (Aetius Ι 3.5). The term became part of modern language in the 19th century when geographer–polymath Alexander von Humboldt resurrected the use of the word from the ancient Greek, assigned it to his five-volume treatise, Kosmos, which influenced modern and somewhat holistic perception of the universe as one interacting (wikt:entity|entity).BOOK,weblink Cosmos: a sketch of a physical description of the universe, Humboldt, Alexander von, Paul, Benjamin Horatio, von), Wilhelm Humboldt (Freiherr, Dallas, William Sweetland, 1860, Harper & brothers, en, WEB,weblink Introducing Humboldt's Cosmos {{!, Center for Humans & Nature|website=Center for Humans & Nature|access-date=2017-06-01}}

Cosmology

File:Ptolemaicsystem-small.png|thumb|right|The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter ApianPeter ApianCosmology is the study of the cosmos, and in its broadest sense covers a variety of very different approaches: scientific, religious and philosophical. All cosmologies have in common an attempt to understand the implicit order within the whole of being. In this way, most religions and philosophical systems have a cosmology.When cosmology is used without a qualifier, it often signifies physical cosmology, unless the context makes clear that a different meaning is intended.

Physical cosmology

Physical cosmology (often simply described as 'cosmology') is the scientific study of the universe, from the beginning of its physical existence. It includes speculative concepts such as a multiverse, when these are being discussed. In physical cosmology, the term cosmos is often used in a technical way, referring to a particular spacetime continuum within a (postulated) multiverse. Our particular cosmos, the observable universe, is generally capitalized as the Cosmos.In physical cosmology, the uncapitalized term cosmic signifies a subject with a relationship to the universe, such as 'cosmic time' (time since the Big Bang), 'cosmic rays' (high energy particles or radiation detected from space), and 'cosmic microwave background' (microwave radiation detectable from all directions in space).According to s:Aut in Sir William Smith Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1870, see book screenshot for full quote), Pythagoreans described the universe.BOOK, Sir William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1870,weblink 305, Boston, Little, File:Philolaus-and-Philomelus-Pythagorean-Book.jpg|thumb|upright|Excerpt from PhilolausPhilolaus

Philosophical cosmology

Cosmology is a branch of metaphysics that deals with the nature of the universe, a theory or doctrine describing the natural order of the universe.WEB,weblink Definition of "Cosmology", www.merriam-webster.com, en, 2017-06-01, The basic definition of Cosmology is the science of the origin and development of the universe. In modern astronomy the Big Bang theory is the dominant postulation.

Religious cosmology

{{see also|Religious cosmology|Hellenistic philosophy and Christianity|Orphism (religion)}}In theology, the cosmos is the created heavenly bodies (sun, moon, planets, and fixed stars). In Christian theology, the word is also used synonymously with aionWEB, Concerning Aion and Aionios,weblink Saviour of All Fellowship, 22 April 2014, to refer to "worldly life" or "this world" or "this age" as opposed to the afterlife or world to come.The 1870 book Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology noted
Thales dogma that water is the origin of things, that is, that it is that out of which every thing arises, and into which every thing resolves itself, Thales may have followed Orphic cosmogonies, while, unlike them, he sought to establish the truth of the assertion. Hence, Aristotle, immediately after he has called him the originator of philosophy brings forward the reasons which Thales was believed to have adduced in confirmation of that assertion; for that no written development of it, or indeed any book by Thales, was extant, is proved by the expressions which Aristotle uses when he brings forward the doctrines and proofs of the Milesian. (p. 1016)
Plato, describes the idea of the good, or the Godhead, sometimes teleologically, as the ultimate purpose of all conditioned existence; sometimes cosmologically, as the ultimate operative cause; and has begun to develop the cosmological, as also the physico-theological proof for the being of God; but has referred both back to the idea of the Good, as the necessary presupposition to all other ideas, and our cognition of them. (p. 402)
The book The Works of Aristotle (1908, p. 80 Fragments) mentionedBOOK,weblink The Works of Aristotle, 1908, Aristotle, Ross, W. D. (William David), 1877, Smith, J.A. (John Alexander), 1863-1939, 80, Oxford : Clarendon Press,
Aristotle says the poet Orpheus never existed; the Pythagoreans ascribe this Orphic poem to a certain Cercon (see Cercops).
Bertrand Russell (1947) notedBOOK,weblink History of Western Philosophy, 1947, Bertrand Russell, George Allen And Unwin Ltd London,
The Orphics were an ascetic sect; wine, to them, was only a symbol, as, later, in the Christian sacrament. The intoxication that they sought was that of "enthusiasm," of union with the god. They believed themselves, in this way, to acquire mystic knowledge not obtainable by ordinary means. This mystical element entered into Greek philosophy with Pythagoras, who was a reformer of Orphism as Orpheus was a reformer of the religion of Dionysus. From Pythagoras Orphic elements entered into the philosophy of Plato, and from Plato into most later philosophy that was in any degree religious.

Early views of cosmos: European Vs. Chinese

Eastern and Western thought differed greatly in its understanding of space and the organization of the cosmos. The Chinese, representing eastern ideas, saw the Cosmos as empty, infinite, and intertwined with the earth. Western ideas, based on the ancient Greek's understanding of the cosmos, believed in a multi-planar divided cosmos that was finite and filled with air.
European view
(File:The Nights Long Moments (152181573).jpeg|thumb|stars rotating in the nights sky)The early European view of the cosmos consisted of a divinely created, spatially finite, bifurcated cosmos, divided into sublunary and superlunary realms. Objects above the lunar sphere were believed to be stable, with heavenly bodies believed to be made out of a refined substance called ‘quintessence. This was understood to be a crystalline substance that was completely transparent and held all of the superlunary spheres in perfect order. After their creation by God, these spheres did not undergo any change except for their rotation above the earth.BOOK,weblink The dialogue of civilizations in the birth of modern science, Bala, Arun., 2010, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS), Institute of Southeast Asian Studies., 9789812309082, Singapore, 134-152, 647647268, Objects below the lunar sphere were subject to constant combination, separation, and recombination. This was because they consisted of the chaotic elements of earth, air, fire, and water. The idea of celestial spheres was developed in the cosmological models of Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus, and others.BOOK,weblink Planets, stars and orbs : the medieval cosmos, 1200-1687., Grant, Edward, 1926-, 2009, Cambridge University Press, 9780521138680, 40, 818047493, They believed in a stable cosmos created by God, where distinct realms were subject to different kinds of order. Europeans maintained the Aristotelian view that infinity could only be seen as an attribute of God, with the cosmos being finite. Furthermore, following the Aristotelian view that ‘nature abhors a vacuum’ Europeans believed that the space between the spheres were filled with air. This theory persisted until the scientific revolution, when the discovery that the sun was in the center of the universe rocked cosmological understanding to its core.
Chinese view
The Chinese had multiple theories for the processes and components of the cosmos. The most popular of these beliefs was the Xuan Ye theory, the astronomical view of the cosmos as an infinite space with floating pieces of condensed vapor. The Chinese believed that the earth consisted of condensed ‘yin’ and the heavens of ‘yang,’ they held that these properties coexisted in constant relation to each other, with yin and yang being used together to explain processes on earth as well of those relating the earth in conjunction with the heavens. This idea was described by Joseph Needham as a cosmos that functioned similarly to a complex organism, with discernible patterns in an ever changing structure. There was both a pattern and a randomness to the cosmos that was represented by the Chinese understanding of yin and yang.JOURNAL, Needham, Joseph, 1957, Science and Civilisation in China. Volume II, History of Scientific Thought. Joseph Needham,weblink Isis, 48, 3, 281, 10.1086/348588, 0021-1753, Because of this, the Chinese believed that earthly phenomena could affect heavenly bodies. Qi was believed to be the substance of all things in the cosmos and earth, including inanimate matter, humans, ideas, emotions, celestial bodies and everything that exists or has existed. The Chinese had a belief that it was Qi condensing that created all the matter within the cosmos. This is relatively consistent with our modern understanding of the congregation of matter through gravitational fields.WEB,weblink Living in the Chinese Cosmos: Understanding Religion in Late-Imperial China, afe.easia.columbia.edu, 2019-07-26, The Chinese held a belief associated with the Xuan Ye theory, which held space as both empty and infinite.{{Citation|last=Iannaccone|first=Isaia|title=COSMOLOGICAL SPECIAL RELATIVITY|date=2006|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/9789812772633_0002|work=Cosmological Relativity|volume=|pages=905|publisher=WORLD SCIENTIFIC|isbn=9789812700759|access-date=2019-07-26}} This concept was impossible to entertain for the Aristotelian because the idea of an empty, infinite universe directly contradicted the idea that nature would not contain a vacuum, and that infinity could only be a divine attribute. The idea of the nothingness of space would later be recognized as one of the most important understandings brought about by modern science. Similarities in observation There is one way that both the Chinese and the Europeans, along with countless other ancient societies, related to the cosmos. This was through meaning, placed on celestial bodies, that were observed moving above the earth. The Chinese had a very complex astronomical understanding of the stars and the cosmos that influenced everything from their art and architecture to their myths and science.{{Citation|last=Pankenier|first=David W.|title=Cosmology and the calendar|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781139017466.014|work=Astrology and Cosmology in Early China|pages=242–258|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=9781139017466|access-date=2019-07-27}} This was true of the Greeks and Romans as well, whose forty eight constellations, including the zodiac signs and the constellation of orion, have been passed down to modern western cultures. These were likely passed down to them from ancient Babylonian and Egyptian astronomers.JOURNAL, Rogers, H, 1998, Origins of the ancient constellations: II. The Mediterranean traditions,weblink Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 108, 79, These stories can have profound impact on the societies they are told in. For example, Copernicus was inspired by the fecund sun deity of neo platonic thought, which may have initially inspired his vision of a helio centric universe. This concept of the sun in the center of the cosmos would lead to the understanding of the universe that we have to this day.

See also

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References

{{reflist}}

External links

{{wiktionary|cosmos}} {{Metaphysics}}


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