contemporary art

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contemporary art
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{{distinguish|Modern art}}File:Dona i Ocell.JPG|thumb|upright|Joan Miró, Dona i OcellDona i Ocell{{History of art sidebar}}Contemporary art is the art of today, produced in the second half of the 20th century or in the 21st century. Contemporary artists work in a globally influenced, culturally diverse, and technologically advancing world. Their art is a dynamic combination of materials, methods, concepts, and subjects that continue the challenging of boundaries that was already well underway in the 20th century. Diverse and eclectic, contemporary art as a whole is distinguished by the very lack of a uniform, organising principle, ideology, or "-ism". Contemporary art is part of a cultural dialogue that concerns larger contextual frameworks such as personal and cultural identity, family, community, and nationality.In vernacular English, modern and contemporary are synonyms, resulting in some conflation of the terms modern art and contemporary art by non-specialists.NYU Steinhardt, Department of Art and Arts Professions, New York


File:Balloon Dog Yellow.jpg|thumb|Jeff Koons, Balloon Dog (Yellow), 1994–2000, mirror-polished stainless steel with transparent color coating, 121 x 143 x 45 in. (307.3 x 363.2 x 114.3 cm). Metropolitan Museum of ArtMetropolitan Museum of ArtSome define contemporary art as art produced within "our lifetime," recognising that lifetimes and life spans vary. However, there is a recognition that this generic definition is subject to specialized limitations.WEB,weblink What is "Contemporary" Art?, Shelley, Esaak, 28 April 2013,, The classification of "contemporary art" as a special type of art, rather than a general adjectival phrase, goes back to the beginnings of Modernism in the English-speaking world. In London, the Contemporary Art Society was founded in 1910 by the critic Roger Fry and others, as a private society for buying works of art to place in public museums.Fry Roger, Ed. Craufurd D. Goodwin, Art and the Market: Roger Fry on Commerce in Art, 1999, University of Michigan Press, {{ISBN|0472109022}}, 9780472109029, google books A number of other institutions using the term were founded in the 1930s, such as in 1938 the Contemporary Art Society of Adelaide, Australia,Also the Contemporary Arts Society of Montreal, 1939–1948 and an increasing number after 1945.Smith, 257–258 Many, like the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston changed their names from ones using "Modern art" in this period, as Modernism became defined as a historical art movement, and much "modern" art ceased to be "contemporary". The definition of what is contemporary is naturally always on the move, anchored in the present with a start date that moves forward, and the works the Contemporary Art Society bought in 1910 could no longer be described as contemporary.File:Charles Thomson. Sir Nicholas Serota Makes an Acquisitions Decision.jpg|thumb|upright|Charles Thomson. Sir Nicholas Serota Makes an Acquisitions Decision, 2000, StuckismStuckismParticular points that have been seen as marking a change in art styles include the end of World War II and the 1960s. There has perhaps been a lack of natural break points since the 1960s, and definitions of what constitutes "contemporary art" in the 2010s vary, and are mostly imprecise. Art from the past 20 years is very likely to be included, and definitions often include art going back to about 1970;Some definitions: "Art21 defines contemporary art as the work of artists who are living in the twenty-first century." Art21 "the art of the late 20th and early 21st century";WEB,weblink Contemporary art - Define Contemporary art at,, "the art of the late 20th cent. and early 21st cent., both an outgrowth and a rejection of modern art";WEB,weblink Yahoo, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-07-20, "Strictly speaking, the term "contemporary art" refers to art made and produced by artists living today";WEB,weblink About Contemporary Art (Education at the Getty), "Art from the 1960s or [19]70s up until this very minute";WEB,weblink What is Contemporary Art?, Shelley Esaak, Education, and sometimes further, especially in museum contexts, as museums which form a permanent collection of contemporary art inevitably find this aging. Many use the formulation "Modern and Contemporary Art", which avoids this problem.Examples of specializing museums include the Strasbourg Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art and Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art of Trento and Rovereto. The Oxford Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art is one of many book titles to use the phrase. Smaller commercial galleries, magazines and other sources may use stricter definitions, perhaps restricting the "contemporary" to work from 2000 onwards. Artists who are still productive after a long career, and ongoing art movements, may present a particular issue; galleries and critics are often reluctant to divide their work between the contemporary and non-contemporary.{{Citation needed|date=February 2018}}Sociologist Nathalie Heinich draws a distinction between modern and contemporary art, describing them as two different paradigms which partially overlap historically. She found that while "modern art" challenges the conventions of representation, "contemporary art" challenges the very notion of an artwork.Heinich, Nathalie, Ed. Gallimard, Le paradigme de l'art contemporain : Structures d'une révolution artistique , 2014, {{ISBN|2070139239}}, 9782070139231, google books She regards Duchamp's Fountain (which was made in the 1910s in the midst of the triumph of modern art) as the starting point of contemporary art, which gained momentum after World War II with Gutai's performances, Yves Klein's monochromes and Rauschenberg's Erased de Kooning Drawing.Nathalie Heinich lecture "Contemporary art: an artistic revolution ? at 'Agora des savoirs' 21st edition, 6 May 2015.


File:Irbid-Jordan-Nida Alhamzeh-029.jpg|alt=Irbid, Jordan, "We are Arabs. We are Humans"|thumb|Irbid, Jordan, "We are Arabs. We are Humans". Inside Out is a global participatory art project, initiated by the French photographer JR, an example of Street artStreet artOne of the difficulties many people have in approaching contemporary artwork is its diversity—diversity of material, form, subject matter, and even time periods. It is "distinguished by the very lack of a uniform organizing principle, ideology, or -ism"Contemporary Art in Context. (2016). Retrieved December 11, 2016 that we so often see in other, and oftentimes more familiar, art periods and movements. Broadly speaking, we see Modernism as looking at modernist principles—the focus of the work is self-referential, investigating its own materials (investigations of line, shape, color, form). Likewise, Impressionism looks at our perception of a moment through light and color as opposed to attempts at stark realism (Realism, too, is an artistic movement). Contemporary art, on the other hand, does not have one, single objective or point of view. Its view instead is unclear, perhaps reflective of the world today. It can be, therefore, contradictory, confusing, and open-ended. There are, however, a number of common themes that have appeared in contemporary works. While these are not exhaustive, notable themes include: identity politics, the body, globalization and migration, technology, contemporary society and culture, time and memory, and institutional and political critique.Robertson, J., & McDaniel, C. (2012). Themes of Contemporary Art: Visual Art after 1980 (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Post-modern, post-structuralist, feminist, and Marxist theory have played important roles in the development of contemporary theories of art.


{{More citations needed section|date=February 2018}}File:Chateau de Montsoreau Museum of contemporary art Loire Valley France.jpg|thumb|The Château de Montsoreau-Museum of Contemporary Art (France), is a private institution belonging to Philippe MéaillePhilippe MéailleFile:MOCA North Miami.jpg|thumb|The Museum of Contemporary Art in Miami, FloridaMiami, FloridaThe functioning of the art world is dependent on art institutions, ranging from major museums to private galleries, non-profit spaces, art schools and publishers, and the practices of individual artists, curators, writers, collectors, and philanthropists. A major division in the art world is between the for-profit and non-profit sectors, although in recent years the boundaries between for-profit private and non-profit public institutions have become increasingly blurred.{{Citation needed|date=February 2018}} Most well-known contemporary art is exhibited by professional artists at commercial contemporary art galleries, by private collectors, art auctions, corporations, publicly funded arts organizations, contemporary art museums or by artists themselves in artist-run spaces.NEWS,weblink Largest Art & Language Collection Finds Home - artnet News, 2015-06-23, artnet News, 2018-09-10, en-US, Contemporary artists are supported by grants, awards, and prizes as well as by direct sales of their work. Career artists train at art school or emerge from other fields.{{Citation needed|date=February 2018}}There are close relationships between publicly funded contemporary art organizations and the commercial sector. For instance, in 2005 the book Understanding International Art Markets and Management reported that in Britain a handful of dealers represented the artists featured in leading publicly funded contemporary art museums.Derrick Chong in Iain Robertson, Understanding International Art Markets And Management, Routledge, 2005, p95. {{ISBN|0-415-33956-1}}Corporations have also integrated themselves into the contemporary art world, exhibiting contemporary art within their premises, organizing and sponsoring contemporary art awards, and building up extensive corporate collections.Chin-Tao Wu, Privatising Culture: Corporate Art Intervention Since the 1980s, Verso, 2002, p14. {{ISBN|1-85984-472-3}} Corporate advertisers frequently use the prestige associated with contemporary art and coolhunting to draw the attention of consumers to luxury goods.{{Citation needed|date=February 2018}}The institutions of art have been criticized for regulating what is designated as contemporary art. Outsider art, for instance, is literally contemporary art, in that it is produced in the present day. However, one critic has argued it is not considered so because the artists are self-taught and are thus assumed to be working outside of an art historical context.Gary Alan Fine, Everyday Genius: Self-Taught Art and the Culture of Authenticity, University of Chicago Press, 2004, pp42-43. {{ISBN|0-226-24950-6}} Craft activities, such as textile design, are also excluded from the realm of contemporary art, despite large audiences for exhibitions.Peter Dormer, The Culture of Craft: Status and Future, Manchester University Press, 1996, p175. {{ISBN|0-7190-4618-1}} Art critic Peter Timms has said that attention is drawn to the way that craft objects must subscribe to particular values in order to be admitted to the realm of contemporary art. "A ceramic object that is intended as a subversive comment on the nature of beauty is more likely to fit the definition of contemporary art than one that is simply beautiful."Peter Timms, What's Wrong with Contemporary Art?, UNSW Press, 2004, p17. {{ISBN|0-86840-407-1}}At any one time a particular place or group of artists can have a strong influence on subsequent contemporary art. For instance, The Ferus Gallery was a commercial gallery in Los Angeles and re-invigorated the Californian contemporary art scene in the late fifties and the sixties.

Public attitudes

Contemporary art can sometimes seem at odds with a public that does not feel that art and its institutions share its values.Mary Jane Jacob and Michael Brenson, Conversations at the Castle: Changing Audiences and Contemporary Art, MIT Press, 1998, p30. {{ISBN|0-262-10072-X}} In Britain, in the 1990s, contemporary art became a part of popular culture, with artists becoming stars, but this did not lead to a hoped-for "cultural utopia".Julian Stallabrass, High Art Lite: British Art in the 1990s, Verso, 1999, pp1-2. {{ISBN|1-85984-721-8}} Some critics like Julian Spalding and Donald Kuspit have suggested that skepticism, even rejection, is a legitimate and reasonable response to much contemporary art.Spalding, Julian, The Eclipse of Art: Tackling the Crisis in Art Today, Prestel Publishing, 2003. {{ISBN|3-7913-2881-6}} Brian Ashbee in an essay called "Art Bollocks" criticizes "much installation art, photography, conceptual art, video and other practices generally called post-modern" as being too dependent on verbal explanations in the form of theoretical discourse.WEB,weblink Art Bollocks,, 1990-05-05, 2011-08-17,weblink" title="">weblink 16 July 2011, dead, However, the acceptance of non traditional art in museums has increased due to changing perspectives on what constitutes an art piece.WEB,weblink What is Art? {{!, Boundless Art History||access-date=2018-05-04}}


A common concern since the early part of the 20th century has been the question of what constitutes art. In the contemporary period (1950 to now), the concept of avant-gardeFred Orton & Griselda Pollock, Avant-Gardes and Partisans Reviewed. Manchester University, 1996. {{ISBN|0-7190-4399-9}} may come into play in determining what art is noticed by galleries, museums, and collectors.The concerns of contemporary art come in for criticism too. Andrea Rosen has said that some contemporary painters "have absolutely no idea of what it means to be a contemporary artist" and that they "are in it for all the wrong reasons."Haas, Nancy (2000-03-05), "Stirring Up the Art World Again". The New York Times, weblink.


Some competitions, awards, and prizes in contemporary art are:


This table lists art movements and styles by decade. It should not be assumed to be conclusive.{| border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="margin:auto; width:100%; border:0 solid #e5ffec; background:#=#e5ffec;"








See also




  • BOOK, Terry Smith (art historian), Smith, Terry, What Is Contemporary Art?, 2009, University of Chicago Press, 978-0226764313,weblink Chicago, 26 April 2013,
  • BOOK, Richard Meyer (academic), Meyer, Richard, What Was Contemporary Art?, 2013, MIT Press, Cambridge, 978-0262135085,weblink 26 October 2014,

Further reading

  • Altshuler, B. (2013). Biennials and Beyond: Exhibitions that Made Art History: 1962-2002. New York, N.Y.: Phaidon Press, {{ISBN|978-0714864952}}
  • BOOK, Atkins, Robert, Artspeak: A Guide To Contemporary Ideas, Movements, and Buzzwords, 1945 To the Present, 2013, Abbeville Press, New York, 978-0789211514, 3rd.,
  • Danto, A. C. (2013). What is art. New Haven: Yale University Press, {{ISBN|978-0300205718}}
  • Desai, V. N. (Ed.). (2007). Asian art history in the twenty-first century. Williamstown, Mass.: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, {{ISBN|978-0300125535}}
  • Fullerton, E. (2016). Artrage! : the story of the BritArt revolution. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd, {{ISBN|978-0500239445}}
  • Gielen, Pascal (2009). The Murmuring of the Artistic Multitude: Global Art, Memory and Post-Fordism. Amsterdam: Valiz, {{ISBN|9789078088394}}
  • Gompertz, W. (2013). What Are You Looking At?: The Surprising, Shocking, and Sometimes Strange Story of 150 Years of Modern Art (2nd ed.). New York, N.Y.: Plume, {{ISBN|978-0142180297}}
  • Harris, J. (2011). Globalization and Contemporary Art. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Blackwell, {{ISBN|978-1405179508}}
  • Lailach, M. (2007). Land Art. London: Taschen, {{ISBN|978-3822856130}}
  • Martin, S. (2006). Video Art. (U. Grosenick, Ed.). Los Angeles: Taschen, {{ISBN|978-3822829509}}
  • Mercer, K. (2008). Exiles, diasporas & strangers. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, {{ISBN|978-0262633581}}
  • Robertson, J., & McDaniel, C. (2012). Themes of Contemporary Art: Visual Art after 1980 (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|978-0199797073}}
  • Robinson, H. (Ed.). (2015). Feminism-art-theory : an anthology 1968-2014 (2nd ed.). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, {{ISBN|978-1118360590}}
  • Stiles, Kristine and Peter Howard Selz, Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art, A Sourcebook of Artists's Writings (1996), {{ISBN|0-520-20251-1}}
  • Thompson, D. (2010). The $12 Million Stuffed Shark: The Curious Economics of Contemporary Art. New York, N.Y.: St. Martin’s Griffin, {{ISBN|978-0230620599}}
  • Thorton, S. (2009). Seven Days in the Art World. New York, N.Y.: W.W. Norton & Company, {{ISBN|978-0393337129}}
  • Wallace, Isabelle Loring and Jennie Hirsh, Contemporary Art and Classical Myth. Farnham: Ashgate (2011), {{ISBN|978-0-7546-6974-6}}
  • Warr, T. (Ed.). (2012). The Artist’s Body (Revised). New York, N.Y.: Phaidon Press, {{ISBN|978-0714863931}}
  • Wilson, M. (2013). How to read contemporary art : experiencing the art of the 21st century. New York, N.Y.: Abrams, {{ISBN|978-1419707537}}

External links

{{Western art movements}}

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