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complex number
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File:Complex number illustration.svg|thumb|right|A complex number can be visually represented as a pair of numbers {{math|(a,â€‰b)}} forming a vector on a diagram called an Argand diagram, representing the i}} satisfies {{math|1=i2 = âˆ’1}}.A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form {{math|a + bi}}, where {{math|a}} and {{math|b}} are real numbers, and {{math|i}} is a solution of the equation {{math|1=x2 = âˆ’1}}. Because no real number satisfies this equation, {{math|i}} is called an imaginary number. For the complex number {{math|a + bi}}, {{math|a}} is called the {{visible anchor|real part}}, and {{math|b}} is called the {{visible anchor|imaginary part}}. Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers, and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world.An extensive account of the history, from initial skepticism to ultimate acceptance, can be found in {{citation|author=Nicolas Bourbaki|title=Elements of the history of mathematics|publisher=Springer|chapter=1. Foundations of mathematics; logic; set theory|pages=18–24}}.BOOK, The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe, reprinted, Roger, Penrose, Random House, 2016, 978-1-4464-1820-8, 72â€“73,weblink Extract of page 73: "complex numbers, as much as reals, and perhaps even more, find a unity with nature that is truly remarkable. It is as though Nature herself is as impressed by the scope and consistency of the complex-number system as we are ourselves, and has entrusted to these numbers the precise operations of her world at its minutest scales."The complex number system can be defined as the algebraic extension of the ordinary real numbers by an imaginary number {{math|i}}.BOOK, Nicolas Bourbaki, General topology, VIII.1, Springer-Verlag, This means that complex numbers can be added, subtracted, and multiplied, as polynomials in the variable {{math|i}}, with the rule {{math|i2 {{=}} −1}} imposed. Furthermore, complex numbers can also be divided by nonzero complex numbers. Overall, the complex number system is a field.The complex numbers give rise to the fundamental theorem of algebra: every non-constant polynomial equation with complex coefficients has a complex solution. This property is true of the complex numbers, but not the reals. The 16th century Italian mathematician Gerolamo Cardano is credited with introducing complex numbers in his attempts to find solutions to cubic equations.{{harvtxt|Burton|1995|p=294}}Geometrically, complex numbers extend the concept of the one-dimensional number line to the two-dimensional complex plane by using the horizontal axis for the real part and the vertical axis for the imaginary part. The complex number {{math|a + bi}} can be identified with the point {{math|(a,â€‰b)}} in the complex plane. A complex number whose real part is zero is said to be purely imaginary; the points for these numbers lie on the vertical axis of the complex plane. A complex number whose imaginary part is zero can be viewed as a real number; its point lies on the horizontal axis of the complex plane. Complex numbers can also be represented in polar form, which associates each complex number with its distance from the origin (its magnitude) and with a particular angle known as the argument of this complex number.- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
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Overview
Complex numbers allow solutions to certain equations that have no solutions in real numbers. For example, the equation
(x+1)^2 = -9
has no real solution, since the square of a real number cannot be negative. Complex numbers provide a solution to this problem. The idea is to extend the real numbers with an indeterminate {{math|i}} (sometimes called the imaginary unit) that is taken to satisfy the relation {{math|1=i2 = âˆ’1}}, so that solutions to equations like the preceding one can be found. In this case the solutions are {{math|âˆ’1 + 3i}} and {{math|âˆ’1 âˆ’ 3i}}, as can be verified using the fact that {{math|1=i2 = âˆ’1}}:
((-1+3i)+1)^2 = (3i)^2 = left(3^2right)left(i^2right) = 9(-1) = -9,
((-1-3i)+1)^2 = (-3i)^2 = (-3)^2left(i^2right) = 9(-1) = -9.
According to the fundamental theorem of algebra, all polynomial equations with real or complex coefficients in a single variable have a solution in complex numbers.Definition
File:Complex conjugate picture.svg|right|thumb|upright|An illustration of the 1=z = x + iy}} is {{mvar|x}}, and its imaginary part is {{mvar|y}}.A complex number is a number of the form {{math|1=a + bi}}, where {{mvar|a}} and {{mvar|b}} are real numbers and {{math|i}} is an indeterminate satisfying {{math|1=i2 = âˆ’1}}. For example, {{math|2 + 3i}} is a complex number.BOOK, College algebra, Sheldon Axler, 262, Wiley, 2010, A complex number may therefore be defined as a polynomial in the single indeterminate {{math|i}}, with the relation {{math|i2 + 1 {{=}} 0}} imposed. From this definition, complex numbers can be added or multiplied, using the addition and multiplication for polynomials. Formally, the set of complex numbers is the quotient ring of the polynomial ring in the indeterminate {{math|i}}, by the ideal generated by the polynomial {{math|i2 + 1}} (see below).BOOK, Nicolas Bourbaki, General topology, VIII.1, Springer-Verlag, The set of all complex numbers is denoted by mathbf{C} (upright bold) or mathbb{C} (blackboard bold).The real number {{mvar|a}} is called the real part of the complex number {{math|a + bi}}; the real number {{mvar|b}} is called the imaginary part of {{math|a + bi}}. By this convention, the imaginary part does not include a factor of {{mvar|i}}: hence {{mvar|b}}, not {{math|bi}}, is the imaginary part.Complex Variables (2nd Edition), M.R. Spiegel, S. Lipschutz, J.J. Schiller, D. Spellman, Schaum's Outline Series, Mc Graw Hill (USA), {{isbn|978-0-07-161569-3}}{{Citation |title=College Algebra and Trigonometry |edition=6 |first1=Richard N. |last1=Aufmann |first2=Vernon C. |last2=Barker |first3=Richard D. |last3=Nation |publisher=Cengage Learning |year=2007 |isbn=0-618-82515-0 |page=66 |url=https://books.google.com/?id=g5j-cT-vg_wC&pg=PA66 |chapter=Chapter P}} The real part of a complex number {{mvar|z}} is denoted by {{math|Re(z)}} or {{math|â„œ(z)}}; the imaginary part of a complex number {{mvar|z}} is denoted by {{math|Im(z)}} or {{math|â„‘(z)}}. For example,
begin{align}
operatorname{Re}(2 + 3i) &= 2
operatorname{Im}(2 + 3i) &= 3.
end{align}A real number {{mvar|a}} can be regarded as a complex number {{math|a + 0i}} whose imaginary part is 0. A purely imaginary number {{math|bi}} is a complex number {{math|0 + bi}} whose real part is zero. It is common to write {{mvar|a}} for {{math|a + 0i}} and {{math|bi}} for {{math|0 + bi}}. Moreover, when the imaginary part is negative, it is common to write {{math|a âˆ’ bi}} with {{math|b > 0}} instead of {{math|a + (âˆ’b)i}}, for example {{math|3 âˆ’ 4i}} instead of {{math|3 + (âˆ’4)i}}.operatorname{Im}(2 + 3i) &= 3.
Cartesian form and definition via ordered pairs
A complex number can thus be identified with an ordered pair {{math|(Re(z), Im(z))}} in the Cartesian plane, an identification sometimes known as the Cartesian form of {{mvar|z}}. In fact, a complex number can be defined as an ordered pair {{math|(a, b)}}, but then rules for addition and multiplication must also be included as part of the definition (see below).BOOK, Mathematical analysis, Tom Apostol, 1981, 15–16, Addison-Wesley, William Rowan Hamilton introduced this approach to define the complex number system.BOOK, A Brief History of Numbers, Leo Corry, Oxford University Press, 2015, 215–216,Complex plane
File:A plus bi.svg|thumb|right|Figure 1: A complex number z, plotted as a point (red) and position vector (blue) on an a + bi}} is its rectangular expression.A complex number can be viewed as a point or position vector in a two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system called the complex plane or Argand diagram (see {{harvnb|Pedoe|1988}} and {{harvnb|Solomentsev|2001}}), named after Jean-Robert Argand. The numbers are conventionally plotted using the real part as the horizontal component, and imaginary part as vertical (see Figure 1). These two values used to identify a given complex number are therefore called its Cartesian, rectangular, or algebraic form.A position vector may also be defined in terms of its magnitude and direction relative to the origin. These are emphasized in a complex number's polar form. Using the polar form of the complex number in calculations may lead to a more intuitive interpretation of mathematical results. Notably, the operations of addition and multiplication take on a very natural geometric character when complex numbers are viewed as position vectors: addition corresponds to vector addition while multiplication corresponds to multiplying their magnitudes and adding their arguments (i.e. the angles they make with the x axis). Viewed in this way the multiplication of a complex number by {{math|i}} corresponds to rotating the position vector counterclockwise by a quarter turn (90Â°) about the origin: {{math|1=(a + bi)i = ai + bi2 = âˆ’b + ai}}.History in brief
Main section: History
The solution in radicals (without trigonometric functions) of a general cubic equation contains the square roots of negative numbers when all three roots are real numbers, a situation that cannot be rectified by factoring aided by the rational root test if the cubic is irreducible (the so-called casus irreducibilis). This conundrum led Italian mathematician Gerolamo Cardano to conceive of complex numbers in around 1545,BOOK, Morris Kline, A history of mathematical thought, volume 1, 253, though his understanding was rudimentary.Work on the problem of general polynomials ultimately led to the fundamental theorem of algebra, which shows that with complex numbers, a solution exists to every polynomial equation of degree one or higher. Complex numbers thus form an algebraically closed field, where any polynomial equation has a root.Many mathematicians contributed to the full development of complex numbers. The rules for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of complex numbers were developed by the Italian mathematician Rafael Bombelli.{{harvtxt|Katz|2004|loc=Â§9.1.4}} A more abstract formalism for the complex numbers was further developed by the Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton, who extended this abstraction to the theory of quaternions.Notation
Because it is a polynomial in the indeterminate {{math|i}}, {{math|a + ib}} may be written instead of {{math|a + bi}}, which is often expedient when {{math|b}} is a radical.For example {{harvtxt|Ahlfors|1979}}. In some disciplines, in particular electromagnetism and electrical engineering, {{math|j}} is used instead of {{math|i}},{{Citation |last1=Brown |first1=James Ward |last2=Churchill |first2=Ruel V. |title=Complex variables and applications |year=1996 |publisher=McGraw-Hill |location=New York |isbn=0-07-912147-0 |edition=6th |page=2 |quote=In electrical engineering, the letter j is used instead of i.}} since {{mvar|i}} is frequently used for electric current. In these cases complex numbers are written as {{math|a + bj}} or {{math|a + jb}}.Equality and order relations
Two complex numbers are equal if and only if both their real and imaginary parts are equal. That is, complex numbers z_1 and z_2 are equal if and only if operatorname{Re}(z_{1}) = operatorname{Re}(z_{2}) and operatorname{Im} (z_{1}) = operatorname{Im} (z_{2}). If the complex numbers are written in polar form, they are equal if and only if they have the same argument and the same magnitude.Because complex numbers are naturally thought of as existing on a two-dimensional plane, there is no natural linear ordering on the set of complex numbers. Furthermore, there is no linear ordering on the complex numbers that is compatible with addition and multiplication – the complex numbers cannot have the structure of an ordered field. This is because any square in an ordered field is at least {{math|0}}, but {{math|1=i2 = âˆ’1}}.Elementary operations
Conjugate
{{See also|Complex conjugate}}(File:Complex conjugate picture.svg|right|thumb|Geometric representation of {{mvar|z}} and its conjugate overline{z} in the complex plane)The complex conjugate of the complex number {{math|1=z = x + yi}} is given by {{math|x âˆ’ yi}}. It is denoted by either overline{z} or {{math|z*}}.For the former notation, see for instance BOOK, Mathematical analysis, Tom Apostol, 1981, 15–16, Addison-Wesley, . This unary operation on complex numbers cannot be expressed by applying only their basic operations addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.Geometrically, overline{z} is the "reflection" of {{mvar|z}} about the real axis. Conjugating twice gives the original complex number
overline{overline{z}}=z,
which makes this operation an involution. The reflection leaves both the real part and the magnitude of z unchanged, that is
operatorname{Re}(overline{z}) = operatorname{Re}(z)quad and quad |overline{z}| = |z|.
The imaginary part and the argument of a complex number z change their sign under conjugation
operatorname{Im}(overline{z}) = -operatorname{Im}(z)quad and quad operatorname{arg}(overline{z}) equiv -operatorname{arg}(z) pmod {2pi}.
For details on argument and magnitude see #Polar form.The product of a complex number z= x + yi and its conjugate is always a positive real number and equals the square of the magnitude of each:
zcdot overline{z} = x^2 + y^2.
This property can be used used to convert a fraction with a complex denominator to an equivalent fraction with a real denominator by expanding both numerator and denominator of the fraction by the conjugate of the given denominator. This process is sometimes called "rationalization" of the denominator (although the denominator in the final expression might be an irrational real number), because it resembles the method to remove roots from simple expressions in a denominator.The real and imaginary parts of a complex number {{mvar|z}} can be extracted using the conjugation:
operatorname{Re}(z) = dfrac{z+overline{z}}{2},quad and quad operatorname{Im}(z) = dfrac{z-overline{z}}{2i}.
Moreover, a complex number is real if and only if it equals its own conjugate.Conjugation distributes over the basic complex arithmetic operations:
overline{zpm w} = overline{z} pm overline{w},
overline{zcdot w} = overline{z} cdotoverline{w},quad overline{z/w} = overline{z}/overline{w}.
Conjugation is also employed in Inversive geometry, a branch of geometry studying reflections more general than ones about a line. In the network analysis of electrical circuits, the complex conjugate is used in finding the equivalent impedance when the maximum power transfer theorem is looked for.Addition and subtraction
(File:Vector Addition.svg|200px|right|thumb|Addition of two complex numbers can be done geometrically by constructing a parallelogram.)Two complex numbers a and b are most easily added by separately adding their real and imaginary parts of the summands. That is to say:
a + b =(x+yi) + (u+vi) = (x+u) + (y+v)i.
Similarly, subtraction can be performed as
a - b =(x+yi) - (u+vi) = (x-u) + (y-v)i.
Using the visualization of complex numbers in the complex plane, the addition has the following geometric interpretation: the sum of two complex numbers a and b, interpreted as points in the complex plane, is the point obtained by building a parallelogram from the three vertices O, and the points of the arrows labeled a and b (provided that they are not on a line). Equivalently, calling these points A,; B, respectively and the fourth point of the parallelogram X, the triangles OAB and XBA are congruent. A visualization of the subtraction can be achieved by considering addition of the negative subtrahend.Multiplication
Since the real part, the imaginary part, and the indeterminate i in a complex number are all considered as numbers in themselves, two complex numbers, given as z=x+yi and w= u+vi are multiplied under the rules of the distributive property, the commutative properties and the defining property i^2 = -1 in the following way
begin{align}
zcdot w &= (x+yi)cdot (u+vi) & &=x(u+vi) + yi(u+vi) &&text{by the (right) distributive law} &=xu + xvi + yiu + yivi &&text{by the (left) distributive law} &=xu + yivi + xvi + yiu &&text{by the commutativity of addition} &=xu + yvi^2 + xvi + yui &&text{by the commutativity of multiplication} &=(xu + yvi^2) + (xvi + yui) &&text{by the associativity of addition} &=(xu - yv) + (xvi + yui) &&text{by the defining property of } i &=(xu - yv) + (xv + yu)i &&text{by the distributive law}.end{align}Reciprocal and division
Using the conjugation, the reciprocal of a nonzero complex number {{math|1=z = x + yi}} can always be broken down to
frac{1}{z}=frac{overline{z}}{z overline{z}} = frac{overline{z}}{|z|^2}=frac{overline{z}}{x^2+y^2}=frac{x}{x^2+y^2} -frac{y}{x^2+y^2}i,
since non-zero implies that x^2 + y^2 is greater than zero.This can be used to express a division of an arbitrary complex number w= u+vi by a non-zero complex number z as
frac {w}{z}= wcdot frac {1}{z}= (u+vi)cdot left(frac{x}{x^2+y^2} -frac{y}{x^2+y^2}iright)= frac{1}{x^2+y^2}left((ux+vy)+(vx-uy)iright).
Square root
{{see also|Square root#Square roots of negative and complex numbers|l1=Square roots of negative and complex numbers}}The square roots of {{math|a + bi}} (with {{math|b â‰ 0}}) are pm (gamma + delta i), where
gamma = sqrt{frac{a + sqrt{a^2 + b^2}}{2}}
and
delta = sgn (b) sqrt{frac{-a + sqrt{a^2 + b^2}}{2}},
where sgn is the signum function. This can be seen by squaring pm (gamma + delta i) to obtain {{math|a + bi}}.{{Citation|title=Handbook of mathematical functions with formulas, graphs, and mathematical tables|edition=|first1=Milton|last1=Abramowitz|first2=Irene A.|last2=Stegun|publisher=Courier Dover Publications|year=1964|isbn=0-486-61272-4|page=17|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=MtU8uP7XMvoC}}, Section 3.7.26, p. 17{{Citation|title=Classical algebra: its nature, origins, and uses|first1=Roger|last1=Cooke|publisher=John Wiley and Sons|year=2008|isbn=0-470-25952-3|page=59|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=lUcTsYopfhkC}}, Extract: page 59
Here sqrt{a^2 + b^2} is called the modulus of {{math|a + bi}}, and the square root sign indicates the square root with non-negative real part, called the principal square root; also sqrt{a^2 + b^2}= sqrt{zoverline{z}}, where z = a + bi. {{harvtxt|Ahlfors|1979|p=3}}
Polar form
{{Redirect|Polar form|the higher-dimensional analogue|Polar decomposition}}(File:Complex number illustration modarg.svg|right|thumb|Figure 2: The argument {{mvar|Ï†}} and modulus {{mvar|r}} locate a point on an Argand diagram; r(cos varphi + i sin varphi) or r e^{ivarphi} are polar expressions of the point.)Absolute value and argument
An alternative way of defining a point P in the complex plane, other than using the x- and y-coordinates, is to use the distance of the point from O, the point whose coordinates are {{math|(0,â€‰0)}} (the origin), together with the angle subtended between the positive real axis and the line segment OP in a counterclockwise direction. This idea leads to the polar form of complex numbers.The absolute value (or modulus or magnitude) of a complex number {{math|1=z = x + yi}} isBOOK, Mathematical analysis, Tom Apostol, 1981, 18, Addison-Wesley, .
r=|z|=sqrt{x^2+y^2}.
If {{mvar|z}} is a real number (that is, if {{math|1=y = 0}}), then {{math|1=r = {{!}}x{{!}}}}. That is, the absolute value of a real number equals its absolute value as a complex number.By Pythagoras' theorem, the absolute value of complex number is the distance to the origin of the point representing the complex number in the complex plane.The square of the absolute value is
|z|^2=zoverline{z}=x^2+y^2.
where overline{z} is the complex conjugate of z.The argument of {{mvar|z}} (in many applications referred to as the "phase") is the angle of the radius OP with the positive real axis, and is written as arg(z). As with the modulus, the argument can be found from the rectangular form x+yi:{{Citation|title=Complex Variables: Theory And Applications|edition=2nd|chapter=Chapter 1|first1=H.S.|last1=Kasana|publisher=PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd|year=2005|isbn=81-203-2641-5|page=14|url=https://books.google.com/?id=rFhiJqkrALIC&pg=PA14}}
varphi = arg(z) =
begin{cases}arctanleft(dfrac{y}{x}right) & text{if } x > 0 arctanleft(dfrac{y}{x}right) + pi & text{if } x < 0 text{ and } y ge 0arctanleft(dfrac{y}{x}right) - pi & text{if } x < 0 text{ and } y < 0dfrac{pi}{2} & text{if } x = 0 text{ and } y > 0-dfrac{pi}{2} & text{if } x = 0 text{ and } y < 0text{indeterminate } & text{if } x = 0 text{ and } y = 0.end{cases}{{visualisation_complex_number_roots.svg}}Normally, as given above, the principal value in the interval {{open-closed|âˆ’Ï€, Ï€}} is chosen. Values in the range {{closed-open|0, 2Ï€}} are obtained by adding {{math|2Ï€}} if the value is negative. The value of {{mvar|Ï†}} is expressed in radians in this article. It can increase by any integer multiple of {{math|2Ï€}} and still give the same angle. Hence, the arg function is sometimes considered as multivalued. The polar angle for the complex number 0 is indeterminate, but arbitrary choice of the angle 0 is common.The value of {{mvar|Ï†}} equals the result of atan2:
varphi = operatorname{atan2}left(operatorname{Im}(z),operatorname{Re}(z) right).
Together, {{mvar|r}} and {{mvar|Ï†}} give another way of representing complex numbers, the polar form, as the combination of modulus and argument fully specify the position of a point on the plane. Recovering the original rectangular co-ordinates from the polar form is done by the formula called trigonometric form
z = r(cos varphi + isin varphi ).
Using Euler's formula this can be written as
z = r e^{i varphi}.
Using the cis function, this is sometimes abbreviated to
z = r operatorname{cis} varphi.
In angle notation, often used in electronics to represent a phasor with amplitude {{mvar|r}} and phase {{mvar|Ï†}}, it is written as{{Citation|title=Electric circuits|chapter=Chapter 9|edition=8th|first1=James William|last1=Nilsson|first2=Susan A.|last2=Riedel|publisher=Prentice Hall|year=2008|isbn=0-13-198925-1|page=338|url=https://books.google.com/?id=sxmM8RFL99wC&pg=PA338}}
z = r ang varphi .
Multiplication and division in polar form
File:Complex multi.svg|right|thumb|Multiplication of {{math|2 + i}} (blue triangle) and {{math|3 + i}} (red triangle). The red triangle is rotated to match the vertex of the blue one and stretched by {{sqrt|5}}, the length of the hypotenusehypotenuseFormulas for multiplication, division and exponentiation are simpler in polar form than the corresponding formulas in Cartesian coordinates. Given two complex numbers {{math|1=z1 = r1(cosâ€ŠÏ†1 + iâ€‰sinâ€ŠÏ†1)}} and {{math|1=z2 = r2(cosâ€ŠÏ†2 + iâ€‰sinâ€ŠÏ†2)}}, because of the trigonometric identities
cos(a)cos(b) - sin(a)sin(b) = cos(a + b)
cos(a)sin(b) + sin(a)cos(b) = sin(a + b)
we may derive
z_1 z_2 = r_1 r_2 (cos(varphi_1 + varphi_2) + i sin(varphi_1 + varphi_2)).
In other words, the absolute values are multiplied and the arguments are added to yield the polar form of the product. For example, multiplying by {{math|i}} corresponds to a quarter-turn counter-clockwise, which gives back {{math|1=i2 = −1}}. The picture at the right illustrates the multiplication of
(2+i)(3+i)=5+5i.
Since the real and imaginary part of {{math|5 + 5i}} are equal, the argument of that number is 45 degrees, or Ï€/4 (in radian). On the other hand, it is also the sum of the angles at the origin of the red and blue triangles are arctan(1/3) and arctan(1/2), respectively. Thus, the formula
frac{pi}{4} = arctanleft(frac{1}{2}right) + arctanleft(frac{1}{3}right)
holds. As the arctan function can be approximated highly efficiently, formulas like this—known as Machin-like formulas—are used for high-precision approximations of Ï€.Similarly, division is given by
frac{z_1}{z_2} = frac{r_1}{r_2} left(cos(varphi_1 - varphi_2) + i sin(varphi_1 - varphi_2)right).
Exponentiation {{anchor|Exponentiation}}
Euler's formula
Euler's formula states that, for any real number {{mvar|x}},
e^{ix} = cos x + isin x ,
where {{math|e}} is the base of the natural logarithm. This can be proved through induction by observing that
begin{align}
i^0 &{}= 1, quad &i^1 &{}= i, quad &i^2 &{}= -1, quad &i^3 &{}= -i, i^4 &={} 1, quad &i^5 &={} i, quad &i^6 &{}= -1, quad &i^7 &{}= -i,end{align}and so on, and by considering the Taylor series expansions of {{math|eix}}, {{math|cos x}} and {{math|sin x}}:
begin{align}
e^{ix} &{}= 1 + ix + frac{(ix)^2}{2!} + frac{(ix)^3}{3!} + frac{(ix)^4}{4!} + frac{(ix)^5}{5!} + frac{(ix)^6}{6!} + frac{(ix)^7}{7!} + frac{(ix)^8}{8!} + cdots [8pt]
&{}= 1 + ix - frac{x^2}{2!} - frac{ix^3}{3!} + frac{x^4}{4!} + frac{ix^5}{5!} -frac{x^6}{6!} - frac{ix^7}{7!} + frac{x^8}{8!} + cdots [8pt]
&{}= left( 1 - frac{x^2}{2!} + frac{x^4}{4!} - frac{x^6}{6!} + frac{x^8}{8!} - cdots right) + ileft( x - frac{x^3}{3!} + frac{x^5}{5!} - frac{x^7}{7!} + cdots right) [8pt]
&{}= cos x + isin x .
end{align}The rearrangement of terms is justified because each series is absolutely convergent.&{}= 1 + ix - frac{x^2}{2!} - frac{ix^3}{3!} + frac{x^4}{4!} + frac{ix^5}{5!} -frac{x^6}{6!} - frac{ix^7}{7!} + frac{x^8}{8!} + cdots [8pt]
&{}= left( 1 - frac{x^2}{2!} + frac{x^4}{4!} - frac{x^6}{6!} + frac{x^8}{8!} - cdots right) + ileft( x - frac{x^3}{3!} + frac{x^5}{5!} - frac{x^7}{7!} + cdots right) [8pt]
&{}= cos x + isin x .
Natural logarithm
It follows from Euler's formula that, for any complex number z written in polar form,
z = r(cos varphi + isin varphi )
where r is a non-negative real number, one possible value for the complex logarithm of z is
ln(z) = ln(r) + varphi i.
Because cosine and sine are periodic functions, other possible values may be obtained. For example, e^{ipi} = e^{3ipi} = -1, so both i pi and 3ipi are two possible values for the natural logarithm of -1.To deal with the existence of more than one possible value for a given input, the complex logarithm may be considered a multi-valued function, with
ln(z) = left{ ln(r) + (varphi + 2pi k)i mid k in mathbb{Z}right}.
Alternatively, a branch cut can be used to define a single-valued "branch" of the complex logarithm.Integer and fractional exponents
We may use the identity
lnleft(a^bright) = b ln(a)
to define complex exponentiation, which is likewise multi-valued:
begin{align}
ln (z^n) &= ln((r(cos varphi + isin varphi ))^{n})
&= n ln(r(cos varphi + isin varphi))
&= { n (ln(r) + (varphi + k2pi) i) | k in mathbb{Z} }
&= { n ln(r) + n varphi i + nk2pi i | k in mathbb{Z} }.
end{align}When n is an integer, this simplifies to de Moivre's formula:
&= n ln(r(cos varphi + isin varphi))
&= { n (ln(r) + (varphi + k2pi) i) | k in mathbb{Z} }
&= { n ln(r) + n varphi i + nk2pi i | k in mathbb{Z} }.
z^{n}=(r(cos varphi + isin varphi ))^{n} = r^n cdot (cos nvarphi + i sin n varphi).
The {{mvar|n}}th roots of {{mvar|z}} are given by
sqrt[n]{z} = sqrt[n]r left( cos left(frac{varphi+2kpi}{n}right) + i sin left(frac{varphi+2kpi}{n}right)right)
for any integer {{math|k}} satisfying {{math|0 â‰¤ k â‰¤ n âˆ’ 1}}. Here {{radic|r|n}} is the usual (positive) {{mvar|n}}th root of the positive real number {{mvar|r}}. While the {{mvar|n}}th root of a positive real number {{mvar|r}} is chosen to be the positive real number {{mvar|c}} satisfying {{math|1=cn = r}} there is no natural way of distinguishing one particular complex {{mvar|n}}th root of a complex number. Therefore, the {{mvar|n}}th root of {{mvar|z}} is considered as a multivalued function (in {{mvar|z}}), as opposed to a usual function {{mvar|f}}, for which {{math|f(z)}} is a uniquely defined number. Formulas such as
sqrt[n]{z^n} = z
(which holds for positive real numbers), do in general not hold for complex numbers.Properties
Field structure
The set C of complex numbers is a field.BOOK, Mathematical analysis, Tom Apostol, 1981, 15–16, Addison-Wesley, Briefly, this means that the following facts hold: first, any two complex numbers can be added and multiplied to yield another complex number. Second, for any complex number {{mvar|z}}, its additive inverse {{math|−z}} is also a complex number; and third, every nonzero complex number has a reciprocal complex number. Moreover, these operations satisfy a number of laws, for example the law of commutativity of addition and multiplication for any two complex numbers {{math|z1}} and {{math|z2}}:
z_1+ z_2 = z_2 + z_1,
z_1 z_2 = z_2 z_1.
These two laws and the other requirements on a field can be proven by the formulas given above, using the fact that the real numbers themselves form a field.Unlike the reals, C is not an ordered field, that is to say, it is not possible to define a relation {{math|z1 < z2}} that is compatible with the addition and multiplication. In fact, in any ordered field, the square of any element is necessarily positive, so {{math|1=i2 = −1}} precludes the existence of an ordering on C.BOOK, Mathematical analysis, Tom Apostol, 1981, 25, Addison-Wesley, When the underlying field for a mathematical topic or construct is the field of complex numbers, the topic's name is usually modified to reflect that fact. For example: complex analysis, complex matrix, complex polynomial, and complex Lie algebra.Solutions of polynomial equations
Given any complex numbers (called coefficients) {{math|a0,â€‰...,â€‰an}}, the equation
a_n z^n + dotsb + a_1 z + a_0 = 0
has at least one complex solution z, provided that at least one of the higher coefficients {{math|a1,â€‰...,â€‰a'n}} is nonzero.BOOK, Nicolas Bourbaki, General topology, VIII.1, Springer-Verlag, This is the statement of the fundamental theorem of algebra, of Carl Friedrich Gauss and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Because of this fact, C is called an algebraically closed field. This property does not hold for the field of rational numbers Q (the polynomial {{math|x2 âˆ’ 2}} does not have a rational root, since {{sqrt|2}} is not a rational number) nor the real numbers R' (the polynomial {{math|x2 + a}} does not have a real root for {{math|a'' > 0}}, since the square of {{mvar|x}} is positive for any real number {{mvar|x}}).There are various proofs of this theorem, either by analytic methods such as Liouville's theorem, or topological ones such as the winding number, or a proof combining Galois theory and the fact that any real polynomial of odd degree has at least one real root.Because of this fact, theorems that hold for any algebraically closed field, apply to C. For example, any non-empty complex square matrix has at least one (complex) eigenvalue.Algebraic characterization
The field C has the following three properties: first, it has characteristic 0. This means that {{math|1=1 + 1 + â‹¯ + 1 â‰ 0}} for any number of summands (all of which equal one). Second, its transcendence degree over Q, the prime field of C, is the cardinality of the continuum. Third, it is algebraically closed (see above). It can be shown that any field having these properties is isomorphic (as a field) to C. For example, the algebraic closure of Qp also satisfies these three properties, so these two fields are isomorphic (as fields, but not as topological fields).{{citation
| last = Marker | first = David
| editor1-last = Marker | editor1-first = D.
| editor2-last = Messmer | editor2-first = M.
| editor3-last = Pillay | editor3-first = A.
| contribution = Introduction to the Model Theory of Fields
| contribution-url =weblink
| isbn = 3-540-60741-2
| mr = 1477154
| pages = 1â€“37
| publisher = Springer-Verlag | location = Berlin
| series = Lecture Notes in Logic
| title = Model theory of fields
| volume = 5
| year = 1996}} Also, C is isomorphic to the field of complex Puiseux series. However, specifying an isomorphism requires the axiom of choice. Another consequence of this algebraic characterization is that C contains many proper subfields that are isomorphic to C.
| editor1-last = Marker | editor1-first = D.
| editor2-last = Messmer | editor2-first = M.
| editor3-last = Pillay | editor3-first = A.
| contribution = Introduction to the Model Theory of Fields
| contribution-url =weblink
| isbn = 3-540-60741-2
| mr = 1477154
| pages = 1â€“37
| publisher = Springer-Verlag | location = Berlin
| series = Lecture Notes in Logic
| title = Model theory of fields
| volume = 5
| year = 1996}} Also, C is isomorphic to the field of complex Puiseux series. However, specifying an isomorphism requires the axiom of choice. Another consequence of this algebraic characterization is that C contains many proper subfields that are isomorphic to C.
Characterization as a topological field
The preceding characterization of C describes only the algebraic aspects of C. That is to say, the properties of nearness and continuity, which matter in areas such as analysis and topology, are not dealt with. The following description of C as a topological field (that is, a field that is equipped with a topology, which allows the notion of convergence) does take into account the topological properties. C contains a subset {{math|P}} (namely the set of positive real numbers) of nonzero elements satisfying the following three conditions:- {{math|P}} is closed under addition, multiplication and taking inverses.
- If {{mvar|x}} and {{mvar|y}} are distinct elements of {{math|P}}, then either {{math|x − y}} or {{math|y − x}} is in {{math|P}}.
- If {{mvar|S}} is any nonempty subset of {{math|P}}, then {{math|1=S + P = x + P}} for some {{mvar|x}} in C.
Formal construction
Construction as ordered pairs
The set {{math|C}} of complex numbers can be defined as the set {{math|R2}} of ordered pairs {{math|(a,â€‰b)}} of real numbers, in which the following rules for addition and multiplication are imposed:BOOK, Mathematical analysis, Tom Apostol, 1981, 15–16, Addison-Wesley,
begin{align}
(a, b) + (c, d) &= (a + c, b + d)(a, b) cdot (c, d) &= (ac - bd, bc + ad).end{align}It is then just a matter of notation to express {{math|(a,â€‰b)}} as {{math|a + bi}}.Construction as a quotient field
Though this low-level construction does accurately describe the structure of the complex numbers, the following equivalent definition reveals the algebraic nature of {{math|C}} more immediately. This characterization relies on the notion of fields and polynomials. A field is a set endowed with addition, subtraction, multiplication and division operations that behave as is familiar from, say, rational numbers. For example, the distributive law
(x+y) z = xz + yz
must hold for any three elements {{mvar|x}}, {{mvar|y}} and {{mvar|z}} of a field. The set {{math|R}} of real numbers does form a field. A polynomial {{math|p(X)}} with real coefficients is an expression of the form
a_nX^n+dotsb+a_1X+a_0,
where the {{math|a0, ...,â€‰a'n}} are real numbers. The usual addition and multiplication of polynomials endows the set {{math|R'[X'']}} of all such polynomials with a ring structure. This ring is called the polynomial ring over the real numbers.The set of complex numbers is defined as the quotient ring {{math|R[X]/(X 2 + 1)}}.BOOK, Nicolas Bourbaki, General topology, VIII.1, Springer-Verlag, This extension field contains two square roots of {{math|âˆ’1}}, namely (the cosets of) {{math|X}} and {{math|âˆ’X}}, respectively. (The cosets of) {{math|1}} and {{math|X}} form a basis of {{math|R[X]/(X 2 + 1)}} as a real vector space, which means that each element of the extension field can be uniquely written as a linear combination in these two elements. Equivalently, elements of the extension field can be written as ordered pairs {{math|(a,â€‰b)}} of real numbers. The quotient ring is a field, because {{math|X2 + 1}} is irreducible over {{math|R}}, so the ideal it generates is maximal.The formulas for addition and multiplication in the ring {{math|R[X]}}, modulo the relation {{math|X2 {{=}} 1}}, correspond to the formulas for addition and multiplication of complex numbers defined as ordered pairs. So the two definitions of the field {{math|C}} are isomorphic (as fields).Accepting that {{math|C}} is algebraically closed, since it is an algebraic extension of {{math|R}} in this approach, {{math|C}} is therefore the algebraic closure of {{math|R}}.Matrix representation of complex numbers
Complex numbers {{math|a + bi}} can also be represented by {{math|2â€‰Ã—â€‰2}} matrices that have the following form:
a & -b
b & ;; a
end{pmatrix}Here the entries {{mvar|a}} and {{mvar|b}} are real numbers. The sum and product of two such matrices is again of this form, and the sum and product of complex numbers corresponds to the sum and product of such matrices, the product being:
b & ;; a
a & -b
b & ;; a
end{pmatrix}begin{pmatrix}
b & ;; a
c & -d
d & ;; c
end{pmatrix}d & ;; c
begin{pmatrix}
ac-bd & -ad-bc
bc+ad & ;; -bd+ac
end{pmatrix}The geometric description of the multiplication of complex numbers can also be expressed in terms of rotation matrices by using this correspondence between complex numbers and such matrices. Moreover, the square of the absolute value of a complex number expressed as a matrix is equal to the determinant of that matrix:
bc+ad & ;; -bd+ac
|z|^2 =
begin{vmatrix}
a & -b
b & a
end{vmatrix}b & a
a^2 + b^2.
The conjugate overline z corresponds to the transpose of the matrix.Though this representation of complex numbers with matrices is the most common, many other representations arise from matrices other than bigl(begin{smallmatrix}0 & -1 1 & 0 end{smallmatrix}bigr) that square to the negative of the identity matrix. See the article on 2 Ã— 2 real matrices for other representations of complex numbers.Complex analysis
File:Sin1perz.png|thumb|270px|Color wheel graphColor wheel graphThe study of functions of a complex variable is known as complex analysis and has enormous practical use in applied mathematics as well as in other branches of mathematics. Often, the most natural proofs for statements in real analysis or even number theory employ techniques from complex analysis (see prime number theorem for an example). Unlike real functions, which are commonly represented as two-dimensional graphs, complex functions have four-dimensional graphs and may usefully be illustrated by color-coding a three-dimensional graph to suggest four dimensions, or by animating the complex function's dynamic transformation of the complex plane.Complex exponential and related functions
The notions of convergent series and continuous functions in (real) analysis have natural analogs in complex analysis. A sequence of complex numbers is said to converge if and only if its real and imaginary parts do. This is equivalent to the (Îµ, Î´)-definition of limits, where the absolute value of real numbers is replaced by the one of complex numbers. From a more abstract point of view, C, endowed with the metric
operatorname{d}(z_1, z_2) = |z_1 - z_2|
is a complete metric space, which notably includes the triangle inequality
|z_1 + z_2| le |z_1| + |z_2|
for any two complex numbers {{math|z1}} and {{math|z2}}.Like in real analysis, this notion of convergence is used to construct a number of elementary functions: the exponential function {{math|exp(z)}}, also written {{math|ez}}, is defined as the infinite series
exp(z):= 1+z+frac{z^2}{2cdot 1}+frac{z^3}{3cdot 2cdot 1}+cdots = sum_{n=0}^{infty} frac{z^n}{n!}.
The series defining the real trigonometric functions sine and cosine, as well as the hyperbolic functions sinh and cosh, also carry over to complex arguments without change. For the other trigonometric and hyperbolic functions, such as tangent, things are slightly more complicated, as the defining series do not converge for all complex values. Therefore, one must define them either in terms of sine, cosine and exponential, or, equivalently, by using the method of analytic continuation.Euler's formula states:
exp(ivarphi) = cos(varphi) + isin(varphi)
for any real number φ, in particular
exp(i pi) = -1
Unlike in the situation of real numbers, there is an infinitude of complex solutions {{mvar|z}} of the equation
exp(z) = w
for any complex number {{math|w ≠ 0}}. It can be shown that any such solution {{mvar|z}}—called complex logarithm of {{mvar|w}}—satisfies
log(w) = ln|w| + iarg(w),
where arg is the argument defined above, and ln the (real) natural logarithm. As arg is a multivalued function, unique only up to a multiple of 2Ï€, log is also multivalued. The principal value of log is often taken by restricting the imaginary part to the interval {{open-closed|−Ï€, Ï€}}.Complex exponentiation {{math|zÏ‰}} is defined as
z^omega = exp(omega log z),
and is multi-valued, except when omega is an integer. For {{math|1=Ï‰ = 1 / n}}, for some natural number {{mvar|n}}, this recovers the non-uniqueness of {{mvar|n}}th roots mentioned above.Complex numbers, unlike real numbers, do not in general satisfy the unmodified power and logarithm identities, particularly when naÃ¯vely treated as single-valued functions; see failure of power and logarithm identities. For example, they do not satisfy
a^{bc} = left(a^bright)^c.
Both sides of the equation are multivalued by the definition of complex exponentiation given here, and the values on the left are a subset of those on the right.Holomorphic functions
A function f : C â†’ C is called holomorphic if it satisfies the Cauchyâ€“Riemann equations. For example, any R-linear map C â†’ C can be written in the form
f(z)=az+boverline{z}
with complex coefficients {{mvar|a}} and {{mvar|b}}. This map is holomorphic if and only if {{math|1=b = 0}}. The second summand b overline z is real-differentiable, but does not satisfy the Cauchyâ€“Riemann equations.Complex analysis shows some features not apparent in real analysis. For example, any two holomorphic functions {{mvar|f}} and {{mvar|g}} that agree on an arbitrarily small open subset of C necessarily agree everywhere. Meromorphic functions, functions that can locally be written as {{math|f(z)/(z − z0)n}} with a holomorphic function {{mvar|f}}, still share some of the features of holomorphic functions. Other functions have essential singularities, such as {{math|sin(1/z)}} at {{math|1=z = 0}}.Applications
Complex numbers have essential concrete applications in a variety of scientific and related areas such as signal processing, control theory, electromagnetism, fluid dynamics, quantum mechanics, cartography, and vibration analysis. Some applications of complex numbers are:Control theory
In control theory, systems are often transformed from the time domain to the frequency domain using the Laplace transform. The system's zeros and poles are then analyzed in the complex plane. The root locus, Nyquist plot, and Nichols plot techniques all make use of the complex plane.In the root locus method, it is important whether zeros and poles are in the left or right half planes, i.e. have real part greater than or less than zero. If a linear, time-invariant (LTI) system has poles that are- in the right half plane, it will be unstable,
- all in the left half plane, it will be stable,
- on the imaginary axis, it will have marginal stability.
Improper integrals
In applied fields, complex numbers are often used to compute certain real-valued improper integrals, by means of complex-valued functions. Several methods exist to do this; see methods of contour integration.Fluid dynamics
In fluid dynamics, complex functions are used to describe potential flow in two dimensions.Dynamic equations
In differential equations, it is common to first find all complex roots {{mvar|r}} of the characteristic equation of a linear differential equation or equation system and then attempt to solve the system in terms of base functions of the form {{math|1=f(t) = e'rt}}. Likewise, in difference equations, the complex roots {{mvar|r}} of the characteristic equation of the difference equation system are used, to attempt to solve the system in terms of base functions of the form {{math|1=f(t) = r't}}.Electromagnetism and electrical engineering
In electrical engineering, the Fourier transform is used to analyze varying voltages and currents. The treatment of resistors, capacitors, and inductors can then be unified by introducing imaginary, frequency-dependent resistances for the latter two and combining all three in a single complex number called the impedance. This approach is called phasor calculus.In electrical engineering, the imaginary unit is denoted by {{math|j}}, to avoid confusion with {{mvar|I}}, which is generally in use to denote electric current, or, more particularly, {{mvar|i}}, which is generally in use to denote instantaneous electric current.Since the voltage in an AC circuit is oscillating, it can be represented as
V(t) = V_0 e^{j omega t} = V_0 left (cosomega t + j sinomega t right ),
To obtain the measurable quantity, the real part is taken:
v(t) = mathrm{Re}(V) = mathrm{Re}left [ V_0 e^{j omega t} right ] = V_0 cos omega t.
The complex-valued signal V(t) is called the analytic representation of the real-valued, measurable signal v(t).Electromagnetism (2nd edition), I.S. Grant, W.R. Phillips, Manchester Physics Series, 2008 {{isbn|0-471-92712-0}}Signal analysis
Complex numbers are used in signal analysis and other fields for a convenient description for periodically varying signals. For given real functions representing actual physical quantities, often in terms of sines and cosines, corresponding complex functions are considered of which the real parts are the original quantities. For a sine wave of a given frequency, the absolute value {{math|{{!}}z{{!}}}} of the corresponding {{mvar|z}} is the amplitude and the argument {{math|arg(z)}} is the phase.If Fourier analysis is employed to write a given real-valued signal as a sum of periodic functions, these periodic functions are often written as complex valued functions of the form
x(t) = operatorname{Re} {X( t ) }
and
X( t ) = A e^{iomega t} = a e^{ i phi } e^{iomega t} = a e^{i (omega t + phi) }
where Ï‰ represents the angular frequency and the complex number A encodes the phase and amplitude as explained above.This use is also extended into digital signal processing and digital image processing, which utilize digital versions of Fourier analysis (and wavelet analysis) to transmit, compress, restore, and otherwise process digital audio signals, still images, and video signals.Another example, relevant to the two side bands of amplitude modulation of AM radio, is:
begin{align}
cos((omega + alpha)t) + cosleft((omega - alpha)tright)
& = operatorname{Re}left(e^{i(omega + alpha)t} + e^{i(omega - alpha)t}right)
& = operatorname{Re}left(left(e^{ialpha t} + e^{-ialpha t}right) cdot e^{iomega t}right)
& = operatorname{Re}left(2cos(alpha t) cdot e^{iomega t}right)
& = 2 cos(alpha t) cdot operatorname{Re}left(e^{iomega t}right)
& = 2 cos(alpha t) cdot cosleft(omega tright).
end{align}& = operatorname{Re}left(e^{i(omega + alpha)t} + e^{i(omega - alpha)t}right)
& = operatorname{Re}left(left(e^{ialpha t} + e^{-ialpha t}right) cdot e^{iomega t}right)
& = operatorname{Re}left(2cos(alpha t) cdot e^{iomega t}right)
& = 2 cos(alpha t) cdot operatorname{Re}left(e^{iomega t}right)
& = 2 cos(alpha t) cdot cosleft(omega tright).
Quantum mechanics
The complex number field is intrinsic to the mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics, where complex Hilbert spaces provide the context for one such formulation that is convenient and perhaps most standard. The original foundation formulas of quantum mechanics—the SchrÃ¶dinger equation and Heisenberg's matrix mechanics—make use of complex numbers.Relativity
In special and general relativity, some formulas for the metric on spacetime become simpler if one takes the time component of the spacetime continuum to be imaginary. (This approach is no longer standard in classical relativity, but is used in an essential way in quantum field theory.) Complex numbers are essential to spinors, which are a generalization of the tensors used in relativity.Geometry
Shapes
Three non-collinear points u, v, w in the plane determine the shape of the triangle {u, v, w}. Locating the points in the complex plane, this shape of a triangle may be expressed by complex arithmetic as
S(u, v, w) = frac {u - w}{u - v}.
The shape S of a triangle will remain the same, when the complex plane is transformed by translation or dilation (by an affine transformation), corresponding to the intuitive notion of shape, and describing similarity. Thus each triangle {u, v, w} is in a similarity class of triangles with the same shape.J.A. Lester (1996) "Triangles I: Shapes", Aequationes Mathematicae 52:30–54Fractal geometry
The Mandelbrot set is a popular example of a fractal formed on the complex plane. It is defined by plotting every location c where iterating the sequence f_c(z)=z^2+c does not diverge when iterated infinitely. Similarly, Julia sets have the same rules, except where c remains constant.Triangles
Every triangle has a unique Steiner inellipseâ€”an ellipse inside the triangle and tangent to the midpoints of the three sides of the triangle. The foci of a triangle's Steiner inellipse can be found as follows, according to Marden's theorem:{{Citation |last1=Kalman |first1=Dan |title=An Elementary Proof of Marden's Theorem |year=2008a |journal=The American Mathematical Monthly |issn=0002-9890 |volume=115 |pages=330â€“38 |url=http://mathdl.maa.org/mathDL/22/?pa=content&sa=viewDocument&nodeId=3338&pf=1}}{{Citation |last1=Kalman |first1=Dan |title=The Most Marvelous Theorem in Mathematics |url=http://mathdl.maa.org/mathDL/4/?pa=content&sa=viewDocument&nodeId=1663 |year=2008b |journal=Journal of Online Mathematics and its Applications}} Denote the triangle's vertices in the complex plane as {{math|1=a = x'A + y'A'i}}, {{math|1=b = x'B + y'B'i}}, and {{math|1=c = x'C + y'Ci}}. Write the cubic equation scriptstyle (x-a)(x-b)(x-c)=0, take its derivative, and equate the (quadratic) derivative to zero. Marden's Theorem says that the solutions of this equation are the complex numbers denoting the locations of the two foci of the Steiner inellipse.Algebraic number theory
File:Pentagon construct.gif|right|thumb|Construction of a regular pentagon using straightedge and compass.]]As mentioned above, any nonconstant polynomial equation (in complex coefficients) has a solution in C. A fortiori, the same is true if the equation has rational coefficients. The roots of such equations are called algebraic numbers – they are a principal object of study in algebraic number theory. Compared to {{overline|Q}}, the algebraic closure of Q, which also contains all algebraic numbers, C has the advantage of being easily understandable in geometric terms. In this way, algebraic methods can be used to study geometric questions and vice versa. With algebraic methods, more specifically applying the machinery of field theory to the number field containing roots of unity, it can be shown that it is not possible to construct a regular nonagon using only compass and straightedge – a purely geometric problem.Another example are Gaussian integers, that is, numbers of the form {{math|x + iy}}, where {{mvar|x}} and {{mvar|y}} are integers, which can be used to classify sums of squares.Analytic number theory
Analytic number theory studies numbers, often integers or rationals, by taking advantage of the fact that they can be regarded as complex numbers, in which analytic methods can be used. This is done by encoding number-theoretic information in complex-valued functions. For example, the Riemann zeta function {{math|Î¶(s)}} is related to the distribution of prime numbers.History
The earliest fleeting reference to square roots of negative numbers can perhaps be said to occur in the work of the Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria in the 1st century AD, where in his Stereometrica he considers, apparently in error, the volume of an impossible frustum of a pyramid to arrive at the term sqrt{81 - 144} = 3isqrt{7} in his calculations, although negative quantities were not conceived of in Hellenistic mathematics and Heron merely replaced it by its positive (sqrt{144 - 81} = 3sqrt{7}).{{Citation |title=An Imaginary Tale: The Story of {{sqrt|âˆ’1}} |last=Nahin |first=Paul J. |year=2007 |publisher=Princeton University Press |isbn= 978-0-691-12798-9 |url=http://mathforum.org/kb/thread.jspa?forumID=149&threadID=383188&messageID=1181284 |accessdate=20 April 2011}}The impetus to study complex numbers as a topic in itself first arose in the 16th century when algebraic solutions for the roots of cubic and quartic polynomials were discovered by Italian mathematicians (see NiccolÃ² Fontana Tartaglia, Gerolamo Cardano). It was soon realized that these formulas, even if one was only interested in real solutions, sometimes required the manipulation of square roots of negative numbers. As an example, Tartaglia's formula for a cubic equation of the form x^3 = px + qIn modern notation, Tartaglia's solution is based on expanding the cube of the sum of two cube roots: left(sqrt[3]{u} + sqrt[3]{v}right)^3 = 3 sqrt[3]{uv} left(sqrt[3]{u} + sqrt[3]{v}right) + u + v With x = sqrt[3]{u} + sqrt[3]{v}, p = 3 sqrt[3]{uv}, q = u + v, {{mvar|u}} and {{mvar|v}} can be expressed in terms of {{mvar|p}} and {{mvar|q}} as u = q/2 + sqrt{(q/2)^2-(p/3)^3} and v = q/2 - sqrt{(q/2)^2-(p/3)^3}, respectively. Therefore, x = sqrt[3]{q/2 + sqrt{(q/2)^2-(p/3)^3}} + sqrt[3]{q/2 - sqrt{(q/2)^2-(p/3)^3}}. When (q/2)^2-(p/3)^3 is negative (casus irreducibilis), the second cube root should be regarded as the complex conjugate of the first one. gives the solution to the equation {{math|1=x3 = x}} as
tfrac{1}{sqrt{3}}left(left(sqrt{-1}right)^{1/3}+left(sqrt{-1}right)^{-1/3}right).
At first glance this looks like nonsense. However formal calculations with complex numbers show that the equation {{math|1=z3 = i}} has solutions {{math|âˆ’i}}, {tfrac{sqrt{3}}{2}}+{tfrac{1}{2}}i and {tfrac{-sqrt{3}}{2}}+{tfrac{1}{2}}i. Substituting these in turn for {sqrt{-1}^{1/3}} in Tartaglia's cubic formula and simplifying, one gets 0, 1 and −1 as the solutions of {{math|1=x3 âˆ’ x = 0}}. Of course this particular equation can be solved at sight but it does illustrate that when general formulas are used to solve cubic equations with real roots then, as later mathematicians showed rigorously, the use of complex numbers is unavoidable. Rafael Bombelli was the first to explicitly address these seemingly paradoxical solutions of cubic equations and developed the rules for complex arithmetic trying to resolve these issues.The term "imaginary" for these quantities was coined by RenÃ© Descartes in 1637, although he was at pains to stress their imaginary nature{{Citation |title=La GÃ©omÃ©trie | The Geometry of RenÃ© Descartes with a facsimile of the first edition |last=Descartes |first=RenÃ© |authorlink=RenÃ© Descartes |year=1954 |origyear=1637 |publisher=Dover Publications |isbn=0-486-60068-8 |page= |url=http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/26400 |accessdate=20 April 2011}}A further source of confusion was that the equation sqrt{-1}^2=sqrt{-1}sqrt{-1}=-1 seemed to be capriciously inconsistent with the algebraic identity sqrt{a}sqrt{b}=sqrt{ab}, which is valid for non-negative real numbers {{mvar|a}} and {{mvar|b}}, and which was also used in complex number calculations with one of {{mvar|a}}, {{mvar|b}} positive and the other negative. The incorrect use of this identity (and the related identity tfrac{1}{sqrt{a}}=sqrt{tfrac{1}{a}}) in the case when both {{mvar|a}} and {{mvar|b}} are negative even bedeviled Euler. This difficulty eventually led to the convention of using the special symbol {{math|i}} in place of {{sqrt|âˆ’1}} to guard against this mistake.{{Citation needed|date=April 2011}} Even so, Euler considered it natural to introduce students to complex numbers much earlier than we do today. In his elementary algebra text book, Elements of Algebra, he introduces these numbers almost at once and then uses them in a natural way throughout.In the 18th century complex numbers gained wider use, as it was noticed that formal manipulation of complex expressions could be used to simplify calculations involving trigonometric functions. For instance, in 1730 Abraham de Moivre noted that the complicated identities relating trigonometric functions of an integer multiple of an angle to powers of trigonometric functions of that angle could be simply re-expressed by the following well-known formula which bears his name, de Moivre's formula:
(cos theta + isin theta)^{n} = cos n theta + isin n theta.
In 1748 Leonhard Euler went further and obtained Euler's formula of complex analysis:
cos theta + isin theta = e ^{itheta }
by formally manipulating complex power series and observed that this formula could be used to reduce any trigonometric identity to much simpler exponential identities.The idea of a complex number as a point in the complex plane (above) was first described by Caspar Wessel in 1799, although it had been anticipated as early as 1685 in Wallis's De Algebra tractatus.Wessel's memoir appeared in the Proceedings of the Copenhagen Academy but went largely unnoticed. In 1806 Jean-Robert Argand independently issued a pamphlet on complex numbers and provided a rigorous proof of the fundamental theorem of algebra. Carl Friedrich Gauss had earlier published an essentially topological proof of the theorem in 1797 but expressed his doubts at the time about "the true metaphysics of the square root of âˆ’1". It was not until 1831 that he overcame these doubts and published his treatise on complex numbers as points in the plane, largely establishing modern notation and terminology. In the beginning of the 19th century, other mathematicians discovered independently the geometrical representation of the complex numbers: BuÃ©e, Mourey, Warren, FranÃ§ais and his brother, Bellavitis.{{Citation |title=Two Cultures |editor= Kim Williams (ed.) |last1=Caparrini |first1=Sandro |chapter=On the Common Origin of Some of the Works on the Geometrical Interpretation of Complex Numbers|year=2000 |publisher=BirkhÃ¤user |isbn= 3-7643-7186-2 |page=139 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=voFsJ1EhCnYC}} Extract of page 139The English mathematician G. H. Hardy remarked that Gauss was the first mathematician to use complex numbers in 'a really confident and scientific way' although mathematicians such as Niels Henrik Abel and Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi were necessarily using them routinely before Gauss published his 1831 treatise.{{Citation |title=An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers |last1=Hardy |first1=G. H. |last2=Wright |first2=E. M. |year=2000 |origyear=1938 |publisher=OUP Oxford |isbn= 0-19-921986-9 |page=189 (fourth edition)}} Augustin Louis Cauchy and Bernhard Riemann together brought the fundamental ideas of complex analysis to a high state of completion, commencing around 1825 in Cauchy's case.The common terms used in the theory are chiefly due to the founders. Argand called cos phi + isin phi the direction factor, and r = sqrt{a^2+b^2} the modulus; Cauchy (1828) called cos phi + isin phi the reduced form (l'expression rÃ©duite) and apparently introduced the term argument; Gauss used {{math|i}} for sqrt{-1}, introduced the term complex number for {{math|a + bi}}, and called {{math|a2 + b2}} the norm. The expression direction coefficient, often used for cos phi + isin phi, is due to Hankel (1867), and absolute value, for modulus, is due to Weierstrass.Later classical writers on the general theory include Richard Dedekind, Otto HÃ¶lder, Felix Klein, Henri PoincarÃ©, Hermann Schwarz, Karl Weierstrass and many others.Generalizations and related notions
The process of extending the field R of reals to C is known as the Cayleyâ€“Dickson construction. It can be carried further to higher dimensions, yielding the quaternions H and octonions O which (as a real vector space) are of dimension 4 and 8, respectively.In this context the complex numbers have been called the binarions.Kevin McCrimmon (2004) A Taste of Jordan Algebras, pp 64, Universitext, Springer {{isbn|0-387-95447-3}} {{mr|id=2014924}}Just as by applying the construction to reals the property of ordering is lost, properties familiar from real and complex numbers vanish with each extension. The quaternions lose commutativity, i.e.: {{math|xÂ·y â‰ yÂ·x}} for some quaternions {{math|x,â€‰y,}} and the multiplication of octonions, additionally to not being commutative, fails to be associative: {{math|(xÂ·y)Â·z â‰ xÂ·(yÂ·z)}} for some octonions {{math|x,â€‰y,â€‰z.}}Reals, complex numbers, quaternions and octonions are all normed division algebras over R. By Hurwitz's theorem they are the only ones; the sedenions, the next step in the Cayleyâ€“Dickson construction, fail to have this structure.The Cayleyâ€“Dickson construction is closely related to the regular representation of C, thought of as an R-algebra (an R-vector space with a multiplication), with respect to the basis {{math|(1,â€‰i)}}. This means the following: the R-linear map
mathbb{C} rightarrow mathbb{C}, z mapsto wz
for some fixed complex number {{mvar|w}} can be represented by a {{math|2â€‰Ã—â€‰2}} matrix (once a basis has been chosen). With respect to the basis {{math|(1,â€‰i)}}, this matrix is
operatorname{Re}(w) & -operatorname{Im}(w)
operatorname{Im}(w) & ;; operatorname{Re}(w)
end{pmatrix}i.e., the one mentioned in the section on matrix representation of complex numbers above. While this is a linear representation of C in the 2 Ã— 2 real matrices, it is not the only one. Any matrix
operatorname{Im}(w) & ;; operatorname{Re}(w)
J = begin{pmatrix}p & q r & -p end{pmatrix}, quad p^2 + qr + 1 = 0
has the property that its square is the negative of the identity matrix: {{math|1=J2 = âˆ’I}}. Then
{ z = a I + b J : a,b in mathbf{R} }
is also isomorphic to the field C, and gives an alternative complex structure on R2. This is generalized by the notion of a linear complex structure.Hypercomplex numbers also generalize R, C, H, and O. For example, this notion contains the split-complex numbers, which are elements of the ring {{math|R[x]/(x2 − 1)}} (as opposed to {{math|R[x]/(x2 + 1)}}). In this ring, the equation {{math|1=a2 = 1}} has four solutions.The field R is the completion of Q, the field of rational numbers, with respect to the usual absolute value metric. Other choices of metrics on Q lead to the fields Qp of p-adic numbers (for any prime number p), which are thereby analogous to R. There are no other nontrivial ways of completing Q than R and Qp, by Ostrowski's theorem. The algebraic closures overline {mathbf{Q}_p} of Qp still carry a norm, but (unlike C) are not complete with respect to it. The completion mathbf{C}_p of overline {mathbf{Q}_p} turns out to be algebraically closed. This field is called p-adic complex numbers by analogy.The fields R and Qp and their finite field extensions, including C, are local fields.See also
{{Commons category|Complex numbers}}- Algebraic surface
- Circular motion using complex numbers
- Complex-base system
- Complex geometry
- Complex square root
- Eisenstein integer
- Euler's identity
- Gaussian integer
- Riemann sphere (extended complex plane)
- Root of unity
- Unit complex number
Notes
{{Reflist|30em}}References
Mathematical references
- {{Citation |last=Ahlfors |first=Lars |authorlink=Lars Ahlfors |title=Complex analysis |publisher=McGraw-Hill |year=1979 |edition=3rd |isbn=978-0-07-000657-7}}
- {{Citation |last=Conway |first=John B. |title=Functions of One Complex Variable I |year=1986 |publisher=Springer |isbn=0-387-90328-3}}
- {{Citation |last1=Joshi |first1=Kapil D. |title=Foundations of Discrete Mathematics |publisher=John Wiley & Sons |location=New York |isbn=978-0-470-21152-6 |year=1989}}
- {{Citation |last=Pedoe |first=Dan |authorlink=Dan Pedoe |title=Geometry: A comprehensive course |publisher=Dover |year=1988 |isbn=0-486-65812-0}}
- {{Citation |last1=Press |first1=WH |last2=Teukolsky |first2=SA |last3=Vetterling |first3=WT |last4=Flannery |first4=BP |year=2007 |title=Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing |edition=3rd |publisher=Cambridge University Press |publication-place=New York |isbn=978-0-521-88068-8 |chapter=Section 5.5 Complex Arithmetic |chapter-url=http://apps.nrbook.com/empanel/index.html?pg=225}}
- {{springer|id=c/c024140|title=Complex number|year=2001|first=E.D.|last=Solomentsev}}
Historical references
- {{Citation |last1=Burton |first1=David M. |title=The History of Mathematics |publisher=McGraw-Hill |location=New York |edition=3rd |isbn=978-0-07-009465-9 |year=1995}}
- {{Citation |last1=Katz |first1=Victor J. |title=A History of Mathematics, Brief Version |publisher=Addison-Wesley |isbn=978-0-321-16193-2 |year=2004}}
- {{Citation |title=An Imaginary Tale: The Story of scriptstylesqrt{-1} |first=Paul J. |last=Nahin |publisher=Princeton University Press |isbn=0-691-02795-1 |year=1998}}
- : A gentle introduction to the history of complex numbers and the beginnings of complex analysis.
- {{Citation |author1=H. D. Ebbinghaus |author2=H. Hermes |author3=F. Hirzebruch |author4=M. Koecher |author5=K. Mainzer |author6=J. Neukirch |author7=A. Prestel |author8=R. Remmert |title=Numbers |publisher=Springer |isbn=0-387-97497-0 |edition=hardcover |year=1991}}
- : An advanced perspective on the historical development of the concept of number.
Further reading
- The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe, by Roger Penrose; Alfred A. Knopf, 2005; {{isbn|0-679-45443-8}}. Chapters 4â€“7 in particular deal extensively (and enthusiastically) with complex numbers.
- Unknown Quantity: A Real and Imaginary History of Algebra, by John Derbyshire; Joseph Henry Press; {{isbn|0-309-09657-X}} (hardcover 2006). A very readable history with emphasis on solving polynomial equations and the structures of modern algebra.
- Visual Complex Analysis, by Tristan Needham; Clarendon Press; {{isbn|0-19-853447-7}} (hardcover, 1997). History of complex numbers and complex analysis with compelling and useful visual interpretations.
- Conway, John B., Functions of One Complex Variable I (Graduate Texts in Mathematics), Springer; 2 edition (12 September 2005). {{isbn|0-387-90328-3}}.
External links
{{wikiversity|Complex Numbers}}{{EB1911 poster|Number/Complex Numbers}}- {{springer|title=Complex number|id=p/c024140}}
- Introduction to Complex Numbers from Khan Academy
- {{In Our Time|Imaginary Numbers|b00tt6b2}}
- Euler's Investigations on the Roots of Equations at Convergence. MAA Mathematical Sciences Digital Library.
- John and Betty's Journey Through Complex Numbers
- Dimensions: a math film. Chapter 5 presents an introduction to complex arithmetic and stereographic projection. Chapter 6 discusses transformations of the complex plane, Julia sets, and the Mandelbrot set.
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