cleaner fish

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cleaner fish
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File:Epinephelus tukula is cleaned by two Labroides dimidiatus.jpg|right|upright=1.6|thumb|Two bluestreak cleaner wrasses removing dead skin and external parasites from the potato grouperpotato grouperFile:Labroides dimidiatus cleaning Acanthurus mata - Gijon Aquarium - 2015-07-02.webm|thumb|right|Video of bluestreak cleaner wrasse cleaning the gills of an elongate surgeonfishelongate surgeonfishCleaner fish are fish that provide a service to other species by removing dead skin and ectoparasites.Curry, O. "Morality as natural history{{dead link|date=January 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}." University of London Ph.D. Thesis. 2005. Accessed 2009-06-08. Although the animal being cleaned typically is another fish, it can also involve aquatic reptiles (sea turtles and marine iguana), mammals (manatees and whales) or octopuses.JOURNAL, Grutter, A.S., 2002, Cleaning symbioses from the parasites' perspective, Parasitology, 124, 7, S65–S81, 10.1017/S0031182002001488, JOURNAL, Sazima, C., A. Grossman, I. Sazima, 2010, Turtle cleaners: reef fishes foraging on epibionts of sea turtles in the tropical Southwestern Atlantic, with a summary of this association type, Neotrop. Ichthyol., 8, 1, 187–92, 10.1590/S1679-62252010005000003, NEWS, Manatee gets 'haircut' from gill fish,weblink The Telegraph, 26 February 2010, 18 August 2018, The cleaning symbiosis is an example of mutualism, an ecological interaction that benefits both parties involved. However, the cleaner fish may sometimes cheat and consume mucus or tissue, thus creating a form of parasitism.Gingins, S. (2013). "Power and temptation cause shifts between exploitation and cooperation in a cleaner wrasse mutualism", Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 280 (1761): 20130553. {{doi|10.1098/rspb.2013.0553}} A wide variety of fish including wrasse, cichlids, catfish, pipefish, and gobies display cleaning behaviors. Similar behavior is found in other groups of animals, such as cleaner shrimps.Cleaner fish advertise their services with conspicuous coloration, often displaying a brilliant blue stripe that spans the length of the body. This adaptation has evolved independently in different species of cleaner fish, making it an example of convergent evolution.JOURNAL, 10.1016/j.cub.2009.06.028, Blue and Yellow Signal Cleaning Behavior in Coral Reef Fishes, Current Biology, 19, 15, 1283–1287, 2009, Cheney, Karen L., Grutter, Alexandra S., Blomberg, Simon P., Marshall, N. Justin, Other species of fish, called mimics, imitate the behavior and phenotype of cleaner fish to gain access to client fish tissue. This is another example of convergent evolution.Cheney, K.L. (2005). "Frequency-dependent success of aggressive mimics in a cleaning symbiosis", Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 272 (1581): 2635–39.

Diversity of cleaner fish

Marine fishes

File:Arothron hispidus is being cleaned by Hawaiian cleaner wrasses, Labroides phthirophagus 1.jpg|thumb|A disruptively patterned white-spotted puffer being cleaned by a conspicuously coloured Hawaiian cleaner wrasseHawaiian cleaner wrasseFile:Elacatinus evelynae.jpg|thumb|Caribbean cleaning goby Elacatinus evelynaeElacatinus evelynaeFile:Marine Iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) feeding underwater off Fernandina Island, Galápagos Islands.jpg|thumb|The cleaning recipient is typically another fish, but it can also involve other groups, like this Cortez rainbow wrasse cleaning a marine iguanamarine iguanaThe best known cleaner fish are the cleaner wrasses of the genus Labroides found on coral reefs in the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. These small fish maintain so-called cleaning stations where other fish, known as hosts, congregate and perform specific movements to attract the attention of the cleaner fish. Remarkably, these small cleaner fish safely clean large predatory fish that would otherwise eat small fish such as these.Helfman G., Collette B., & Facey D. (1997).The Diversity of Fishes, Blackwell Publishing, p. 380, {{ISBN|0-86542-256-7}}While they derive the majority of their nutrients by removing ectoparasites, cleaner fish also feed on the mucus and tissue of the client fish, as these food sources have greater nutritional value. There is however a risk of terminating the cleaning interaction if the cleaner is too aggressive, taking too much mucus and tissue. Because of this, cleaners seek a balance in feeding between ectoparasites and mucus or tissue.Cleaning behaviors have been observed in a number of other fish groups. Neon gobies of the genera Gobiosoma and Elacatinus provide a cleaning service similar to the cleaner wrasses, though this time on reefs in the western Atlantic, providing a good example of convergent evolution. Unlike the cleaner wrasses, they also eat a variety of small animals as well being cleaner fish, and generally do well in aquaria.Fenner, Robert M. (2001). The Conscientious Marine Aquarist TFH Publications, pp. 282–83. {{ISBN|1-890087-02-5}}. However, the Caribbean cleaning goby (Elacatinus evelynae) gladly eat scales and mucus from the host when the ectoparasites it normally feeds on are scarce, making the relationship somewhat less than mutually beneficial. The symbiosis does not break down because the abundance of these parasites varies significantly seasonally and spatially, and the overall benefit to the larger fish outweighs any cheating on the part of the smaller.Cheney, K.L. and M. Côté (2005). "Mutualism or parasitism? The variable outcome of cleaning symbioses" Biology Letters, 1(2): 162–66.

Brackish water fish

An interesting example of a cleaning symbiosis has been observed between two brackish water cichlids of the genus Etroplus from South Asia. The small species Etroplus maculatus is the cleaner fish, and the much larger Etroplus suratensis is the host that receives the cleaning service.Richard L. Wyman and Jack A. Ward. “A Cleaning Symbiosis between the Cichlid Fishes Etroplus maculatus and Etroplus suratensis. I. Description and Possible Evolution”. Copeia, Vol. 1972, No. 4, pp. 834–38.

Freshwater fish

Cleaning has infrequently been observed in fresh waters compared to marine waters, but at least in part this is possibly related to fewer observers (such as divers) in the former habitat compared to the latter.BOOK, Carvalho, L.N., J. Zuanon, I. Sazima, 2007, Natural history of Amazon fishes, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems, Tropical Biology and Natural Resources Theme, Eolss Publishers, Oxford, 1, 1–24, One of the few known examples of cleaning is juvenile striped Raphael catfish cleaning the piscivorous Hoplias cf. malabaricus.JOURNAL,weblink Record of cleaning behavior by Platydoras costatus (Siluriformes: Doradidae) in the Amazon Basin, Brazil, Lucélia Nobre, Carvalho, Arruda, Rafael, Zuanon, Jansen Zuanon, Neotropical Ichthyology, 1, 137–39, 2003, 10.1590/S1679-62252003000200009, 2, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2007-09-27, In public aquariums, Synaptolaemus headstanders have been seen cleaning larger fish.WEB, Broadband red headstander,weblink National Aquarium Denmark, 18 August 2018, 2016-10-03,


{{further|Aggressive mimicry|Cleaning symbiosis}}File:Plagiotremus rhinorhynchos (Blue-lined Sabertooth Blenny).jpg|thumb|right|The bluestriped fangblenny is an aggressive mimic of the cleaner wrasse.]]Mimic species have evolved body forms, patterns, and colors which imitate other species to gain a competitive advantage.Cheney, K.L. (2008). "Facultative mimicry: cues for colour change and colour accuracy in a coral reef fish", Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 275 (1631): 117–22. One of the most studied examples of mimicry on coral reefs is the relationship between the aggressive mimic Plagiotremus rhinorhynchos (the bluestriped fangblenny) and the cleaner wrasse model Labroides dimidiatus. By appearing like L. dimidiatus, P. rhinorhynchos is able to approach and subsequently feed on the tissue and scales of client fish while posing as a cleaner.Cheney, K.L. (2012). "Cleaner wrasse mimics inflict higher costs on their models when they are more aggressive towards signal receivers"{{Dead link|date=July 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Biology Letters, {{doi|10.1098/rsbl.2011.0687}}The presence of the cleaner mimic, P. rhinorhynchos, has a negative impact on the foraging success of the cleaner model L. dimidiatus. P. rhinorhynchos feeds by eating the tissue and scales of client fish, making client fish much more cautious while at cleaning stations. More aggressive mimics have a greater negative impact on the foraging rate and success of the cleaner fish. When mimics appear in higher densities relative to cleaners, there is a significant decline in the success rate of the cleaner fish. The effects of the mimic/model ratio are susceptible to dilution, whereby an increase in client fish allows both the mimics and the models to have more access to clients, thus limiting the negative effects that mimics have on model foraging success.Cheney, K.L. (2007). "Aggressive mimics profit from a model-signal receiver mutualism" Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 274: 1622: 2087–91. {{doi|10.1098/rspb.2007.0543}}Similar species also include Plagiotremus tapeinosoma (the Mimic blenny),Aspidontus.

See also



External links

{{Commons category-inline|Cleaner fish}}{{diversity of fish}}

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