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class conflict
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{{Redirect|Class struggle||Class Struggle (disambiguation){{!}}Class Struggle}}File:Pyramid of Capitalist System.png|thumb|300px|The Pyramid of Capitalist SystemPyramid of Capitalist System{{Revolution sidebar}}Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes. The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of Karl Marx and Mikhail Bakunin.Class conflict can take many different forms: direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor; indirect violence, such as deaths from poverty, starvation, illness or unsafe working conditions; coercion, such as the threat of losing a job or the pulling of an important investment; or ideologically, such as with books and articles. Additionally, political forms of class conflict exist; legally or illegally lobbying or bribing government leaders for passage of desirable partisan legislation including labor laws, tax codes, consumer laws, acts of congress or other sanction, injunction or tariff. The conflict can be direct, as with a lockout aimed at destroying a labor union, or indirect, as with an informal slowdown in production protesting low wages by workers or unfair labor practices by capital.

Usage

File:battle strike 1934.jpg|thumb|300px|Teamsters wild-cat strike in Minneapolis, 1934 ]]In the past the term Class conflict was a term used mostly by socialists and Marxists, who define a class by its relationship to the means of production—such as factories, land and machinery. From this point of view, the social control of production and labor is a contest between classes, and the division of these resources necessarily involves conflict and inflicts harm. It can involve ongoing low-level clashes, escalate into massive confrontations, and in some cases, lead to the overall defeat of one of the contending classes. However, in more contemporary times this term is striking chords and finding new definition amongst capitalistic societies in the United States and other Westernized countries.The anarchist Mikhail Bakunin argued that the class struggle of the working class, peasantry and poor had the potential to lead to a social revolution involving the overthrow of ruling elites, and the creation of libertarian socialism. This was only a potential, and class struggle was, he argued, not always the only or decisive factor in society, but it was central. By contrast, Marxists argue that class conflict always plays the decisive and pivotal role in the history of class-based hierarchical systems such as capitalism and feudalism.BOOK, The Communist Manifesto, Marx, Karl, etal, Karl Marx, 1848, www.marxists.org, weblink, Marxists refer to its overt manifestations as class war, a struggle whose resolution in favor of the working class is viewed by them as inevitable under plutocratic capitalism.

Pre-capitalist societies

Where societies are socially divided based on status, wealth, or control of social production and distribution, class structures arise and are thus coeval with civilization itself. It is well documented since at least European Classical Antiquity (Conflict of the Orders, Spartacus, etc.The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World G.E.M. DE Ste. Croix Cornell University Press 1981 {{ISBN|0-8014-9597-0}}) and the various popular uprisings in late medieval Europe and elsewhere.One of the earliest analysis of these conflicts is Friedrich Engels' The Peasant War in Germany.Frederick Engels, The Peasant War in Germany, marxists.org One of the earliest analyses of the development of class as the development of conflicts between emergent classes is available in Peter Kropotkin's (Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution|Mutual Aid). In this work, Kropotkin analyzes the disposal of goods after death in pre-class or hunter-gatherer societies, and how inheritance produces early class divisions and conflict.

21st-century United States

Bill Moyers, for example, gave a speech at Brennan Center for Justice in December 2013 which was titled "The Great American Class War," referring to the current struggle between democracy and plutocracy in the U.S.Moyers, Bill (12 December 2013). The Great American Class War {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131222031232weblink |date=2013-12-22 }}. Brennan Center for Justice. Retrieved 25 January 2014. Chris Hedges wrote a column for Truthdig called "Let's Get This Class War Started," which was a play on Pink's song "Let's Get This Party Started."The Pathology of the Rich - Chris Hedges on Reality Asserts Itself pt1 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131209060244weblink |date=2013-12-09 }} The Real News. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2014.Hedges, Chris (20 October 2013). Let’s Get This Class War Started {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131021143451weblink |date=2013-10-21 }}. Truthdig. Retrieved 25 January 2014.Historian Steve Fraser, author of The Age of Acquiescence: The Life and Death of American Resistance to Organized Wealth and Power, asserts that class conflict is an inevitability if current political and economic conditions continue, noting that “people are increasingly fed up… their voices are not being heard. And I think that can only go on for so long without there being more and more outbreaks of what used to be called class struggle, class warfare.”Full Show: The New Robber Barons {{webarchive|url=http://archive.wikiwix.com/cache/20141223054003weblink |date=2014-12-23 }}. Moyers & Company. December 19, 2014.

Capitalist societies

The typical example of class conflict described is class conflict within capitalism. This class conflict is seen to occur primarily between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, and takes the form of conflict over hours of work, value of wages, division of profits, cost of consumer goods, the culture at work, control over parliament or bureaucracy, and economic inequality. The particular implementation of government programs which may seem purely humanitarian, such as disaster relief, can actually be a form of class conflict.Greg Palast, Burn baby burn WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2008-03-10, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071230023754weblink">weblink 2007-12-30, In the USA class conflict is often noted in labor/management disputes. As far back as 1933 representative Edward Hamilton of ALPA, the Airline Pilot's Association, used the term "class warfare" to describe airline management's opposition at the National Labor Board hearings in October of that year.BOOK, Kaps, Robert W., Air Transport Labor Relations, 1997, Southern Illinois Press, Section 3: Major Collective Bargaining Legislation, 0-8093-1776-1, 51, Apart from these day-to-day forms of class conflict, during periods of crisis or revolution class conflict takes on a violent nature and involves repression, assault, restriction of civil liberties, and murderous violence such as assassinations or death squads. (Zinn, People's History)

Thomas Jefferson, United States

Although Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) led the United States as president from 1801–1809 and is considered one of the founding fathers, he died with immense amounts of debt. Regarding the interaction between social classes, he wrote,|sign=Thomas Jefferson|source=Letter to Edward Carrington - January 16, 1787}}

Warren Buffett, United States

The investor, and billionaire , and philanthropist Warren Buffett, one of the 10 wealthiest persons in the world,WEB,weblink The World's Billionaires, forbes.com, 1 May 2018, no,weblink 24 April 2013, voiced in 2005 and once more in 2006 his view that his class – the "rich class" – is waging class warfare on the rest of society. In 2005 Buffet said to CNN: "It's class warfare, my class is winning, but they shouldn't be."Buffett: 'There are lots of loose nukes around the world' {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160430104340weblink |date=2016-04-30 }} CNN.com In a November 2006 interview in The New York Times, Buffett stated that "[t]here’s class warfare all right, but it’s my class, the rich class, that’s making war, and we’re winning."NEWS, Buffett, Warren, In Class Warfare, Guess Which Class is Winning,weblink The New York Times, Nov 26, 2006, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170103165340weblink">weblink 2017-01-03, Later Warren gave away more than half of his fortune to charitable causes through a program developed by himself and computer software tycoon Bill Gates.NEWS, Warren Buffett Gives Away Fortune,weblink 16 May 2012, Huffington Post, 4/12/2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120502053545weblink">weblink 2 May 2012, In 2011 Buffett called on government legislators to, "...stop coddling the super rich."NEWS, Buffett, Warren, Stop Coddling the Super Rich,weblink 16 May 2012, The New York Times, Nov 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120516045749weblink">weblink 16 May 2012, {{clear}}

Noam Chomsky

File:Noam Chomsky, 2004.jpg|thumb|right|150px|Noam ChomskyNoam ChomskyNoam Chomsky, American linguist, philosopher, and political activist has criticized class war in the United States:
-- Noam Chomsky in OCCUPY: Class War, Rebellion and Solidarity, Second Edition (November 5, 2013){{Citation |last=Chomsky |first=Noam |date=2013 |title=OCCUPY: Class War, Rebellion and Solidarity, Second Edition (November 5, 2013) |publisher=Zuccotti Park Press |url=http://www.alternet.org/economy/chomsky-business-elites-are-waging-brutal-class-war-america-0?paging=off¤t_page=1#bookmark |accessdate=October 14, 2014 |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20141016043703weblink |archivedate=October 16, 2014 |df= }}

Max Weber, Germany

Max Weber (1864–1920) agrees with the fundamental ideas of Karl Marx about the economy causing class conflict, but claims that class conflict can also stem from prestige and power. Weber argues that classes come from the different property locations. Different locations can largely affect one's class by their education and the people they associate with. He also states that prestige results in different status groupings. This prestige is based upon the social status of one's parents. Prestige is an attributed value and many times cannot be changed. Weber states that power differences led to the formation of political parties. Weber disagrees with Marx about the formation of classes. While Marx believes that groups are similar due to their economic status, Weber argues that classes are largely formed by social status. Weber does not believe that communities are formed by economic standing, but by similar social prestige. Weber does recognize that there is a relationship between social status, social prestige and classes.

Arab Spring

Numerous factors have culminated in what's known as the Arab Spring. Agenda behind the civil unrest, and the ultimate overthrow of authoritarian governments throughout the Middle-East included issues such as dictatorship or absolute monarchy, human rights violations, government corruption (demonstrated by Wikileaks diplomatic cables),WEB,weblink The Tweet and Revolution, Alexander, Cockburn, 18–20 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110227191052weblink">weblink 2011-02-27, economic decline, unemployment, extreme poverty, and a number of demographic structural factors,JOURNAL, Korotayev A, Zinkina J,weblink Egyptian Revolution: A Demographic Structural Analysis, Entelequia. Revista Interdisciplinar, 13, 2011, 139–165, no,weblink 2016-10-20, such as a large percentage of educated but dissatisfied youth within the population.WEB,weblink Demographics of the Arab League, computed by Wolfram Alpha, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110302053128weblink">weblink 2011-03-02, Also, some, like Slovenian philosopher Slavoj Žižek attribute the 2009 Iranian protests as one of the reasons behind the Arab Spring.WEB,weblink Ahmadinejad row with Khamenei intensifies, 6 May 2011, Al Jazeera, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120420212849weblink">weblink 20 April 2012, The catalysts for the revolts in all Northern African and Persian Gulf countries have been the concentration of wealth in the hands of autocrats in power for decades, insufficient transparency of its redistribution, corruption, and especially the refusal of the youth to accept the status quo.WEB, Ecker, Al-Riffai, Perrihan, Economics of the Arab awakening,weblink International Food Policy Research Institute, 25 May 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120415185102weblink">weblink 15 April 2012, The Other Arab Spring {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161129012246weblink |date=2016-11-29 }} April 7, 2012 Thomas L. Friedman New York Times op-ed as they involve threats to food security worldwide and prices that approach levels of the 2007–2008 world food price crisis.NEWS, Javid, Salman Ansari, Arab dictatorships inundated by food price protests,weblink 13 February 2011, Tehran Times, 27 January 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110614085823weblink">weblink 14 June 2011, Amnesty International singled out WikiLeaks' release of US diplomatic cables as a catalyst for the revolts.Peter Walker "Amnesty International hails WikiLeaks and Guardian as Arab spring 'catalysts' {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170202094838weblink |date=2017-02-02 }}", The Guardian, Friday 13 May 2011

Socialism

Marxist perspectives

(File:Karl Marx.jpg|thumb|right|175px|Karl Marx, 1875)Karl Marx (1818–1883) was a German born philosopher who lived the majority of his adult life in London, England. In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx argued that a class is formed when its members achieve class consciousness and solidarity.Blackwell Reference Online.weblink. Retrieved November 24, 2008. This largely happens when the members of a class become aware of their exploitation and the conflict with another class. A class will then realize their shared interests and a common identity. According to Marx, a class will then take action against those that are exploiting the lower classes.What Marx points out is that members of each of the two main classes have interests in common. These class or collective interests are in conflict with those of the other class as a whole. This in turn leads to conflict between individual members of different classes.Marxist analysis of society identifies two main social groups:
  • Labour (the proletariat or workers) includes anyone who earns their livelihood by selling their labor power and being paid a wage or salary for their labor time. They have little choice but to work for capital, since they typically have no independent way to survive.
  • Capital (the bourgeoisie or capitalists) includes anyone who gets their income not from labor as much as from the surplus value they appropriate from the workers who create wealth. The income of the capitalists, therefore, is based on their exploitation of the workers (proletariat).
Not all class struggle is violent or necessarily radical, as with strikes and lockouts. Class antagonism may instead be expressed as low worker morale, minor sabotage and pilferage, and individual workers' abuse of petty authority and hoarding of information. It may also be expressed on a larger scale by support for socialist or populist parties. On the employers' side, the use of union busting legal firms and the lobbying for anti-union laws are forms of class struggle.Not all class struggle is a threat to capitalism, or even to the authority of an individual capitalist. A narrow struggle for higher wages by a small sector of the working-class, what is often called "economism", hardly threatens the status quo. In fact, by applying the craft-union tactics of excluding other workers from skilled trades, an economistic struggle may even weaken the working class as a whole by dividing it. Class struggle becomes more important in the historical process as it becomes more general, as industries are organized rather than crafts, as workers' class consciousness rises, and as they self-organize away from political parties. Marx referred to this as the progress of the proletariat from being a class "in itself", a position in the social structure, to being one "for itself",an active and conscious force that could change the world.Marx largely focuses on the capital industrialist society as the source of social stratification, which ultimately results in class conflict. He states that capitalism creates a division between classes which can largely be seen in manufacturing factories. The proletariat, is separated from the bourgeoisie because production becomes a social enterprise. Contributing to their separation is the technology that is in factories. Technology de-skills and alienates workers as they are no longer viewed as having a specialized skill. Another effect of technology is a homogenous workforce that can be easily replaceable. Marx believed that this class conflict would result in the overthrow of the bourgeoisie and that the private property would be communally owned. The mode of production would remain, but communal ownership would eliminate class conflict.Even after a revolution, the two classes would struggle, but eventually the struggle would recede and the classes dissolve. As class boundaries broke down, the state apparatus would wither away. According to Marx, the main task of any state apparatus is to uphold the power of the ruling class; but without any classes there would be no need for a state. That would lead to the classless, stateless communist society.

The Soviet Union and similar societies

A variety of predominantly trotskyist and anarchist thinkers argue that class conflict existed in Soviet-style societies. Their arguments describe as a class the bureaucratic stratum formed by the ruling political party (known as the Nomenklatura in the Soviet Union)—sometimes termed a "new class".BOOK, Milovan, Đilas, Milovan Đilas, 1983, 1957, The New Class: An Analysis of the Communist System, paperback, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, San Diego, 0-15-665489-X, —that controls and guides the means of production. This ruling class is viewed to be in opposition to the remainder of society, generally considered the proletariat. This type of system is referred by them as state socialism, state capitalism, bureaucratic collectivism or new class societies. (Cliff; Ðilas 1957) Marxism was such a predominate ideological power in what became the Soviet Union since a Marxist group known as the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was formed in the country, prior to 1917. This party soon divided into two main factions; the Bolsheviks, who were led by Vladimir Lenin, and the Mensheviks, who were led by Julius Martov.However many Marxist argue that unlike in Capitalism, the Soviet elites didn't own the Means of production, or generated surplus value for their personal wealth like in capitalism, as the generated profit from the economy was equally distributed into Soviet society.BOOK, Harpal, Brar, Trotskyism or Leninism?, October 1993, London, 1874613036, 647, Even some trotskyist like Ernest Mandel criticized the concept of a new ruling class as an oxymoron. He said: "The hypothesis of the bureaucracy’s being a new ruling class leads to the conclusion that, for the first time in history, we are confronted with a “ruling class” which does not exist as a class before it actually rules."WEB, Ernest, Mandel, Why The Soviet Bureaucracy is not a New Ruling Class (1979),weblink 26 April 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170522081826weblink">weblink 22 May 2017,

Non-Marxist perspectives

{{Expand section|date=November 2010}}Social commentators, historians and socialist theorists had commented on class struggle for some time before Marx, as well as the connection between class struggle, property, and law: Augustin Thierry,Augustin Thierry: Recueil des monuments inédits de l'histoire du Tiers état {{dead link|date=July 2018|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} François Guizot, François-Auguste Mignet and Adolphe Thiers. The Physiocrats, David Ricardo, and after Marx, Henry George noted the inelastic supply of land and argued that this created certain privileges (economic rent) for landowners. According to the historian Arnold Toynbee, stratification along lines of class appears only within civilizations, and furthermore only appears during the process of a civilization's decline while not characterizing the growth phase of a civilization.BOOK, Toynbee, Arnold, A Study of History: Abridgment of Volumes I - VI, 1947, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 0-19-505081-9, Dorothea Grace Somervell, 365, The Nature of Disintegration, Proudhon, in What is Property? (1840) states that "certain classes do not relish investigation into the pretended titles to property, and its fabulous and perhaps scandalous history."Pierre Proudhon, What is Property?, chapter 2, remark 2. While Proudhon saw the solution as the lower classes forming an alternative, solidarity economy centered on cooperatives and self-managed workplaces, which would slowly undermine and replace capitalist class society, the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin, while influenced by Proudhon, insisted that a massive class struggle by the working class, peasantry and poor was essential to the creation of libertarian socialism. This would require a (final) showdown in the form of a social revolution.Fascists have often opposed class struggle and instead have attempted to appeal to the working class while promising to preserve the existing social classes and have proposed an alternative concept known as class collaboration.

Class vs. race struggle

File:NORTH PHILADELPHIA JOBLESS BLACKS. MAN STANDING AT RIGHT IS GERALD "HEAT WAVE" JONES, WHO WORKS FOR "THE NETWORK", A... - NARA - 552754.tif|left|227x227px|thumb|Jobless black workers in the heat of the PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaSome historical tendencies of Orthodox Marxism reject racism, sexism, etc. as struggles that essentially distract from class struggle, the real conflict.{{Citation needed|date=September 2018}} These divisions within the class prevent the purported antagonists from acting in their common class interest. However, many Marxist internationalists and anti-colonial revolutionaries understand sex, race and class to be bound up together.JOURNAL, 2018-03-06, Organization of Solidarity with the People of Asia, Africa and Latin America,weblink Wikipedia, en, There is an ongoing debate within Marxist scholarship about these topics.According to Michel Foucault, in the 19th century the essentialist notion of the "race" was incorporated by racists, biologists, and eugenicists, who gave it the modern sense of "biological race" which was then integrated to "state racism". On the other hand, Foucault claims that when Marxists developed their concept of "class struggle", they were partly inspired by the older, non-biological notions of the "race" and the "race struggle". In a letter to Friedrich Engels in 1882 Karl Marx wrote: You know very well where we found our idea of class struggle; we found it in the work of the French historians who talked about the race struggle.Quoted in Society Must be Defended by Michel Foucault (trans. David Macey), London: Allen Lane, Penguin Press (1976, 2003), p. 79 {{Citation needed|reason=original source not listed|date=October 2016}}For Foucault, the theme of social war provides the overriding principle that connects class and race struggle.Ann Laura Stoler, Race and the Education of Desire: Foucault's "History of Sexuality" and the Colonial Order of Things , Duke University Press (1995), p.71-72Moses Hess, an important theoretician and labor zionist of the early socialist movement, in his "Epilogue" to "Rome and Jerusalem" argued that "the race struggle is primary, the class struggle secondary... With the cessation of race antagonism, the class struggle will also come to a standstill. The equalization of all classes of society will necessarily follow the emancipation of all the races, for it will ultimately become a scientific question of social economics."quoted in Prophecy and Politics: Socialism, Nationalism, and the Russian Jews by Jonathan Frankel, Cambridge University Press (1981), p. 22.W. E. B. Du Bois theorized that the intersectional paradigms of race, class, and nation might explain certain aspects of black political economy. Patricia Hill Collins writes: "Du Bois saw race, class, and nation not primarily as personal identity categories but as social hierarchies that shaped African-American access to status, poverty, and power."JOURNAL, Collins, Patricia Hill, Patricia Hill Collins, Gender, black feminism, and black political economy, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 568, 1, 41–53, 10.1177/000271620056800105, March 2000, harv, {{rp|44}}In modern times, emerging schools of thought in the U.S. and other countries hold the opposite to be true.BOOK, Eastwood, John H., John H. Eastwood, The Wonder of Grace, 1995, Companion Press, Shippensburg, Pennsylvania, 1-56043-572-0, 18, Chapter 3: Ye Are the Salt of the Earth, The system that was supposed to treat all men equally actually created a class society., They argue that the race struggle is less important, because the primary struggle is that of class since labor of all races face the same problems and injustices.

Chronology

Riots with a basically nationalist background are not included.

Classical antiquity

Middle Ages

Modern era

File:GeorgheDoja.jpg|right|thumb|The rebellion of György Dózsa in 1514 spread like lightning in the Kingdom of HungaryKingdom of Hungary

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • Class & Class Conflict in Industrial Society,Ralf Dahrendorf, Stanford University Press, 1959, trade paperback, 336 pages, {{ISBN|0-8047-0561-5}} (also available in hardback as {{ISBN|0-8047-0560-7}} and {{ISBN|1-131-15573-4}}).
  • The Global Class War: How America's Bipartisan Elite Lost Our Future and What It Will Take to Win It Back Jeff Faux, John Wiley and Sons. 2006. {{ISBN|978-0-471-69761-9}}
  • Li Yi. 2005. The Structure and Evolution of Chinese Social Stratification. University Press of America. {{ISBN|0-7618-3331-5}}
  • BOOK, Abidor, Mitchell, 2016, Death to Bourgeois Society: The Propagandists of the Deed,weblink PM Press, 978-1629631127,
  • The International Encyclopedia of Revolution and Protest: 1500 to the Present, ed. by Immanuel Ness, Malden, MA [etc.]: Wiley & Sons, 2009.
  • Louis Adamic, Dynamite: The story of class violence in America, Revised Edition (1934)
  • Leo Zeilig (Editor), Class Struggle and Resistance in Africa, New Clarion Press, 2002.
  • Gerson Antell/Walter Harris, "Economics For Everybody", Amsco School Publications, 2007
  • Mathew Maavak, "Class Warfare, Anarchy and the Future Society", Journal of Futures Studies, December 2012, 17(2): 15-36
  • BOOK, Ness, Immanuel, 2014, New Forms of Worker Organization: The Syndicalist and Autonomist Restoration of Class-Struggle Unionism,weblink PM Press, 1604869569, Immanuel Ness,
  • The Black Bloc Papers: An Anthology of Primary Texts From The North American Anarchist Black Bloc 1988-2005, by Xavier Massot & David Van Deusen of the Green Mountain Anarchist Collective (NEFAC-VT), Breaking Glass Press, 2010.
  • A Communiqué on Tactics and Organization to the Black Bloc, from within the Black Bloc, by The Green Mountain Anarchist Collective (NEFAC-VT) & Columbus Anti-Racist Action, Black Clover Press, 2001.
  • Neither Washington Nor Stowe: Common Sense For The Working Vermonter, by David Van Deusen and the Green Mountain Anarchist Collective (NEFAC-VT), Catamount Tavern Press, 2004.

External links

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