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chessboard
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{{distinguish|cheese board}}{{short description|Any checkboard used in the game chess}}File:Chess board opening staunton.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|A wooden chessboard with Staunton pieces ]]A chessboard is the type of {{boardgloss|gameboard}} used for the game of chess, on which the chess pawns and {{chessgloss|pieces}} are placed. A chessboard is usually square in shape, with an alternating pattern of squares in two colours. Traditionally wooden boards are made of unstained light and dark brown woods. To reduce cost, many boards are made with veneers of more expensive woods glued to an inner piece of plywood or chipboard. A variety of colours combinations are used for plastic, vinyl, and silicone boards. Common dark-light combinations are black and white, as well as brown, green or blue with buff or cream. Materials vary widely; while wooden boards are generally used in high-level games; vinyl, plastic, and cardboard are common for less important tournaments and matches and for home use. Decorative glass and marble boards are rarely permitted for games conducted by national or international chess federations. When they are permitted, they must meet various criteria (see the text on FIDE regulations below)In western chess the board has a square shape, with its side being divided into eight parts, resulting in a total of sixty-four squares. For variants, the total number of squares may range from nine to one hundred and twelve. Each individual square of the board can be identified using chess notation, which may be descriptive, algebraic, or numeric. For two-dimensional boards, each horizontal row of squares is called a {{chessgloss|rank}}, each vertical column of squares is called a {{chessgloss|file}}, and each oblique line of squares of the same colour is called a {{chessgloss|diagonal}}.

History and evolution

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Manufacture

Chessboards have been made from numerous materials over the years, such as ebony, ivory, marble, metal, glass, and plastic. They can also be found as decorative elements in plazas, gardens, and living rooms.For international or continental championships, FIDE's regulations state that wooden boards should be used. For other FIDE tournaments, wood, plastic, or cardboard boards may be used, and the board should be rigid in all instances. The board may also be made of marble, as long as there is an appropriate contrast between the light and dark squares. The finishing should be neutral or frosted but never shiny. The squares should be from 5 to 6.5 cm in length and the proportion between the squares and the pieces should be so that the side of a square is twice the diameter of a pawn's base. If the table and the board are two separate pieces, the latter must be fixed as to avoid its movement during the match.WEB,weblink Standards of Chess Equipment and tournament venue for FIDE Tournaments,

Board notation

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|A chessboard diagram with algebraic notation, generally used for printing or computer displays.
}}The standard contemporary way to record moves and refer to the squares of the chessboard is algebraic chess notation The files are identified by the letters a to h, from left to right from the white player's point of view, and the ranks by the numbers 1 to 8, with 1 being closest to the white player. Each square on the board is identified by a unique coordinate pairing, from a1 to h8.BOOK, Just, Tim, Burg, Daniel B., United States Chess Federation's Official Rules of Chess, 2003, Random House Puzzles & Games, 0-8129-3559-4, 227, Fifth,weblink 5 December 2014, In the older descriptive chess notation, the files are labelled by the piece originally occupying its first rank (e.g. queen, {{chessgloss|king's rook}}, {{chessgloss|queen's bishop}}), and ranks by the numbers 1 to 8 from each player's point of view, depending on the move being described. This method is no longer commonly used. FIDE stopped using descriptive notation in 1981.Numeric notation assigns numbers to both files and ranks, with rank 1 being the one closest to the player with the white pieces. The file leftmost to the white player (a in algebraic notation and QR in descriptive notation) is file one and the rightmost to them (h in algebraic notation and KR in descriptive notation) is file eight.

Other representations

File:Å achovnice.jpg|thumb|right|Illustration from the book Through the Looking-Glass by Lewis CarrollLewis CarrollThe game of chess has been represented in the arts since its origin in Asia. Chessboards usually had considerable artistic value, being made of noble materials such as ebony and ivory, and in large sizes. Many of these pieces were offered to churches as relics. The book Liber miraculorum sancte Fidis tells a story in which a nobleman, after miraculously escaping from prison, is forced to carry a chessboard until a sanctuary as gesture of gratitude. However, more frequently there are stories in which the chessboard is used as a weapon. The French tale of Ogier the Dane reports how the son of Charlemagne brutally kills one of Ogier's sons with a chessboard after losing a match, although there are no evidences confirming the veracity of the story.Yalom 2004, pp. 84â€“85.In 1250 a sermon called Quaedam moralitas de scaccario per Innocentium papum (The Innocent Morality) showed the world as being represented by a chessboard, with the white and black squares representing the two conditions of life and death or praise and censure over which the pieces, representing humanity, would confront each other in the adversities of the game, symbolising life.Due to its simple geometry, the chessboard grid is often used in mathematical puzzles or problems unrelated to chess. Examples include the wheat and chessboard problem, the mutilated chessboard problem, and the angel problem.

Gallery

File:ChessTable.png | A chessboard is often painted or engraved on a chess tableFile:Empty wooden chessboard.jpg | A folding wooden chessboardFile:Swedish chess set.jpg | A Swedish competition standard chessboard made of masoniteFile:Olimpiada Bled Slovenija deska.jpg | DGT Electronic Chessboard that autosenses moves and interfaces to chess clock and computersFile:GlassChessSet2.jpg | A decorative chessboard made of glassFile:Rollup chessboard.jpg | A portable green and buff vinyl rollup boardFile:Knight-chess.jpg | A portable green and white mousepad style board designed to lie perfectly flatFile:Chess board in park, kiev.JPG | Social play on a vinyl board in a park in KievFile:Rundskak foto.jpg|A board of circular chess, one of the many variants of traditional chessFile:Cylindrical chessboard 2.jpg|Cylinder chess, another variant of traditional chessFile:Glinski Chess Setup.png|Hexagonal chess is a variant with a hexagonal board created by WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw GliÅ„skiFile:Blindenschachbrett.jpg|Chessboard adapted to visually impaired peopleFile:Tablero mundial ajedrez 2018.jpg|Chessboard of the World Chess Championship 2018

References

{{reflist}}

{{Commons category|Chessboards}}
{{Chess}}{{Authority control}}

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