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{{short description|Genus of mammals}}{{Other uses}}{{pp|small=yes}}{{Automatic taxobox<weblink{{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}. tripod. com/conf2001proc. htm>,(accessed on November 18, 2010). 2001.The male dromedary camel has an organ called a dulla in its throat, a large, inflatable sac he extrudes from his mouth when in rut to assert dominance and attract females. It resembles a long, swollen, pink tongue hanging out of the side of its mouth.JOURNAL, Injury, 43, 9, 1617–1620, Camel bite injuries in United Arab Emirates: A 6 year prospective study, Fikri M., Abu-Zidana, Hani O., Eida, Ashraf F., Hefnya, Masoud O., Bashira, Frank, Branickia, 10.1016/j.injury.2011.10.039, 22186231, 18 December 2011, The male mature camel has a specialized inflatable diverticulum of the soft palate called the "Dulla". and During rutting the Dulla enlarges on filling with air from the trachea until it hangs out of the mouth of the camel and comes to resemble a pink ball. This occurs in only the one-humped camel. Copious saliva turns to foam covering the mouth as the male gurgles and makes metallic sounds. [6 cites to 5 references omitted], Camels mate by having both male and female sitting on the ground, with the male mounting from behind.VIDEO,weblink Two Male Camels Fighting Over One Female, Youtube.com, 2016-01-08, live,weblink 2015-12-19, The male usually ejaculates three or four times within a single mating session. Camelids are the only ungulates to mate in a sitting position.WEB, San Diego Zoo Global Library, Bactrian & Dromedary Camels, Factsheets, 4 December 2012, March 2009,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120922092103weblink">weblink 22 September 2012, {{anchor|Eco-behavioral adaptations}}

Ecological and behavioral adaptations

Camels do not directly store water in their humps; they are reservoirs of fatty tissue. Concentrating body fat in their humps minimizes the insulating effect fat would have if distributed over the rest of their bodies, helping camels survive in hot climates.WEB, Rice, Jocelyn,weblink 20 Things You Didn't Know About... Fat | Obesity, DISCOVER Magazine, 5 January 2009, 7 March 2009, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090305224717weblink">weblink 5 March 2009, BOOK, Nelson Thornes, 9780174480198, Roberts, Michael Bliss Vaughan, Biology: A Functional Approach, 1986, 234–235, 241, When this tissue is metabolized, it yields more than one gram of water for every gram of fat processed. This fat metabolization, while releasing energy, causes water to evaporate from the lungs during respiration (as oxygen is required for the metabolic process): overall, there is a net decrease in water.WEB,weblink What secrets lie within the camel's hump?, Kerstin, Vann Jones, Lund University, Sweden, 7 January 2008, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090523104134weblink">weblink 23 May 2009, BOOK, New Age International, 9788122412796, Rastogi, S. C., Essentials Of Animal Physiology, 1971, 180–181, (File:Camel portrait.jpg|upright|thumb|alt=A portrait of a camel with a visibly thick mane|A camel's thick coat is one of its many adaptations that aid it in desert-like conditions.)File:Eylcamel.jpg|thumb|alt=A leashed pack camel| Somalia has the world's largest population of camels.]]Camels have a series of physiological adaptations that allow them to withstand long periods of time without any external source of water. The dromedary camel can drink as seldom as once every 10 days even under very hot conditions, and can lose up to 30% of its body mass due to dehydration.WEB,weblink The Camel from Tradition To Modern Times, Unlike other mammals, camels' red blood cells are oval rather than circular in shape. This facilitates the flow of red blood cells during dehydrationJOURNAL, Eitan, A, Aloni, B, Livne, A, Unique properties of the camel erythrocyte membraneII. Organization of membrane proteins, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes, 426, 4, 647–58, 1976, 10.1016/0005-2736(76)90129-2, and makes them better at withstanding high osmotic variation without rupturing when drinking large amounts of water: a {{convert|600|kg|lb|abbr=on}} camel can drink {{convert|200|L|USgal|abbr=on}} of water in three minutes.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051025001139weblink">weblink 25 October 2005, Dromedary, Hannover Zoo, 8 January 2008, BOOK, University of Oklahoma Press, 9780806131467, Mares, Michael A., Deserts, 1999, Camel, 96–97, E. Anette, Halpern,weblink live,weblink 2016-04-29, Camels are able to withstand changes in body temperature and water consumption that would kill most other animals. Their temperature ranges from {{convert|34|°C|°F|0|abbr=on}} at dawn and steadily increases to {{convert|40|°C|°F|0|abbr=on}} by sunset, before they cool off at night again. In general, to compare between camels and the other livestock, camels lose only 1.3 liters of fluid intake every day while the other livestock lose 20 to 40 liters per day (Breulmann, et al., 2007).Breulmann, M., Böer, B., Wernery, U., Wernery, R., El Shaer, H., Alhadrami, G., . . . Norton, J. (2007). "The Camel From Tradition to Modern Times" (PDF). UNESCO DOHA OFFICE. Maintaining the brain temperature within certain limits is critical for animals; to assist this, camels have a rete mirabile, a complex of arteries and veins lying very close to each other which utilizes countercurrent blood flow to cool blood flowing to the brain.Inside Nature's Giants. Channel 4 (UK) documentary. Transmitted 30 August 2011 Camels rarely sweat, even when ambient temperatures reach {{convert|49|°C|°F|0|abbr=on}}.WEB, Arabian (Dromedary) Camel, 25 November 2012, National Geographic Society, National Geographic,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121119062839weblink">weblink 19 November 2012, Any sweat that does occur evaporates at the skin level rather than at the surface of their coat; the heat of vaporization therefore comes from body heat rather than ambient heat. Camels can withstand losing 25% of their body weight to sweating, whereas most other mammals can withstand only about 12–14% dehydration before cardiac failure results from circulatory disturbance.When the camel exhales, water vapor becomes trapped in their nostrils and is reabsorbed into the body as a means to conserve water.NEWS,weblink A Pilgrimage To A Mystic's Hermitage In Algeria, The New York Times, 12 July 1981, 7 March 2009, Paul, Lewis, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090804093505weblink">weblink 4 August 2009, Camels eating green herbage can ingest sufficient moisture in milder conditions to maintain their bodies' hydrated state without the need for drinking.BOOK,weblink A manual for primary animal health care worker, Camels, llamas and alpacas, 1994, 1020-5187, FAO Animal Health Manual, FAO Agriculture and Consumer Protection, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080727212250weblink">weblink 2008-07-27, (File:Camels in Dubai 2.jpg|right|thumb|Domesticated camel calves lying in sternal recumbency, a position that aids heat loss)The camels' thick coats insulate them from the intense heat radiated from desert sand; a shorn camel must sweat 50% more to avoid overheating.BOOK, Schmidt-Nielsen, K., 1964, Desert Animals: Physiological Problems of Heat and Water, New York, Oxford University Press, Cited in WEB,weblink Coat of fur on the camel,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030225103329weblink">weblink February 25, 2003, Davidson College, Temperature and Water Relations in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius), During the summer the coat becomes lighter in color, reflecting light as well as helping avoid sunburn. The camel's long legs help by keeping its body farther from the ground, which can heat up to {{convert|70|°C|°F|0|abbr=on}}.WEB, Bronx Zoo, Camel Adaptations, 29 November 2012,weblink Wildlife Conservation Society, Flash, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120626071454weblink">weblink 26 June 2012, BOOK, Cambridge University Press, 9780521021418, Rundel, Philip Wilson, Arthur C., Gibson, Ecological Communities And Processes in a Mojave Desert Ecosystem: Rock Valley, Nevada, 30 September 2005, Adaptations of Mojave Desert Animals, 130, Dromedaries have a pad of thick tissue over the sternum called the pedestal. When the animal lies down in a sternal recumbent position, the pedestal raises the body from the hot surface and allows cooling air to pass under the body.Camels' mouths have a thick leathery lining, allowing them to chew thorny desert plants. Long eyelashes and ear hairs, together with nostrils that can close, form a barrier against sand. If sand gets lodged in their eyes, they can dislodge it using their transparent third eyelid. The camels' gait and widened feet help them move without sinking into the sand.WEB, Net Industries, Camels â€” Old World Camels, Science Encyclopedia, 29 November 2012,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130602191056weblink">weblink 2 June 2013, BOOK, Twenty-First Century Books, 9780822534341, Silverstein, Alvin, Virginia B, Silverstein, Virginia, Silverstein, Laura, Silverstein Nunn, Adaptation, 2008, 42–43,weblink The kidneys and intestines of a camel are very efficient at reabsorbing water. Camels' kidneys have a 1:4 cortex to medulla ratio.WEB,weblink Morphometric analysis of heart, kidneys and adrenal glands in dromedary camel calves (PDF Download Available), ResearchGate, en, 2017-03-03, live,weblink 2017-03-04, Thus, the medullary part of a camel's kidney occupies twice as much area as a cow's kidney. Secondly, renal corpuscles have a smaller diameter, which reduces surface area for filtration. These two major anatomical characteristics enable camels to conserve water and limit the volume of urine in extreme desert conditions.Rehan S and AS Qureshi, 2006. Microscopic evaluation of the heart, kidneys and adrenal glands of one-humped camel calves (Camelus dromedarius) using semi automated image analysis system. J Camel Pract Res. 13(2): 123
Camel urine comes out as a thick syrup, and camel faeces are so dry that they do not require drying when the Bedouins use them to fuel fires.WEB,weblink Davidson College, Kidneys and Concentrated Urine, Temperature and Water Relations in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius),weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030225104431weblink">weblink February 25, 2003, WEB, Fun facts about the Camel, The Jungle Store, 3 December 2012,weblink The camels are able to live in difficult conditions without drinking water due to their ability to produce small and dry droppings as well as they use the water to maintain their body's temperature to fit with the region surrounding them (Breulmann, et al., 2007).Breulmann, M., Böer, B., Wernery, U., Wernery, R., El Shaer, H., Alhadrami, G., . . . Norton, J. (2007). "The Camel From Tradition to Modern Times" (PDF). UNESCO DOHA OFFICE
The camel immune system differs from those of other mammals. Normally, the Y-shaped antibody molecules consist of two heavy (or long) chains along the length of the Y, and two light (or short) chains at each tip of the Y. Camels, in addition to these, also have antibodies made of only two heavy chains, a trait that makes them smaller and more durable. These "heavy-chain-only" antibodies, discovered in 1993, are thought to have developed 50 million years ago, after camelids split from ruminants and pigs.JOURNAL, Koenig, R., VETERINARY MEDICINE: 'Camelized' Antibodies Make Waves, Science, 318, 5855, 1373, 2007, 18048665, 10.1126/science.318.5855.1373,

Genetics

File:Camels at Giza.JPG|right|thumb|alt=Three camels in a line: a person rides on the leading camel.|Caravan of dromedaries, Giza pyramid complexGiza pyramid complexThe karyotypes of different camelid species have been studied earlier by many groups,JOURNAL, Taylor, K.M., Hungerford, D.A., Snyder, R.L., Ulmer, Jr., F.A., Uniformity of karyotypes in the Camelidae, Cytogenetic and Genome Research, 7, 1, 8–15, 1968, 10.1159/000129967, 5659175, JOURNAL, Koulischer, L, Tijskens, J, Mortelmans, J, Mammalian cytogenetics. IV. The chromosomes of two male Camelidae: Camelus bactrianus and Lama vicugna., Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia, 52, 89–92, 1971, 5163286, JOURNAL, Bianchi, N. O., Larramendy, M. L., Bianchi, M. S., Cortés, L., Karyological conservatism in South American camelids, Experientia, 42, 6, 622–4, 1986, 10.1007/BF01955563, JOURNAL, Thomas D., Bunch, Warren C., Foote, Alma, Maciulis, 1985, Chromosome banding pattern homologies and NORs for the Bactrian camel, guanaco, and llama, Journal of Heredity, 76, 2, 115–8,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110921220825weblink">weblink 2011-09-21, 10.1093/oxfordjournals.jhered.a110034, BOOK, Stephen J., O'Brien, Joan C., Menninger, William G., Nash, 2006, Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes, New York, Wiley-Liss, 978-0-471-35015-6, 547, JOURNAL, Di Berardino, D., Nicodemo, D., Coppola, G., King, A.W., Ramunno, L., Cosenza, G.F., Iannuzzi, L., Di Meo, G.P., Balmus, G., 8, Cytogenetic characterization of alpaca (Lama pacos, fam. Camelidae) prometaphase chromosomes, Cytogenetic and Genome Research, 115, 2, 138–44, 2006, 17065795, 10.1159/000095234, but no agreement on chromosome nomenclature of camelids has been reached. A 2007 study flow sorted camel chromosomes, building on the fact that camels have 37 pairs of chromosomes (2n=74), and found that the karyotype consisted of one metacentric, three submetacentric, and 32 acrocentric autosomes. The Y is a small metacentric chromosome, while the X is a large metacentric chromosome.JOURNAL, Balmus, Gabriel, Trifonov, Vladimir A., Biltueva, Larisa S., O’Brien, Patricia C.M., Alkalaeva, Elena S., Fu, Beiyuan, Skidmore, Julian A., Allen, Twink, Graphodatsky, Alexander S., 8, Cross-species chromosome painting among camel, cattle, pig and human: further insights into the putative Cetartiodactyla ancestral karyotype, Chromosome Research, 15, 4, 499–515, 2007, 17671843, 10.1007/s10577-007-1154-x, File:Camel skull.jpg|thumb|left|Skull of an F1 hybrid camel, Museum of OsteologyMuseum of OsteologyThe hybrid camel, a hybrid between Bactrian and dromedary camels, has one hump, though it has an indentation {{convert|4|–|12|cm|in|abbr=on}} deep that divides the front from the back. The hybrid is {{convert|2.15|m|ftin|abbr=on}} at the shoulder and {{convert|2.32|m|ftin|abbr=on}} tall at the hump. It weighs an average of {{convert|650|kg|lb|abbr=on}} and can carry around {{convert|400|to|450|kg|lb|abbr=on}}, which is more than either the dromedary or Bactrian can.JOURNAL,weblink Bactrian Camels and Bactrian-Dromedary Hybrids, Potts, Danel, Silkroad, 3, 1, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160623020952weblink">weblink 2016-06-23, According to molecular data, the New World and Old World camelids diverged about 11 million years ago.JOURNAL, Stanley, H. F., Kadwell, M., Wheeler, J. C., Molecular Evolution of the Family Camelidae: A Mitochondrial DNA Study, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 256, 1345, 1–6, 1994, 10.1098/rspb.1994.0041, 8008753, In spite of this, these species can hybridize and produce viable offspring.JOURNAL, Skidmore, J. A., Billah, M., Binns, M., Short, R. V., Allen, W. R., Hybridizing Old and New World camelids: Camelus dromedarius x Lama guanicoe, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 266, 1420, 649–56, 1999, 10.1098/rspb.1999.0685, 10331286, 1689826, The cama is a camel-llama hybrid bred by scientists to see how closely related the parent species are.NEWS, Meet Rama the cama ..., BBC, 29 November 2012, 21 January 1998,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121023042733weblink">weblink 23 October 2012, Scientists collected semen from a camel via an artificial vagina and inseminated a llama after stimulating ovulation with gonadotrophin injections.WEB, 'Cama' camel/llama hybrids born in UAE research centre,weblink Miral, Fahmy, 21 March 2002, 28 November 2012, Science in the News, The Royal Society of New Zealand, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130927105152weblink">weblink 27 September 2013, The cama is halfway in size between a camel and a llama and lacks a hump. It has ears intermediate between those of camels and llamas, longer legs than the llama, and partially cloven hooves.NEWS,weblink Bad karma for cross llama without a hump, The Guardian, Duncan, Campbell, 15 July 2002, 2 March 2009, London, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130826054716weblink">weblink 26 August 2013, WEB, Joy for world's first camel and llama cross, Metro UK, 29 November 2012,weblink 6 April 2008, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121125032426weblink">weblink 25 November 2012, Like the mule, camas are sterile, despite both parents having the same number of chromosomes. The wild Bactrian camel (C. ferus) separated from the domestic Bactrian camel (C. bactrianus) about 1 million years ago.JOURNAL, Mohandesan, Elmira, Fitak, Robert R., Corander, Jukka, Yadamsuren, Adiya, Chuluunbat, Battsetseg, Abdelhadi, Omer, Raziq, Abdul, Nagy, Peter, Stalder, Gabrielle, 30 August 2017, Mitogenome Sequencing in the Genus Camelus Reveals Evidence for Purifying Selection and Long-term Divergence between Wild and Domestic Bactrian Camels, Scientific Reports, En, 7, 1, 10.1038/s41598-017-08995-8, 28855525, 2045-2322, 5577142, JOURNAL, Ji, R, Cui, P, Ding, F, Geng, J, Gao, H, Zhang, H, Yu, J, Hu, S, Meng, H, August 2009, Monophyletic origin of domestic bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and its evolutionary relationship with the extant wild camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus), Animal Genetics, 40, 4, 377–382, 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2008.01848.x, 0268-9146, 2721964, 19292708,

Evolution

File:Stenomylus.jpg|thumb|alt=A drawing of two early camels|Antelope-like ancient camel StenomylusStenomylusThe earliest known camel, called Protylopus, lived in North America 40 to 50 million years ago (during the Eocene). It was about the size of a rabbit and lived in the open woodlands of what is now South Dakota.WEB, Harington, C. R., Ice Age Yukon and Alaskan Camels, Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre, 3 December 2012, June 1997,weblink Government of Yukon, Department of Tourism and Culture, Museums Unit, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130126013451weblink">weblink 26 January 2013, BOOK, Grove Press, 9780802144164, Bernstein, William J., A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World, 6 May 2009, 54–55, By 35 million years ago, the Poebrotherium was the size of a goat and had many more traits similar to camels and llamas.JOURNAL, North Dakota State Government, North Dakota Industrial Commission Department of Mineral Resources, Poebrotherium,weblink 3 December 2012, live,weblink 25 July 2012, WEB, Science Museum of Minnesota, Fossil camel skull (Poebrotherium sp.), Science Buzz, 3 December 2012, January 2004,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121014130040weblink">weblink 14 October 2012, The hoofed Stenomylus, which walked on the tips of its toes, also existed around this time, and the long-necked Aepycamelus evolved in the Miocene.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Penguin, 9780756682415, Kindersley, Dorling, Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Life, Camels, 266–7, 2 June 2008, The direct ancestor of all modern camels, Procamelus, existed in the upper Miocene and lower Pliocene.BOOK, 8th revised, Rastogi Publications, 9788171336395, Singh, Tomar, Evolutionary Biology, New Delhi, 334, Around 3–5 million years ago, the North American Camelidae spread to South America as part of the Great American Interchange via the newly formed Isthmus of Panama, where they gave rise to guanacos and related animals, and to Asia via the Bering land bridge. Surprising finds of fossil Paracamelus on Ellesmere Island beginning in 2006 in the high Canadian Arctic indicate the dromedary is descended from a larger, boreal browser whose hump may have evolved as an adaptation in a cold climate.Allen, Kate Camel fossils discovered in Canada’s Arctic shed light on animal’s evolution {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170921095538weblink |date=2017-09-21 }}, Toronto Star. 5 March 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013.JOURNAL, Rybczynski, Natalia, John C., Gosse, C. Richard, Harington, Roy A., Wogelius, Alan J., Hidy, Mike, Buckley, Mid-Pliocene warm-period deposits in the High Arctic yield insight into camel evolution, Nature Communications, March 5, 2013, 10.1038/ncomms2516, 4, 3, 1550, 23462993, 3615376, This creature is estimated to have stood around nine feet tall.NEWS, Gates, Sara, Camel Fossils Found In Arctic Suggest Ancient Creatures Roamed Region 3.5 Million Years Ago,weblink Huffington Post, 6 March 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130921071657weblink">weblink 21 September 2013, The last camel native to North America was Camelops hesternus, which vanished along with horses, short-faced bears, mammoths and mastodons, ground sloths, sabertooth cats, and many other megafauna, coinciding with the migration of humans from Asia.BOOK, Earthscan, 9781844076048, Worboys, Graeme L., Wendy L., Francis, Michael, Lockwood, Connectivity Conservation Management: A Global Guide, 30 March 2010, 142, BOOK, Springer, 9780306460920, MacPhee, Ross D. E., Hans-Dieter, Sues, Extinctions in Near Time: Causes, Contexts, and Consequences, 30 June 1999, 18, 20, 26,

Domestication

Like horses before their extinction in their continent of origin, camels spread across the Bering land bridge, moving in the opposite direction from the Asian immigration to America. They survived in the Old World, and eventually humans domesticated them and spread them globally. Along with many other megafauna in North America, the original wild camels were wiped out during the spread of Native Americans from Asia into North America, 12,000 to 10,000 years ago.Most camels surviving today are domesticated.WEB, Fedewa, Jennifer L., Camelus bactrianus, Animal Diversity Web, 4 December 2012, 2000,weblink University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130526101843weblink">weblink 26 May 2013, NEWS, Walker, Matt, Wild camels 'genetically unique', Earth News, BBC, 4 December 2012, 22 July 2009,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110811102443weblink">weblink 11 August 2011, Although feral populations exist in Australia, India and Kazakhstan, wild camels survive only in the wild Bactrian camel population of the Gobi Desert.Humans may have first domesticated dromedaries in Somalia and southern Arabia around 3,000 BC, and Bactrian camels in central Asia around 2,500 BC,BOOK, International Livestock Centre for Africa, 5, Mukasa-Mugerwa, E., The Camel (Camelus Dromedarius): A Bibliographical Review, Ethiopia, International Livestock Centre for Africa Monograph, 1981, 1, 3, 20–21, 65, 67–68, BOOK, Smithsonian Timelines of the Ancient World, Chris, Scarre, 15 September 1993, 978-1-56458-305-5, 176, Both the dromedary (the seven-humped camel of Arabia) and the Bactrian camel (the two-humped camel of Central Asia) had been domesticated since before 2000 BC., D. Kindersley, London, BOOK, The Camel and the Wheel, Richard, Bulliet, Morningside Book Series, Columbia University Press, 20 May 1990, 1975, 183, 978-0-231-07235-9, As has already been mentioned, this type of utilization [camels pulling wagons] goes back to the earliest known period of two-humped camel domestication in the third millennium B.C., —Note that Bulliet has many more references to early use of camelsBOOK,weblink Near Eastern Archaeology: A Reader, 2016-01-08, live,weblink 2016-02-05, 9781575060835, Richard, Suzanne, 2003, as at Shahr-e Sukhteh (also known as the Burnt City), Iran.WEB, Hirst, K. Kris, Camels,weblink About.com Archaeology, 6 February 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140105002229weblink">weblink 5 January 2014, Martin Heide's 2010 work on the domestication of the camel tentatively concludes that humans had domesticated the Bactrian camel by at least the middle of the third millennium somewhere east of the Zagros Mountains, with the practice then moving into Mesopotamia. Heide suggests that mentions of camels "in the patriarchal narratives may refer, at least in some places, to the Bactrian camel", while noting that the camel is not mentioned in relationship to Canaan.JOURNAL, Heide, Martin, 2011, The Domestication of the Camel: Biological, Archaeological and Inscriptional Evidence from Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel and Arabia, and Literary Evidence from the Hebrew Bible, Ugarit-Forschungen, 42, 367–68, Recent excavations in the Timna Valley by Lidar Sapir-Hen and Erez Ben-Yosef discovered what may be the earliest domestic camel bones yet found in Israel or even outside the Arabian Peninsula, dating to around 930 BC. This garnered considerable media coverage, as it is strong evidence that the stories of Abraham, Jacob, Esau, and Joseph were written after this time.NEWS, Hasson, Nir, Hump stump solved: Camels arrived in region much later than biblical reference,weblink 30 January 2014, Haaretz, Jan 17, 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140130113055weblink">weblink 30 January 2014, JOURNAL, Sapir-Hen, Lidar, Erez Ben-Yosef, The Introduction of Domestic Camels to the Southern Levant: Evidence from the Aravah Valley, Tel Aviv, 2013, 40, 2, 277–285,weblink 16 February 2014, 10.1179/033443513x13753505864089, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140223011636weblink">weblink 23 February 2014, The existence of camels in Mesopotamia—but not in the eastern Mediterranean lands—is not a new idea. The historian Richard Bulliet did not think that the occasional mention of camels in the Bible meant that the domestic camels were common in the Holy Land at that time.NEWS, Dias, Elizabeth, The Mystery of the Bible's Phantom Camels,weblink 22 February 2014, Time, Feb 11, 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140215013057weblink">weblink 15 February 2014, The archaeologist William F. Albright, writing even earlier, saw camels in the Bible as an anachronism.JOURNAL, Heide, Martin, 2011, The Domestication of the Camel: Biological, Archaeological and Inscriptional Evidence from Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel and Arabia, and Literary Evidence from the Hebrew Bible, Ugarit-Forschungen, 42, 368, The official report by Sapir-Hen and Ben-Joseph notes:The introduction of the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) as a pack animal to the southern Levant ... substantially facilitated trade across the vast deserts of Arabia, promoting both economic and social change (e.g., Kohler 1984; Borowski 1998: 112–116; Jasmin 2005). This ... has generated extensive discussion regarding the date of the earliest domestic camel in the southern Levant (and beyond) (e.g., Albright 1949: 207; Epstein 1971: 558–584; Bulliet 1975; Zarins 1989; Köhler-Rollefson 1993; Uerpmann and Uerpmann 2002; Jasmin 2005; 2006; Heide 2010; Rosen and Saidel 2010; Grigson 2012). Most scholars today agree that the dromedary was exploited as a pack animal sometime in the early Iron Age (not before the 12th century [BC])and concludes:Current data from copper smelting sites of the Aravah Valley enable us to pinpoint the introduction of domestic camels to the southern Levant more precisely based on stratigraphic contexts associated with an extensive suite of radiocarbon dates. The data indicate that this event occurred not earlier than the last third of the 10th century [BC] and most probably during this time. The coincidence of this event with a major reorganization of the copper industry of the region—attributed to the results of the campaign of Pharaoh Shoshenq I—raises the possibility that the two were connected, and that camels were introduced as part of the efforts to improve efficiency by facilitating trade.File:Camel cart.JPG|alt= A camel harnessed to a cart loaded with branches and twigs|A camel serving as a draft animal in Pakistan (2009)File:A camel with its rider playing kettle drums..jpg|alt= A painting of a man sitting on a camel and playing the drums|A camel in a ceremonial procession, its rider playing kettledrums, Mughal Empire (c. 1840)File:Negev camel petroglyph.jpg|Petroglyph of a camel, Negev, southern Israel (prior to c. 5300 BC)File:Bartholomeus Breenbergh 002.jpg|Joseph Sells Grain by Bartholomeus Breenbergh (1655), showing camel with rider at left

Textiles

Desert tribes and Mongolian nomads use camel hair for tents, yurts, clothing, bedding and accessories. Camels have outer guard hairs and soft inner down, and the fibers are sorted{{by whom|date=June 2018}} by color and age of the animal. The guard hairs can be felted for use as waterproof coats for the herdsmen, while the softer hair is used for premium goods.BOOK,weblink Harvesting of textile animal fibres, Petrie, OJ, FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin No. 122, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1995, 978-92-5-103759-1, 14 March 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170315085646weblink">weblink 15 March 2017, The fiber can be spun for use in weaving or made into yarns for hand knitting or crochet. Pure camel hair is recorded as being used for western garments from the 17th century onwards, and from the 19th century a mixture of wool and camel hair was used.BOOK, Cumming, Cunnington, Cunnington, Valerie, CW and PE, The Dictionary of Fashion History, 2010, Bloomsbury, Oxford,weblink 9781847887382,

Military uses

File:BSF-Republic day.jpeg|thumb|A special BSF camel contingent, Republic Day Parade, New Delhi (2004)]]File:Camel corps at Magdhaba.jpg|thumb|alt=A painting of soldiers on camels|Camel Corps at Magdhaba, Egypt, 23 December 1916, by Harold Septimus PowerHarold Septimus PowerBy at least 1200 BC the first camel saddles had appeared, and Bactrian camels could be ridden. The first saddle was positioned to the back of the camel, and control of the Bactrian camel was exercised by means of a stick. However, between 500 and 100 BC, Bactrian camels came into military use. New saddles, which were inflexible and bent, were put over the humps and divided the rider's weight over the animal. In the seventh century BC the military Arabian saddle evolved, which again improved the saddle design slightly.BOOK, Fagan, Brian M, Brian M. Fagan, 2004, The Seventy Great Inventions of the Ancient World, Transportation, London, Thames & Hudson, 150–152, 978-0-500-05130-6, {{Page needed|date= February 2011}}MAGAZINE, Baum, Doug, 1 November 2018
3.6Pliocene–RecentWEBSITE=FOSSILWORKS.ORG, }}| name = Camel| image = 07. Camel Profile, near Silverton, NSW, 07.07.2007.jpg| image_alt = A one-humped camel| image_caption = Dromedary (Camelus dromedarius)| image2 = Bactrian Camel.jpg| image2_alt = A shaggy two-humped camel| image2_caption = Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus)| taxon = CamelusCarl Linnaeus>Linnaeus, 1758| subdivision_ranks = Species| subdivision =Camelus bactrianusCamelus dromedariusCamelus ferus†Camelus gigas (fossil)WEB, BayScience Foundation, Inc, Camelus gigas,weblink ZipcodeZoo, 17 April 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160508075718weblink">weblink 8 May 2016, dmy-all, †Camelus moreli (fossil)†Camelus sivalensis (fossil)BOOK, R. Hardwicke, Falconer, Hugh, Palæontological Memoirs and Notes of the Late Hugh Falconer: Fauna antiqua sivalensis, 1868, 231,weblink live,weblink 2016-05-11, Title=ListCamellus Juan Ignacio Molina>Molina, 1782Dromedarius C. L. Gloger>Gloger, 1841}}}}A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back. Camels have long been domesticated and, as livestock, they provide food (milk and meat) and textiles (fiber and felt from hair). As working animals, camels—which are uniquely suited to their desert habitats—are a vital means of transport for passengers and cargo. There are three surviving species of camel. The one-humped dromedary makes up 94% of the world's camel population, and the two-humped Bactrian camel makes up the remainder. The Wild Bactrian camel is a separate species and is now critically endangered.The word camel is derived via and (kamÄ“los) from Hebrew or Phoenician: gāmāl.ENCYCLOPEDIA, The New Oxford American Dictionary, 2nd, camel, Oxford University Press, Inc, 2005, WEB, Herper, Douglas, camel, Online Etymology Dictionary, 28 November 2012,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130927090522weblink">weblink 27 September 2013, Used informally, "camel" (or, more correctly, "camelid") refers to any of the seven members of the family Camelidae: the dromedary, the Bactrian, and the wild Bactrian (the true camels), plus the llama, the alpaca, the guanaco, and the vicuñaJOURNAL, 10.1186/1751-0147-52-S1-S17, 1751-0147, 52, Suppl 1, S17, Bornstein, Set, Important ectoparasites of Alpaca (Vicugna pacos), Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 2010, 2994293, (the "New World" camelids).The dromedary (C. dromedarius), also known as the Arabian camel, inhabits the Middle East and the Horn of Africa, while the Bactrian (C. bactrianus) inhabits Central Asia, including the historical region of Bactria. The critically endangered wild Bactrian (C. ferus) is found only in remote areas of northwest China and Mongolia. An extinct species of camelJOURNAL, Heintzman, Peter D., Zazula, Grant D., Cahill, James A., Reyes, Alberto V., MacPhee, Ross D. E., Shapiro, Beth, Genomic Data from Extinct North American Camelops Revise Camel Evolutionary History, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2 June 2015, 32, 9, 2433–2440, 10.1093/molbev/msv128, 26037535,weblink in the separate genus Camelops, known as C. hesternus,JOURNAL, Baskin, Jon, Thomas, Ronny, A review of Camelops (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Camelidae), a giant llama from the Middle and Late Pleistocene (Irvingtonian and Rancholabrean) of North America, Historical Biology, 1 October 2015, 28, 1–2, 120–127, 10.1080/08912963.2015.1020800, lived in western North America until humans entered the continent at the end of the Pleistocene.

Biology

The average life expectancy of a camel is 40 to 50 years.WEB, Bactrian Camel: Camelus bactrianus, National Geographic, 28 November 2012,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121104103313weblink">weblink 4 November 2012, {{failed verification|date=April 2018}} A full-grown adult camel stands {{convert|1.85|m|ftin|abbr=on}} at the shoulder and {{convert|2.15|m|ftin|abbr=on}} at the hump.WEB, Camello Safari, The amazing characteristics of the camels, 26 November 2012,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121107134110weblink">weblink 7 November 2012, Camels can run at up to {{convert|65|km/h|mi/h|0|abbr=on}} in short bursts and sustain speeds of up to {{convert|40|km/h|mi/h|0|abbr=on}}.WEB, How Fast Can Camels Run and How Long Can They Run For?, Big Site of Amazing Facts, 29 November 2012,weblink Bactrian camels weigh {{convert|300|to|1000|kg|lbs|abbr=on}} and dromedaries {{convert|300|to|600|kg|lbs|abbr=on}}. The widening toes on a camel's hoof provide supplemental grip for varying soil sediments.Fayed, R. H. "Adaptation of the Camel to Desert environment." Proceedings of the ESARF 11th Annual Conference. Available at:
url=weblink location =, 10 December 2018, Military forces have used camel cavalries in wars throughout Africa, the Middle East, and into the modern-day Border Security Force (BSF) of India (though as of July 2012, the BSF planned the replacement of camels with ATVs). The first documented use of camel cavalries occurred in the Battle of Qarqar in 853 BC.BOOK, Greenwood Publishing Group, 9780313333484, Gabriel, Richard A., Soldiers' Lives Through History: The Ancient World, 2007, xvi, NEWS, Bhatia, Vimal, BSF to ditch camels to ride sand scooters, The Times of India, 4 December 2012, 23 July 2012,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120723172835weblink">weblink 23 July 2012, BOOK, University Press of America, 9780761815204, Gann, Lewis Henry, Peter, Duignan, Africa and the World: An Introduction to the History of Sub-Saharan Africa from Antiquity to 1840, 1972, 156, The camel was acclimatized in Egypt long before the time of Christ and was subsequently adopted by the Berbers of the desert, who used camel cavalry to fight the Romans. The Berbers spread the use of the camel across the Sahara.,weblink Armies have also used camels as freight animals instead of horses and mules.NEWS, 0161-7370, 74, 8, Bonnier Corporation, Walter L., Fleming, Jefferson Davis's Camel Experiment, The Popular Science Monthly, February 1909, 150,weblink Other trials of the camel were made in 1859 by Major D. H. Vinton, who used twenty-four of them in carrying burdens for a surveying party...All in all, he concluded, the camel was much superior to the mule., live,weblink 2016-05-04, BOOK, Heritage House Publishing Co, 9781894384018, 51–54, Garnet, Basque, Mantz, John, Frontier Days in British Columbia, Camels in the Cariboo, 20 April 2006,weblink live,weblink 24 June 2016, The East Roman Empire used auxiliary forces known as dromedarii, whom the Romans recruited in desert provinces.BOOK, Oxford University Press, 9780195328783, Southern, Pat, The Roman Army: A Social and Institutional History, 1 October 2007, 123,weblink BOOK, illustrated, reprint, Osprey Publishing, 9781855321663, 5, Nicolle, David, The Desert Frontier, Rome's Enemies, 26 March 1991, 4, Nevertheless the military prowess of desert peoples impressed the Romans, who recruited large numbers as auxiliary cavalry and archers. In addition to providing the Roman Army with its best archers, the Easterners (largely Arabs but generally known as 'Syrians') served as Rome's most effective dromedarii or camel-mounted troops., The camels were used mostly in combat because of their ability to scare off horses at close range (horses are afraid of the camels' scent), a quality famously employed by the Achaemenid Persians when fighting Lydia in the Battle of Thymbra (547 BC).BOOK, Herodotus (440 BC), Rawlinson, George (trans.), The History of Herodotus, 4 December 2012,weblink He collected together all the camels that had come in the train of his army to carry the provisions and the baggage, and taking off their loads, he mounted riders upon them accoutred as horsemen. These he commanded to advance in front of his other troops against the Lydian horse; behind them were to follow the foot soldiers, and last of all the cavalry. When his arrangements were complete, he gave his troops orders to slay all the other Lydians who came in their way without mercy, but to spare Croesus and not kill him, even if he should be seized and offer resistance. The reason why Cyrus opposed his camels to the enemy's horse was because the horse has a natural dread of the camel, and cannot abide either the sight or the smell of that animal. By this stratagem he hoped to make Croesus's horse useless to him, the horse being what he chiefly depended on for victory. The two armies then joined battle, and immediately the Lydian war-horses, seeing and smelling the camels, turned round and galloped off; and so it came to pass that all Croesus's hopes withered away., live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121201230133weblink">weblink 1 December 2012, WEB, History Group of the New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage, Cameliers and camels at war, New Zealand History online, 5 December 2012, 30 August 2009,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120316110701weblink">weblink 16 March 2012,

19th and 20th centuries

File:Camels on the way to Catalca, 1912.jpg|thumb|alt= A photo of Bulgarian military-transport camels in 1912|A camel caravan of the Bulgarian military during the First Balkan WarFirst Balkan WarThe United States Army established the U.S. Camel Corps, stationed in California, in the late 19th century. One may still see stables at the Benicia Arsenal in Benicia, California, where they nowadays serve as the Benicia Historical Museum.WEB, The California State Military Museum, The Posts at Benicia, 4 December 2012,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120928195539weblink">weblink 28 September 2012, Though the experimental use of camels was seen as a success (John B. Floyd, Secretary of War in 1858, recommended that funds be allocated towards obtaining a thousand more camels), the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861 saw the end of the Camel Corps: Texas became part of the Confederacy, and most of the camels were left to wander away into the desert.France created a méhariste camel corps in 1912 as part of the Armée d'Afrique in the SaharaWEB, Musée de l'infanterie, Vitrine N° 108 (partie droite): LES PELOTONS MEHARISTES, 5 December 2012,weblink French, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130526202745weblink">weblink 26 May 2013, dmy-all, in order to exercise greater control over the camel-riding Tuareg and Arab insurgents, as previous efforts to defeat them on foot had failed.BOOK, Cambridge University Press, 9781107002876, Hall, Bruce S., A History of Race in Muslim West Africa, 1600–1960, 6 June 2011, 143, The Free French Camel Corps fought during World War II, and camel-mounted units remained in service until the end of French rule over Algeria in 1962.NEWS, Guillaume, Philippe, L'incroyable épopée des méharistes français, The incredible epic of the French méharistes, BDSphère, 5 December 2012, 16 June 2012,weblink French, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130522103746weblink">weblink 22 May 2013, In 1916, the British created the Imperial Camel Corps. It was originally used to fight the Senussi, but was later used in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in World War I. The Imperial Camel Corps comprised infantrymen mounted on camels for movement across desert, though they dismounted at battle sites and fought on foot. After July 1918, the Corps began to become run down, receiving no new reinforcements, and was formally disbanded in 1919.WEB, History Group of the New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage, Cameliers and camels at war, New Zealand History online, 5 December 2012, 30 August 2009,weblink 1, 2, 4, 5, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120316110701weblink">weblink 16 March 2012, In World War I, the British Army also created the Egyptian Camel Transport Corps, which consisted of a group of Egyptian camel drivers and their camels. The Corps supported British war operations in Sinai, Palestine, and Syria by transporting supplies to the troops.BOOK, University Press of Kentucky, 9780813123837, Woodward, David R., Hell in the Holy Land: World War I in the Middle East, 2006, 36, 39, 43, 56, 133, BOOK, J.M. Dent, Murray, Archibald James, Sir Archibald Murray's despatches (June 1916 – June 1917), 1920,weblink 123, A great deal of the work of supplying the troops on both fronts has been done by the Camel Transport Corps, live,weblink 2015-11-30, BOOK, Greenwood Publishing Group, 9780275986018, McGregor, Andrew James, A Military History of Modern Egypt: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War, 30 May 2006, 215,weblink The Somaliland Camel Corps was created by colonial authorities in British Somaliland in 1912; it was disbanded in 1944.BOOK, 3rd, Kessinger Publishing, 9781419147999, Federal Research Division, Somalia a Country Study, Area handbook series, 30 June 2004, 230–231, Bactrian camels were used by Romanian forces during World War II in the Caucasian region.WEB,weblink Romanian troops using camels, WWII in Color, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130921054749weblink">weblink 2013-09-21, The Bikaner Camel Corps of British India fought alongside the British Indian Army in World Wars I and II.NEWS, Jupiter Infomedia Ltd, Bikaner Camel Corps, Presidency Armies in British India, IndiaNetzone, 28 November 2012, {{dead link|date=November 2016 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}The Tropas Nómadas (Nomad Troops) were an auxiliary regiment of Sahrawi tribesmen serving in the colonial army in Spanish Sahara (today Western Sahara). Operational from the 1930s until the end of the Spanish presence in the territory in 1975, the Tropas Nómadas were equipped with small arms and led by Spanish officers. The unit guarded outposts and sometimes conducted patrols on camelback.JOURNAL, Shelley, Toby, Sons of the Clouds, Red Pepper, 6 December 2012, December 2007,weblink Location, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130520202141weblink">weblink 20 May 2013, WEB, Hermandad de Veteranos Tropas Nómadas del Sáhara, Historia: Agrupación de Tropas Nómadas, Los Medios, The Means, 6 December 2012,weblink Spanish, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130921055249weblink">weblink 21 September 2013,

Food uses

Dairy

File:Khan al-Lajjun.jpg|right|thumb|Camels at the Khan and old bridge, Lajjun, Palestine (now in IsraelIsraelFile:Camelcalf-feeding.jpg|right|thumb|A camel calf nursing on camel milkcamel milkCamel milk is a staple food of desert nomad tribes and is sometimes considered a meal itself; a nomad can live on only camel milk for almost a month.BOOK, Columbia University Press, 9780231072359, Bulliet, Richard W., The Camel and the Wheel, 1975, 23, 25, 28, 35–36, 38–40, WEB, FAO's Animal Production and Health Division, Camel Milk, Milk & Dairy Products, 6 December 2012, 25 September 2012,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121101015011weblink">weblink 1 November 2012, Camel milk can readily be made into yogurt, but can only be made into butter if it is soured first, churned, and a clarifying agent is then added. Until recently, camel milk could not be made into camel cheese because rennet was unable to coagulate the milk proteins to allow the collection of curds.BOOK, Camel milk and cheese making,weblink Ramet, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120624013724weblink">weblink 2012-06-24, Developing less wasteful uses of the milk, the FAO commissioned Professor J.P. Ramet of the École Nationale Supérieure d'Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires, who was able to produce curdling by the addition of calcium phosphate and vegetable rennet in the 1990s.WEB,weblink Fresh from your local drome'dairy'?, Food and Agriculture Organization, 6 July 2001, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120126122946weblink">weblink 26 January 2012, The cheese produced from this process has low levels of cholesterol and is easy to digest, even for the lactose intolerant.BOOK, Methods of processing camel milk into cheese,weblink Ramet, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120624013729weblink">weblink 2012-06-24, WEB, Young, Philippa, In Mongolian the Word 'Gobi' Means 'Desert', 6 December 2012,weblink As evening approaches we are offered camel meat boats, dumplings stuffed with a finely chopped mixture of meat and vegetables, followed by camel milk tea and finally, warm fresh camel's milk to aid digestion and help us sleep., live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130303111456weblink">weblink 3 March 2013, Camel milk can also be made into ice cream.NEWS,weblink Netherlands' 'crazy' camel farmer, BBC, 5 November 2011, 7 November 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111106232703weblink">weblink 6 November 2011, WEB,weblink Al Ain Dairy launches camel-milk ice cream, The National, en, 2019-02-22,

Meat

File:Somalicamelmeat.jpg|thumb|A Somali camel meat and rice dish]]File:Cholistani Camel Meat Pulao.JPG|thumb|Camel meat pulao, from Pakistan]]They provide food in the form of meat and milk (Tariq et al.,2010).Tariq, M., Rabia, R., Jamil, A., Sakhwat, A., Aadil, A., & Muhammad S., 2010. Minerals and Nutritional Composition of Camel (Camelus Dromedarius) Meat in Pakistan. Journal- Chemical Society of Pakistan, Vol 33(6). A camel carcass can provide a substantial amount of meat. The male dromedary carcass can weigh {{convert|300|–|400|kg|lb|0|abbr=on|sigfig=1}}, while the carcass of a male Bactrian can weigh up to {{convert|650|kg|lb|0|abbr=on|sigfig=2}}. The carcass of a female dromedary weighs less than the male, ranging between {{convert|250|and|350|kg|lb|abbr=on}}. The brisket, ribs and loin are among the preferred parts, and the hump is considered a delicacy.BOOK, Camels Products Other Than Milk,weblink Yagil, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110220185807weblink">weblink 2011-02-20, The hump contains "white and sickly fat", which can be used to make the khli (preserved meat) of mutton, beef, or camel.BOOK, Traditional Moroccan Cooking: Recipes from Fez, Madame Guinaudeau, Serif, London, 2003, 978-1-897959-43-5, On the other hand, camel milk and meat are rich in protein, vitamins, glycogen, and other nutrients making them essential in the diet of many people. From chemical composition to meat quality, the dromedary camel is the preferred breed for meat production. It does well even in arid areas due to its unusual physiological behaviors and characteristics, which include tolerance to extreme temperatures, radiation from the sun, water paucity, rugged landscape and low vegetation.Aleme, A., D., 2013. A Review of Camel Meat as a Precious Source of Nutrition in some part of Ethiopia. Agricultural Science, Engineering and Technology Research. Vol. 1, No. 4, December 2013, PP: 40–43. Available online at WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2016-12-03, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161203133425weblink">weblink 2016-12-03, . Camel meat is reported to taste like coarse beef, but older camels can prove to be very tough, although camel meat becomes more tender the more it is cooked.NEWS, Rubenstein, Dustin, How to Cook Camel, The New York Times, 7 December 2012, 23 July 2010,weblink He cut the pieces very small and cooked them for a long time. I decided to try something a bit different the following night and cut the pieces a bit bigger and cooked them for less time, as I like my meat rarer than he does. This was a bad idea. It seems that the more you cook camel, the more tender it becomes. So we had what amounted to two pounds or more of rubber for dinner that night., live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121019192428weblink">weblink 19 October 2012, The Abu Dhabi Officers' Club serves a camel burger mixed with beef or lamb fat in order to improve the texture and taste.NEWS, Arthur, Rick, The Instant Expert: camels, the ships of the desert, The National, 4 January 2012, UAE, Abu Dhabi Media, As the meat can be dry, however, the Abu Dhabi Officer's Club, for one, serves camel burger with beef or lamb fat mixed in, improving texture and taste., In Karachi, Pakistan, some restaurants prepare nihari from camel meat.BOOK, The Camel Applied Research and Development Network, Jasra, Abdel Wahid, G. B., Isani, Camel Applied Research and Development Network, Socio-economics of camel herders in Pakistan, 2000,weblink 164, live,weblink 2016-06-10, Specialist camel butchers provide expert cuts, with the hump considered the most popular.Anyone for camel meat? One hump or two? {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170126234058weblink |date=2017-01-26 }}The Guardian, Word of MouthCamel meat has been eaten for centuries. It has been recorded by ancient Greek writers as an available dish at banquets in ancient Persia, usually roasted whole. The ancient Roman emperor Heliogabalus enjoyed camel's heel.BOOK, 2nd, Oxford University Press, USA, 978-0192806819, Davidson, Alan, Jane, Davidson, Tom, Jaine, The Oxford Companion to Food, 15 October 2006, 68, 129, 266, 762, Camel meat is mainly eaten in certain regions, including Eritrea, Somalia, Djibouti, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria, Libya, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, and other arid regions where alternative forms of protein may be limited or where camel meat has had a long cultural history. Camel blood is also consumable, as is the case among pastoralists in northern Kenya, where camel blood is drunk with milk and acts as a key source of iron, vitamin D, salts and minerals.NEWS, Webster, George, Dubai diners flock to eat new 'camel burger', CNN World, 7 December 2012, 9 February 2010,weblink CNN, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130929093119weblink">weblink 29 September 2013, Camel Meat is a sample food in Djiboutian cuisine. You can have Camel Steak, Skewers and Hamburgers also Zurbyaan rice with camel meat is served in local restaurants. Camel meat is also occasionally found in Australian cuisine: for example, a camel lasagna is available in Alice Springs.WEB, Sherwood, Andy, Camel burgers in Abu Dhabi, Time Out Abu Dhabi, 7 December 2012, 17 September 2012,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130927194204weblink">weblink 27 September 2013, A 2005 report issued jointly by the Saudi Ministry of Health and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention details cases of human bubonic plague resulting from the ingestion of raw camel liver.JOURNAL, Abdulaziz A., Bin Saeed, Nasser A., Al-Hamdan, Robert E., Fontaine, Plague from eating raw camel liver, 16229781, 2005, 1456–7, 9, 11, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 3310619, 10.3201/eid1109.050081,

Religion

Islam

Camel meat is halal (, 'allowed') for Muslims. However, according to some Islamic schools of thought, a state of impurity is brought on by the consumption of it. Consequently, these schools hold that Muslims must perform wudhu (ablution) before the next time they pray after eating camel meat.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110716145540weblink">weblink 16 July 2011, Partial Translation of Sunan Abu-Dawud, Book 1, Purification (Kitab Al-Taharah), Book 1, Number 0184, Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement, Narrated Al-Bara' ibn Azib: The Messenger of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) was asked about performing ablution after eating the flesh of the camel. He replied: Perform ablution, after eating it. He was asked about performing ablution after eating meat. He replied: Do not perform ablution after eating it. He was asked about saying prayer in places where the camels lie down. He replied: Do not offer prayer in places where the camels lie down. These are the places of Satan. He was asked about saying prayer in the sheepfolds. He replied: You may offer prayer in such places; these are the places of blessing., Also, some Islamic schools of thought consider it haram (, 'forbidden') for a Muslim to perform Salat in places where camels lie, as it is said to be a dwelling place of the Shaytan (, 'Devil'). According to Abu Yusuf, the urine of camel may be used for medical treatment if necessary, but according to Abū Ḥanīfah, the drinking of camel urine is discouraged.BOOK, Williams, John Alden, The Word of Islam,weblink 25 October 2016, 1994, University of Texas Press, 978-0-292-79076-6, 98, live,weblink 8 April 2017, The Islamic texts contain several stories featuring camels. In the story of the people of Thamud, the Prophet Salih miraculously brings forth a naqat (, 'she-camel') out of a rock. After the Prophet Muhammad migrated from Mecca to Medina, he allowed his she-camel to roam there; the location where the camel stopped to rest determined the location where he would build his house in Medina.Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. p. 128.

Judaism

{{see also|Food and drink prohibitions}}According to Jewish tradition, camel meat and milk are not kosher.WEB, Heinemann, Moshe, Star-K, Cholov Yisroel: Does a Neshama Good, Kashrus Kurrents, 4 May 2017,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170430215725weblink">weblink 30 April 2017, Camels possess only one of the two kosher criteria; although they chew their cud, they do not possess cloven hooves: "But these you shall not eat among those that bring up the cud and those that have a cloven hoof: the camel, because it brings up its cud, but does not have a [completely] cloven hoof; it is unclean for you."http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/9912#v=41 {{webarchive
|url=weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150207151838weblink">weblink
|date= 2015-02-07
}}

Depictions in culture

File:Shadda (detail), Karabagh region, southwest Caucasus.jpeg| Shadda (cover,detail), Karabagh region, southwest Caucasus, early 19th century File:Vessel in the Form of a Recumbent Camel with Jugs, 2015.65.15.jpg|Vessel in the form of a recumbent camel with jugs, 250 BC – 224 AD, Brooklyn MuseumFile:Brooklyn Museum - Maru Ragini (Dhola and Maru riding on a Camel).jpg|Maru Ragini (Dhola and Maru Riding on a Camel), c. 1750, Brooklyn MuseumFile:Brooklyn Museum - The Magi Journeying (Les rois mages en voyage) - James Tissot - overall.jpg|The Magi Journeying (Les rois mages en voyage)—James Tissot, c. 1886, Brooklyn Museum

Distribution and numbers

File:GueltaCamels.jpg|thumb|alt=A view into a canyon: many camels gathering around a watering hole|Camels in the Guelta d'Archei, in northeastern ChadChadThere are around 14 million camels alive {{as of|2010|lc=yes}}, with 90% being dromedaries. Dromedaries alive today are domesticated animals (mostly living in the Horn of Africa, the Sahel, Maghreb, Middle East and South Asia). The Horn region alone has the largest concentration of camels in the world,BOOK, William J., Bernstein, A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World, Grove Press, 2009, 56, 9780802144164, where the dromedaries constitute an important part of local nomadic life. They provide nomadic people in Somalia and Ethiopia with milk, food, and transportation.BOOK, Nordic Africa Institute, 9789171062697, Abokor, Axmed Cali, The Camel in Somali Oral Tradition, 1987, 7, 10–11, WEB, Drought threatening Somali nomads, UN humanitarian office says, UN News Centre, 7 December 2012, 14 November 2003,weblink A four-year drought is threatening the lives of Somali nomads, and those of the camel herds on which they depend for transportation and milk, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111119005808weblink">weblink 19 November 2011, JOURNAL, 6, 1, 45–55, Farah, K. O., D. M., Nyariki, R. K., Ngugi, I. M., Noor, A. Y., Guliye, The Somali and the Camel: Ecology, Management and Economics, Anthropologist, 2004, Somali pastoralists are a camel community...There is no other community in the world where the camel plays such a pivotal role in the local economy and culture as in the Somali community. According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 1979) estimates, there are approximately 15 million dromedary camels in the world, 10.1080/09720073.2004.11890828, Plain text version. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130102084140weblink |date=2013-01-02 }}(File:800px-2003camel.PNG|thumb|left|alt=A world map with large camel populations marked|Commercial camel market headcount in 2003)Around 700,000 dromedary camels are now feral in Australia, descended from those introduced as a method of transport in the 19th and early 20th centuries.BOOK, Saalfeld, W.K., Edwards, GP, 1832-6684, 2008, Managing the impacts of feral camels in Australia: a new way of doing business, Ecology of feral camels in Australia, DKCRC Report 47, Desert Knowledge Cooperative Research Centre, Alice Springs, 978-1-74158-094-5,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120329053749weblink">weblink 2012-03-29, This population is growing about 8% per year.JOURNAL, Pople, A. R., McLeod, S. R., 10.1071/RJ09053, Demography of feral camels in central Australia and its relevance to population control, The Rangeland Journal, 32, 11, 2010, Representatives of the Australian government have culled more than 100,000 of the animals in part because the camels use too much of the limited resources needed by sheep farmers.WEB, Tsai, Vivian,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121011072811weblink">weblink 11 October 2012,weblink Australia Culls 100,000 Feral Camels To Limit Environmental Damage, Many More Will Be Killed, 14 September 2012, U.S. Edition, International Business Times, 1 November 2012, live, A small population of introduced camels, dromedaries and Bactrians, wandered through Southwestern United States after having been imported in the 19th century as part of the U.S. Camel Corps experiment. When the project ended, they were used as draft animals in mines and escaped or were released. Twenty-five U.S. camels were bought and exported to Canada during the Cariboo Gold Rush.The Bactrian camel is, {{as of|2010|lc=yes}}, reduced to an estimated 1.4 million animals, most of which are domesticated.BOOK, Random House Digital, Inc, 9780307716255, Dolby, Karen, You Must Remember This: Easy Tricks & Proven Tips to Never Forget Anything, Ever Again, 10 August 2010, 170, WEB, Denver Zoo, Bactrian Camel, 7 December 2012,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130512074950weblink">weblink 12 May 2013, The Wild Bactrian camel is a separate species and is the only truly wild (as opposed to feral) camel in the world. The wild camels are critically endangered and number approximately 1400, inhabiting the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts in China and Mongolia.WEB, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, J., Hare, Camelus ferus, IUCN Redlist, 7 December 2012,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121210065950weblink">weblink 10 December 2012, {{clear}}

See also

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Notes

{{Reflist|30em}}

References

  • BOOK, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 978-92-5-103154-4, Ramet, J. P., The technology of making cheese from camel milk (Camelus dromedarius), Rome, FAO Animal Production and Health Paper, 6 December 2012, 2011,weblink 0254-6019, 476039542,
  • BOOK, Vannithone, S., Davidson, A., The Oxford companion to food, Oxford University Press, Oxford Oxfordshire, 1999, Camel, 127, 978-0-19-211579-9,weblink
  • Camels and Camel Milk. Report Issued by FAO, United Nations. (1982)
  • BOOK, Wilson, R.T., The camel, Longman, New York, 1984, 978-0-582-77512-1,
  • BOOK, Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations, 978-92-5-101169-0, Yagil, R., Camels and Camel Milk, Rome, FAO Animal Production and Health Paper, 26, 1982, 0254-6019,weblink

Further reading

  • BOOK, Gilchrist, W., 1851, A Practical Treatise on the Treatment of the Diseases of the Elephant, Camel & Horned Cattle: with instructions for improving their efficiency; also, a description of the medicines used in the treatment of their diseases; and a general outline of their anatomy, Calcutta, Military Orphan Press,

External links

{{Commons category|Camelus}}{{Wikispecies|Camelus}} {{Artiodactyla|T.}}{{Camelids}}{{Meat|state=expanded}}{{Taxonbar|from=Q7375}}{{Authority control}}


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